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1819.] On the Validity of certain Marriages.

203 those acts, as I shall meution by and That Marriages solemnized before by.

23 Aug. 1808, in any Church or Chas After this solemn adjudication, let pel duly consecrated, shall be validus see what has been done by the Le- the Ministers indemnified, and a simigislature to remedy the evil.

lar clause as to receiving copies in By an Act passed in 1804 (44 Geo. evidence. Sect. 4. The Register of III.)intituled, “ An Act to render valid Marriages solemnized in such Chapels, certain marriages solemnized in cer- which are thereby declared valid, shall taio Churches and Public Chapels in within 30 days after the said 23 Aug. which Banns had vot been usually 1808, be removed to the Parish Church published before passing the Act 26 of the Parish in which such Chapel Geo. II.” reciting, that since passing shall be situated, orif extra-parochial, what is known by the name of the to the next adjoining, to be kept with Marriage Act of 26 Geo, II. (1754) the Parish Registers, as by the Mar. for preventing Clandestine Marriages; riage Act. and an Act of 21 Geo. III. (1781) for And this is further added, which is rendering valid certain marriages so- not in the former Act; lemnized in certain Churches and Pub. That within 12 months after the lic Chapela in which Banns had not removal of such Registers to such usually been published before or at Parish Churches, two copies shall be tbe time of passing the Marriage Act, transmitted by the respective Church. divers Churches and Chapeis bad been wardens of such parishes to the Bi. built and consecrated, and marriages shop of the Diocese, or his Chancel. had been solemnized therein since lor, subscribed by the hands of the passing the last mentioned Act; but Minister and Church-wardens of such by reason that in such Churches and parishes, to the end that the same Chapels Banns had not usually been inay, he faithfully preserved in the published before or at the time of Register of the Bishop. This expassing the Marriage Act, such mar- tends to the Registers of new Chapels riages have been or may be deemed only, not to new Churches. This Act to bę void. This Act (44 Geo. III.) was passed 30 June, 1808. epacts that such marriages solemn- By the Act of 1804, we see that ized before 25 March, 1805, in such since passing the Marriage Act in Church or Chapel erected since the 1754, and the Act of 1781, which was Marriage Act, and consecraled, shall intended to apply some remedy to a be valid.

mischief then become apparent, new The Ministers are indemnified. Churches and Chapels had been built

The registers of such marriages, and consecrated, and marriages soor copies thereof, shall be received in lemnized therein ; therefore this Act evidence, in the same manner as re- was passed in 1804, to make valid gisters of Churches or Chapels be. marriages which had been, or should fore the Marriage Act, saving such be solemnized therein before 25 March objections as might have been made 1805-if then any marriages were soto copies of other registers.

lemnized therein after 25 March, 1805, Sect. 4. The Registers of such they were wholly void, according to Chapels, in which the marriages are the decision of the Court of King's thereby declared valid, shall within Bench. 14 days after 25 March, 1805, be re- No directions were given by this moved to the Parish Church of the Act as to the publication of it, and it Parish in which such Chapel shall be may fairly be presumed, that very situated, (or if an extra-parochial few of the Clergy ever heard of it, place, to the Parish Church next ad- and that marriages were continued joining,) to be kept in like mapper as in such new Churches and Chapels. registers are to be kept by the Mar. Bishop Horsley, in a Charge to his riage Act. This Act was passed 14 Clergy in the diocese of Si. Asaph, July, 1804.

notices the invalidity of such marAnother Act was passed in 1808 (48 riages, and tells his Clergy that it Geo. III.) intituled as that passed in could not be expected they should 1804, reciting the Marriage Act, and know all Acts of Parliament that those of 21 and 44 Geo. Ill. and it is were passed, still less that they thereby enacted,

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of their houses would hardly hold Mr. URBAM, them. He promoted the Act of 14 Geo. The accompanying paper, on the


Physiognomy of Hand-writing, 111. 1808, which Act is nearly the owes ils origin to a curious little same as that of 1804, except that work, printed (I believe, for private being passed 30 June, it limited the circulation) at Paris, from which the time in which marriages might be thoughts were for the most part decelebrated after the passing of it to rived. It was furnished for the pur. 23 August then next, only 54 days, poses of the Editor of a contemporary the former Act giving eight mooths, journal, several months ago; but on namely, from July 1801 to March his retiremeot from the conduct of 1805, which time it appears by the the Magazine, it was, in common passiog of this Act had not been suf- with other contributions of his friends, ficient.

