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for above thirty years in England :
wilh the blind follower of a party to and in Scotland it appears to be worse; reject the evidence of our sight and as there parish workhouses are gene- .other senses, and so deny that there rally wanting, yet we hear of the is any distress; or be a little more tenantry of many parishes being turn- fasbiopable, and join in the hue and ed out of doors, their houses burnt cry, “ The Government! the Governto the ground, and the district laid ment! the Ministers and the Prince waste as far as the eye can reach, or should do every thing!” This howthe property of the despot extends, ever is blinking the question, in order that be may boast how many thou- to get rid of it. That there is dissand acres feed his sheep! Here tress sufficient to shake the nerves of lonely silence spreads her wings, mag- the greatest stoic in the kingdom is nificently, it is true, in the grandeur clear: but opposed to this distress the of repose, around his castle ; which Prince, his Ministers, and the Legis. is like “the far-famed pyramids of Jature, are mere phantoms, considerEgypt, pompous amid the desert, the ed abstractedly in their official capaabode of rottenness and death, at once city. They have done more already, a trophy and a tomb." Such propri- than all the other Governments of etors possess, not enjoy, their estates, Europe together: and what does it in the way, no doubt, that is most amount to pot the weight of a feacongenial to their dispositions; for ther io retarding the evil, still less in the vulture and the hyena, ravenous removing it. wolves and birds of prey, are fond of
What indeed can Government do? seclusion, and generally found in so- Is it to interfere with private prolitudes. Here, all is terror, all is perty, and to tell its owner, whether fear: domestics are eye-servants to he ought to let his few acres to one such a lord; and their lord, a slave individual, or to many? I apprehend to his passions, carries a tormentor Lord
or any other great in his own bosom, from whom he landed proprietor, may throw down cannot ily.
every house on bis vast domain, if be That there are ample means in the think proper. He has only to conUnited Kingdom for the relief of the form to ihe rules prescribed by the poor and the labouring classes must laws of the land, and Government be evident, when it is known to con- cannot justly interfere in any way tain above thirteen millions of acres whatever. It is true, the Prince, his of waste land capable of cultivation Ministers, and the Members of the There have appeared in print, since Legislative Body, may do much in the year 1810, publications in the their individual capacity. As land or shape of books, pamphlets, para- fund holders, and as men of exalted graphs in newspapers, essays in ma. rank, others may be induced to fol. gazines and other periodical works, low their example. The united ento the number of twenty-two thou: deavours of a few benevolent persons sand and upwards, all recommending may for a short time alleviate the culture of the soil by small farms, and present distress ; but the ultimate cottages with small patches of ground success will depend on the impulse annexed to them, as the best means being brought home to every bosom of alleviating the distress of the na- individually, without regard to rank. tion. Most of these mention one and Each should say to himself: “ have I some of them several experiments of done what is in my power? if I have this pature, not one of which has not, I have no right to ask what my failed of its desired effect. If this neighbour has done, till I set him mass of opinions and facts, all bearing such an example as my duty requires." on the same point, be not conclusive Many plans have been devised, and evidence, it would be a waste of words methods suggested, by various perto attempt to prove it: more parti- sons, almost every one of which is cularly, as there is not a little of evi- within the reach of the small landdence on the other side opposed to these holder, while they are at the same facts. Tbis point then may be con- time sufficiently capacious to embrace sidered as completely established. the whole empire. Even Mr. Owen's Thus there seems no other way of plan is practicable on a very small attempting to justify the neglect of scale: although in its present magthe cottage agricultural system, but vilude, as“ proposed for an experi
ment in the vicinity of the metropo- forest trees on the waste ground of lis, it appears best fitted to grapple his extensive estates of Blair and with the hydra, that pow menaces Athol. our political existence. However vi. The last, though not the least, to sionary the scheme may appear to be mentioned, is the Earl of Fife, on those who have not considered either his estates in the counties of Banit, the plan or the object of its benevo Aberdeen, and Moray. This noble. lent projector; get all who duly exa- man, since his returo from the Peninmine it will find, that the brightness sula, has been singularly attentive to of the evidence which surrounds it is the people on his eslates, by letting a sufficient guarantee of its success; the land at rents beneficial to the le aod that its failure is absolutely im- nants for improvement, dividing it possible, provided the managers act into small farms, and reletting scarcely with a tolerable degree of prudence. any without some part being approIt may, indeed, and most probably priated to coltages with little patches of will, fall far short of Mr. Owen's ans ground attached to them. Several new ticipations ; yet I again assert, with villages have been planned out, and out fear of contradiction, that it is begun to be built on his estates, always impossible for it, if carried into exe, allotting some land to each tenement, cution, to fail of being highly advan- In the vicinity of one of these a vatageous to the publick at large, as luable mine of antimony has been diswell as honourable to the projector covered, and great encouragement and his supporters.
given to working it. Ample builda Notwithstanding what may properly ings have likewise been erected, with be called the general apathy to col expensive machinery for mills for tage agriculture, the exceptions to grinding wheat and other grain, dresswhich are comparatively few, the real ing flax, &c. at his Lordsbip's own number of these honourable excep- cost. A large and capacious harbour tions is so great, that it would take is now constructiog, wbere, in the up too much room to enumerate even course of pext year several hundred all who have come to my own knowvessels of four or five hundred tons ledge. Two or three, however, it may burden may find perfect safety; be proper to adduce as examples. as well as smaller harbours for the
The first I shall mention is, the fisheries. Fishing-boats are procured, Lord Bishop of Chester, who, pre- and sold to some at prime cost, to vious to his being appoiuted to that others at reduced prices ; while those See, let part of the glebe land of the who are very poor have boats and rectory he then held, in small lots to tackle given to them, until they are poor people, by which they have been able and think praper to repay the raised from a state of abject misery cost, but this is never demanded of aud indolence, to one of comfort and them. The whole of the several family industry. The salisfaction of mind maosioos on the estates bave been em. his Lordsbip must have derived from bellished, or are embellishing, in order this would alone have amply rewarded to give employment to the people, him, yet it has proved advantageous several hundred of whom are thus even in a pecuniary point of view. constantly occupied. Even old ruins
The Marchioness of Exeter, on are kept up for the same reason), the Burleigb estates in Lincolnshire ; In the lale bad seasons seed has been and the Hon. Lady Evans, on the es, procured from distant counties for i tates of Laxton-halt in Rutlandshire, ihe tenantry, many of the poorest by building and repairing cottages, class have had both seed and meal and allotting small patches of land to gratis, others at a reduced price, aod them, according to the ability of the none were charged more than the tenants, have done honourto their sex. prime cost. None were permitted to
The Duke of Athol adds lustre to sell stock in the bad seasons for the his rank by the improvements on his payment of rent, but were allowed estates, and employinent of the pea- time, and the arrears on such occasantry, giving the poor patches of sions have generally been remitted. land at sinall and sometimes pepper.
The fairs have likewise been encoucoro rents, and employing them a raged by taking off all the tolls forgreat part of the year in planting merly levied. Timber for using on
the Earl's own estates is sold at re- dered into dust; and revere the name duced prices, and in many instances, of so true a patriot, when others shalt for cottages or building in the villages, have sunk into merited oblivion. furnished gratis. Many persons are Yours, &c.
T. M. T. employed at the proper seasons in enclosing waste ground, planting fo- ON THE CLERICAL DRESS. rest trees, draining, marshes and wet
Sept. 4. lands, making roads from the High- Sa desire to promote uniformity Tands or interior of the country to the sea, and to jutersect the different dis- which actuated me in sending you my tricis, &c.; so that amid these gene- paper on the Clerical Dress, I trust i ral improvements employment is shall not now be deemed fond of conwanting to none; all is activity and in- troversy, if I beg the favour of rcdustry. By these means the landlord, plying as briefly as possible to the rethe stewards, and the tenants are all marks of A. H. in your Magazine for united in true confidence and friend. July, p. 20. The mapoer in which ship with one another, as social beings your Correspondent has there endeaia civilized society ought to be. voured to remove the conclusions
How delightful and gratifying to arising from the arguments which I the benevolent mind, to be surrounds have adduced, leads me to suppose ed by an industrious peasantry, every that he has either not attentively conone labouring with the conscious ap. sidered them, or else hath raised his probation of bis superiors, and the series of objections against them in knowledge that his reputation, his order to mislead his readers, and give reward, and the support of his family, me the trouble of again calling his depend on his own industry and ex. and their attention to the place where ertions! All is hope, all is activity. they had been before answered. The sea is speckled with sails yield- Sigismund is happy in stating that iog to the breeze: the land covered he is not a Clergyman, and as such with the gorgeous mantle of success- cannot be censured for having writful agriculture, studded with the gems ten his