of course, withdrawn. I have, how. In this latter Act the Bishop ob. ever, since observed an article, protained a clause that marriages in one fessing to come from the present new Chapel in his diocese might be Editor of the Magazine in question, celebrated at all times thereafter. in which not only many of the ideas, Why this liberty was not made ge- but occasionally the words of the neral, I cannot account for.

present Essay were adopted. It is And there is in it an additional hardly of sufficient importance to clause as to the Registers of such have called forth this explanation, new Chapels, that after being car- since it is little better than a hasty ried to the Parish Church, two copies translation, were it not necessary to shall be transmitted to the Bishop. account for its being in part antici.

But if any such Chapel Registers pated in the contemporary jourdal have not been sent to the Parish alluded to. The remainder of the Church, how are Certificates to be Essay, which fortunately has never obtained for proving the marriage, been io the possession of the parties, if any question should arise on it i I shall forward you for a future and neither of the Acts provides for Number.

R. S. the Registers of new Churches how then are their inarriages to be


It is much to be regretted that provision was not made for sending copies of these Acls to every parish ; NOTHING is so difficult to acquire and it is highly to be wished that the as a knowledge of the character of Bishops would direct their Officers man,--the power of penetrating to to inquire throughout their dioceses his inmost ihoughts, and of discernwhat new Churches or Chapels there ing that which, having no material are; whether the Chapel Registers existence, is of course imperceptible have been duly sent to the Parish to the senses. The free comin unica. Church, and copies duly returned to tion of our ideas is, it is true, affordthe Bishop ; and whether any mar. ed us in the faculty of speech-a meriages have been solemnized in such dium of making known our own selnew Churches or Chapels since 23 timents, and of becoming acquainted Aug. 1808.

with those of others, which has apThis is not an idle inquiry; it may peared so difficult of invention, that be of the most material consequence even the greatest philosophers have to families that little thiok of it. considered it as a property derived there is no saying what may be the directly from the Divinity. The extent of the mischief-and if it shall tongue, bowever, is not the only turn out that such marriages have means by which man is enabled to been solemnized since 23 Aug. 1808, give expression to his feelings. The or Registers not duly transmitted, various motions of his body, usually surely the Legislature would readily denominated gestures, taken in the apply an effectual remedy before any most extensive sense, constitute what particular case has been brought into may not unaptly be termed, the lan. à Court of Law, wben, as to that guage of action. When we speak, case, it is presumed no post facto we are always under the influence of law could relieve the parties. Z. A. the will; but ibis is by no means the



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1819.] The Human Character decided by the Hand-writing. 205 case with respect to gestures, which construe each variation of counteare often altogether involuntary ; and nance, it must be difficult, if not for this reason deception is easily wholly impracticable, to conceal our practised by words, whilst the visible real sentiments. Sometimes, howemotions we are frequently upable to ever, we neither seek to explain, nor controul, betray the positive state of endeavour to suppress our feelings, our minds. The language of the pas- and then our actions, even the most sions consists chiefly in the action iodifferent ones, being entirely modiwhich accompanies our speech-tbat fied by our natural dispositions, may, accominodation of motion to sound to a certaio extent, be made the test in which some of the first orators of of our character. When a man acts antiquity have defined the existence without constraint, he will manifest of true eloquence. It would be dif- his vivacity or dulness-his impeficult for a man to persuade us either tuosity or caution-his mildness or that he loved or hated, if the tumult obstinacy-bis dexterity or awkwardof his soul could not, to a certain de- ness. An eccentric person who thinks gree, be gathered from his eyes, from differently from every body else, will ihe variations of his countenance, and in general act so, and hare gestures, alınost from the emotions of his bo- as well as ideas, of strong and marked dily frame.

peculiarity. These are the principal As the touch dissipates the illusions modifications, for the most part obof the other senses, so the action not servable in the action; and which uufrequently destroys the impression jpdicate the prominent tracts of the intended to have been conveyed by human character. But other conjecverbal assurance.