paper from personal inotives. of cottage industry, and sparkling with As A. H. appears not to understand the virtues naturally resulting from it, the drift of my plan of clerical dis"fair as the morn, and blooming as the tinction in dress, 1 think the best anrose.” Who would not envy the feel. swer I can give to his supposition, that ings arising from such application of a ridicule would follow an adoption of little wealth? And it ought to be re- the whole (which never was in my membered, to the Earl's honour, that, thoughts) or part of the Clerical hain doing these things, he had little bit ; will be found in the elaborate inote than the half of his late uncle's and well-digested observations of estates ; but having now recovered your able and learned Correspondent, the whole, he will be enabled more $. T. B. in your last Supplement, p. effectually to carry on his benevo- 593. With regard to A. H.'s objeclent designs. The past may be pre- tion, as to the expence of adopting sumed to be a guarantee of the fu- the distinctive dress which I bave ture; for the Noble Lord has pot suggested, I am not aware that the only provided for the imediate ex. difference in the shape of the Clericaligencies of the times, but has like hat, or the adoption of the shortwise gone to the very bottom of ci- cassock and tinen band, would subvilization, in forming new schools, ject the wearer to any particular adgiviog encouragement to the teachers ditional charge. Perhaps A. H. may of the old parochial schools, and em- still continue to object to the band, ploying the greatest care in selecting which would partly form a very signiproper persons for the church-minis- ticant distinction, on account of its suptry under his patronage. How highly posed affinity to the surplice, against gratifying to the mind of the noble wbich such writers as A. H. have alproprietor must be the benefits aris- ways been particularly inimical ; but ing from such measures!
in what manner A. H. hath discovered Mac Duff,” for Caledonia is neither that " nothing could be só preposwild nor stern: she will cherish the terous as the common use of the memory of your plumed crest, when band,” I am quite at a loss to conmonuments of stone shall have moul. jecture. Again, it is urged that I do
* Go on,
not “ state whether distinct orders to point out the inaccuracies (to say.
Mr. URBAN, is now worn under the coat by Bi.
Sept. 8. shops only: those of inferior order: The painfully interesting events may wear it, but a Deacon may not.” I am sorry that the first part of this Manchester, have made us familiarly sentence is almost a truism, and if acquainted with the title of its prison. A. H. will refer to iny paper, he will
In the various newspapers of the day, find observations on that circum
and even in different parts of the same stance ; as to the assertion that'a
article, the name is indiscriminately deacon may not wear a cassock, or
spelled “ The New Bailey,” and “ The a short-cassock under bis coat, I must
New Bayley." again be under the necessity of re
At first sight it would appear that freshing your Correpondent's memory
the former spelling was the correct by a reference to the 74th Canon
one, and that the title was merely of our Church, which, as it stands in borrowed from the “Old Bailey” in your Number for March, p. 225, at London ; but on reference to that the commencement of my paper,
entertaining and valuable work, ought to have been attentively read
“ Aikio's History of Manchester,” by one who professes to attack the
it will be seen from the following subsequent observations which are passage, what is the real and original chiefly founded on it. A. H. will orthography. there perceive that it is instituted
“ of other public plans and edi.
fices in this town, we shall first menand appointed that “All Deans, Masters of Colleges, Archdeacons, and
tion the New Prison, or Penitentiary Prebendaries in Cathedral and Col- House, called • The New Bayley,' in legiate Churches (being Priests or
honour of that very respectable man, Deacons) Doctors in Divinity, Law
and active Magistrale, B. Bayley, Esq. and Physic, Bachelors in Divinity, of Hope, to whom the police of this Masters of Arts, and Bachelors of district has for many years been most Law, having any Ecclesiastical Living highly indebted. In this are adopted
and all other Ministers adinitted all the improvements relative to that into that function—in public go not part of the Police, proposed in the without coats or cassocks." It is to
works of that celebrated philanthrobe hoped that this quotation will sa
pist, Mr. Howard, with whose name
it is inscribed.” tisfy your Correspondent as to the right of deacons to wear cassucks, Copy of the Inscription on the first and will teach him to be a little more Stone of the New Gaol in Salford. cautious in future when he attempts
“On the 22d May, 1787, and in the 27th to remove positions which have been
year of the reign of George III. King of before clearly established. The query Great Britain, France, and Ireland, this of A. H. "
why Sigismund is not sa- Gaol and Penitentary House, (at the extisfied with the mode of dress bither- pence of the Hundred of Salford, in the to adopted,” cannot be better an- County Palatine of Lancaster) was begun swered than by again referring him to be erected, and the first Stone laid by to the paper on the Clerical Dress, Thomas Butterworth Bayley: and that Sec. IV.* The observations of A.H. in there may remain to posterity a Monuthe paragraph in which he insinuates
ment of the affection and gratitude of this that I wish to revive Roman Catholic County to that most excellent person, who hubits, might be readily refuted; but hath so fully proved the wisdom and huI have already trespassed too long manity of separate and solitary confine
ment of Offenders, this Prison is inscribed upon your patience, in endeavouring with the pame of John Howard." * See Gent. Mag. for April, p. 312.
H. V. B.
Mr. URBAN, Heath, Aug. 19. first objects to a sensible and inquir
Pyrenees, says, “In the vallies things before our eyes, and shews of the Pyrenees, on the side of France, most of them in their true. ligbt, are a race of people called Cagots stript of that false glare which for: (see pp. 8,129), who are not reckoned merly dazzled the understanding, and among the number of their citizens prevented a right judgment being are every where disarmed, and per- formed of the motives by wbich the mitted to other occupation than actors in those scenes were governed. wood-cutters, and such other services Whatever was kept in the back as are considered ignominious. They ground, History exhibits upon the are troubled with Goitres. Between stage, clear of all disguise, arrayed the two races there is nothing in in the garb of truth and open hocommon-no commerce or alliance nesty. with the Cagots which is not con- The History of a particular Town, sidered as an object of scandal. They which from its very nature embraces have gone by different names; they almost the whole of these objects, is, were known at Rennes by the name if executed with fidelity and a strict of Cacoux, or Cagueux, and the Par. adherence to matters of fact, one of liament was obliged to ivterfere to the most difficult tasks that can be grant them the right of sepulture. conceived; a task, if not amusing to At La Rochelle they were called Co. the reader, at least laborious to the liberts, or Slaves. In Guienne and writer. Those who have never unGascony, Cahets. In the two Na- dertaken any thing of this kind, can varres, Caffos. In the 11th century have little idea of the vast toil, the they were called Cagots, or Capots; incessant application, and unwearied in Bearne, Bigorn, and the country perseverance, necessary for completof the Comminges, they were sold as ing works of this description. The slaves, reputed to be infected with reader will hardly conceive it possileprosy, and were obliged to enter ble, that an Author of Local History the Churches by a separate door, and has to collate Books from the Folio had their font' and seats apart, and down to the smallest Duodecimo, in many parts the priests would not composed in different ages and difadmit them to confession. They are ferent languages, the very perusal supposed to be a rempant of the Visi- of which must in some measure afgoths, who were dispersed after the fect the style of the most elegant battle of Vouglé, and escaped from Historian. A Traveller, relating the the fury of the Franks, under Clovis, manners, customs, and productions of who'swore by their beards to exter: a distant country, has nothing to do minate the race of Arians."
but to give an account of what be Such as wish to elucidate this sub. sees before him. He journies on day ject further may refer to Ramond's after day from one district to ano. Journey in the Pyrenees, p. 227. ther ; he meels with adventures, and Yours, &c.
W. S. suffers hardships, all which, if he has
any fluency in composition, will abunMr. URBAN, York, Aug. 12. dantly supply him with materials.I N perusing the pages of your va- The searcher into the distant and long
luable Miscellany, embracing sub- forgotten annals of antiquity, bas no jects of almost every description, I such advantages. Every thing which cannot but consider that part of it he commits to paper costs many which brings before the eyes of the hours of tedious investigation. He present generation scenes of past is compelled to peruse decayed parchdays, alas! never more to return, as ments, decipher worn-out inscriptions, the most interesting and instructive. and to examine carefully every vesWhat were the actions of our fore tige of former ages. Even after all fathers, who trod those very paths this is done, and every thing is spread wbich we
are now treading, what out before his eyes, a rudis indiges. were their names, and what was taque moles, he finds considerable their mode of thinking in private difficulty in making a proper selecas well as in public affairs, the ef- tion. Reconciling dates so as to fects of which form a part of our pre
form a just conclusion as to what sent enjoyments, must be one of the carries the greatest appearance of Gent. Mag. September, 1819.