In the bitter smile tures may also be formed from the we recognize irony; and the half- continuity or repetition of an action. averted and wavering glance betrays Has it a certain duration ? or is it the timidity which seeks its conceal. often repeated ? we discern the inan ment in emply menace. The various who has but little perseverance, and indications of our thoughts are true, who is unable to sustain his part to in proportion as they are more diffi- its close. The inconstant man varies cult to repeat: thus the tone is more the mode — the capricious man detroublesome to imitate than the choice viates from it altogether. Are there of words, and the gesture than the spectators ? - the vain man courts tone. The latter acquires a great distinction by an affectation of supesuperiority in the present point of riority, -the artless man acts view, from the circumstance of the though he were unconscious of at. necessity of the most perfect harmony tracting observation. It appears obin all the movements of the physiog vious, then, that an attentive and sanomy; for if one feature be undis- gacious observer may detect many turbed, the deception is betrayed. Tracts of the character of a man in Vaio is the sinple expression of joy, his most insigoificant motions, and it if the eyes do not acquire additional may thus be reasonally inferred that brilliancy,--if the forehead does not by applying these general data to the expand, and the wriokles of care dis- actions of a man, as displayed in his appear. As every feature has a lan

Hand-writing, they will furnish reguage of its own in the motions pe- sults similar to those we have above culiar to it, how difficult must it be recited; and if we consider that the to give all the same expression when writing is influenced by the emotions uninfluenced by the mind. If, then, of the heart and of the mind, we shall it be so hard a task to conceal the be convinced that it must bear the pansions by which we are agitated, stamp of the passions, and be intiwhat command must we not exert mately convected with the intelleeover ourselves, not only to repress tual faculties. the feeliogs struggling for vent, but When a man writes badly and with give the features an expression con- difficulty, the hand cannot be said to Irary to that of the passions which follow the impulse of the thoughts, reign within ! Besides, there are and the connexion we have supposed some which, by not being controul- no longer exists ; but the cause is obable by the will, are of necessity be- viously the want of education. When yond the power of imitation. Thus, the band has had little practice, ihen, it would appear, that from an though good instruction, it developes attentive observer who knows how to it in efforts to write in a style ap


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proaching to mediocrity. Thus we than he who is guided by general may distinguish in the world, those rules. It is a fact which must be wbo want education, and those who obvious to all, that there is less want practice. Fine writing is often strength, less firmness and boldness in the effect of particular instruction; the hand-writing of a woman, than in then it is connected with the situa- that of a man ; and this not because tion or employment in life, and ge- it is necessary to possess these qualinerally denotes it. Thus we imme- ties in an eminent degree, to trace diately recognize the writing of a the characters which represent them. merchant and many other occupa. Womeu might probably write olbertions, in which a careful hand is au wise, but that they are pot naturally indispensable requisile ; but where so so inclined. Endowed with less force much art is used, nature is scarcely they exert it less; their slender bands perceptible. A practised eye niaj, lean more lightly on the paper :however, distinguish several shades of accustomed to more caution and redifference connected with certain serve in their actions, their pens do traits of the character ; but in the bot dash on with manly freedom. To subsequent observations we shall only this care is united a delicacy in the comment on that writing, in the for- formation of their letters, and a gracemation of which education has nei- fulness in the character, perfectly ther had too great nor too insigni- corresponding with their taste. ficant a share, and which may, there- Every nation is distinguished by a fore, be considered as natural. physiognomy peculiar to itself. We

It is in general very easy to discern discover the country of a foreigner the difference between the writing of by his features, his air, his language. the two sexes. If it were a part of Even the most trivial poiots conduce our social regulations that women to develope bis national character; it should adopt a particular style of is observable more particularly in his their own; if models were presented gestures, and in his hand-writing: to them for their imitation, different T be choice of the form of the letters from those which are used to form may be the effect of chance-may be the hand-writing of men, we might borrowed from other countries ; but regard the distinction as judependent it is always modified by that wbich of the character peculiar to each sex. adopts it. It is the genius of the But they learn from the same models, people which produces the modificaon the same principles, and from the tion. The greater part of the po. same masters. It is true that women lished nations of Europe make use of are less exercised in the art ;--that the same form of letters ; but the the same degree of perfection is not writing of each possesses a peculiar required from them; still, whatever character. We tbus distinguish an may be the difference which might Euglishman, a Frenchman, or an Itaresult from these causes, it is by no lian, as readily by his hand-writing as means characteristic of the two kinds by his features or complexion. We of writing. Want of practice and shall confine ourselves to one obsercare may often be discovered in the vation as to the character of national hand-writing of a man; but there is writing. That of the Italians is realways something decidedly mascu- markable for an extraordinary deliJine perceptible in its formation. cacy and suppleness ; and these are Although a woman write well and the most prominent features of the with facility, in the like manner there genius of that nation. is always a peculiarity which betrays The resemblance so frequently to

We are far from assertioy be traced between members of the that we may not sometimes be de- same family is also equally observable ceived, but it is the same as in her in their hand-writing. It is, perhaps, physiognomy, which is equally re- less striking, because the figure, ad. markable for a distinctness of cha- dress, voice, language, and manners, sacter, though in certain cases it may present a greater number of proofs, lead us into error.

but it is not the less positive. It Whoever suffers his opinions to be may, perhaps, be ascribed to their shaken by some exceptions, either having received the same education, will never form any judgment at all, to their having been accustomed to or will be deceived more frequently follow the same models, and in some



her sex.


On Phrenology.-- Hints on the Poor Laws. 207 degree, to imitate each other. But traces of it. It is the distinguishing even allowing a certain influence feature of that of a merchant. Actoto education, which would affect ated by this sentiment, he would place mainly the form of the letters, there but little confidence in one of his will always remain modifications, go. clerks, whose writing was careless and verned almost entirely by the moral irregular, or slovenly, although percharacter. Education should only fectly legible. Every one is not enstrengthen this resemblance, and not dowed with a facility of writing with be the primary cause of it. Thus regularity. Those whose ideas are branches of the same family, who continually wandering, cannot, of have been brought up together, some- course, fix their attention sufficiently tiines write wholly unlike each other, to the subject; others write too ra. whilst that of others very far distant, pidly, and are carried away either by and who have received an entirely natural vivacity, or else agitated by different education, is strikingly the emotion of the moment. Some, similar.

from that inconstancy which forms Of all the performances of man, the basis of their character, often vary pothing bears 80 exclusively the the proportions and distances; and stamp of the individual, as his hand- many, from natural impetuosity of writing. Painters and Sculptors have disposition, are unable to controul some touch by which they are par- their own impulses. We may obticularly distinguished; but to recog- serve, therefore, that the love of renize an artist by his productions, it is gularity must coincide with several necessary that long study should have other qualities, in order that the deperfected the taste, and exercised the sire of writing with precision may be judgment. Neither art or practice, carried into full effect. however, is necessary to enable us to

(To be continued.) discover the hand of a person, whose writing we seen


Aug. 30.

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strongly indicative of

the individualTecomipoisory relief) is radically

that the legislature of every nation ( has, attached more importance to a bad, because it absolutely tends to signature, thau to the testimony of produce the evil which it professes to many witnesses.

redress. By being a bounty in favour Age, which weakens our bodily of idleness and improvidence, it gives activity so materially, must neces- one shilling to a person, who, by the sarily impress a singular character on dependence upon the system, loses our hand-writing. The latter he. the habit and necessity of acquiring comes fixed or set pretty nearly at two. Except with relation to age, the same period when the mental infancy, or infirmity, it gives an iocharacter is formed ; it afterwards ac- viduous eleemosynary aid by legal quires the strength and boldness of enactment to the most upworthy part manhood; and the vacillating hand of the poor; plainly informing the of old age, so different from that of better sort, thai they are to look for youth, obviously displays the ravages no other reward for their privations of time. Sickness may, during the and industrious habits, than compulvigour of our youth, render the band sory contribution.-1 do not wish to unsteady ; but if it does not extend speak on this subject from speculaits influence over the intellectual and live data. Hitherto no remedy has moral faculties, the energies they been found for imposition, but the enjoy will be secure, notwithstanding establishment of a well-conducted the indifferent shape of the letters., Work house, and publication of the

Any thing irregular is offensive to names of the paupers. I am in the the eye of the lover of order, this is habit of attending the Parochial not the effect of reason, but of taste. Vestry of the village where I reReason may strengthen this inclina- side, and know that the rates were tion, and appear the source of il ; for reduced in one year from 10001. to there is nothing more agreeable to 5001. without inhumanity, because reason than order and regularity, the Work house system was enforced. which feeling is strong and unde- St. Paul says, " If a man will not viatiog, and displays itself in the prin- work, neither shall be eat;” and upon cipal circumstances of life. The hand- this authorized principle, I presume writing will consequevtly exhibit that a drunken or idle pauper should


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