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LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

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Nearly ready for Publication : inclusive ; containing Sketches of the The Wisdom of being Religious, and Geographical Situations, the Manners and the Folly of scoffing at Religion. By Abp. Customs, &c. &c. By G. A. ROBERTSON, Tillotson. Of these treatises, the former Esq. To which will be added an Appenis allowed to be one of the most elegant, dix, containing the most recent Informaperspicuous, and convincing defences of tion relative to the Cape of Good Hope. Religion in our own or any other language. An Historical and Characteristic Tour

Remarks on a Publication by Mr. Bel. of the Rhine from Mayence to Coblentz sham, Minister of Essex Chapel, entitled and Cologne; in six Monthly Parts, con“ The Bampton Lecturer reproved ; be- taining a complete History and picturesque ing a Reply to the calumnious Charges of Description of a portion of Country so full the Rev. C. A. Moysey, D. D.”

of curious and interesting circumstances, Letter to a friend. By the Rev. H. W. as well as so resplendent for its Landscape, CARTER, M.D. F.R.S.E.

grandeur, and beauty. The Work will Strictures on Atheism, chiefly suggested be embellished with Twenty-four highly by the works styled Theological of the late finished and coloured Engravings, from Thomas Paine. By Mr. Mulock. Drawings expressly made by an eminent

Memoirs of the Literary and Philoso. Artist resident near the banks of the phical Society of Manchester.

Rhine, and habitually familiar with every A new edition of Homer's Iliad, from part of it. A correct Map of the River the Text of Heyne; with English Notes. and the Territory, according to its last By Mr. VALPY.

arrangements, through which it lows, will Stephens's Greek Thesaurus, Nos. VII. be given with the last Fart. and VIII. i. e. Part VI. of Lexicon, and Italy, in 1818 and 1819; comprising Part II. of Glossary,

Remarks, critical and descriptive, on its The Delphin and Variorum Classics, Manners, National Character, Political Parts V. and VI.

Condition, Literature, and Fine Arts. By A new and corrected edition of Mr. JOHN SCOTT. Cary's Translation of Danie.

Travels in France, in 1818. By Lieut. A Manual of Directions for forming a Francis Hall, 14th Light Dragooos, H.P. School according to the National or Ma- author of Travels in the United States. dras System. By the Rev. G. I. Beven, Letters from Buenos Ayres and Chili; A. M. Vicar of Criekliowel.

with an original History of the laiter Aldborough described ; being a full Country. Ilustrated with Engravings. Delineation of that fashionable and much- A Political and Commercial Account of frequented Watering Place; and inter- Venezuela, Trividad, and some of the adspersed with poetic and picturesque Re- jacent Islands. From the French of Mr. marks on ils Coasts, its Scenery, and its LAVAYSSE ; with Notes and lilustrations. Views.

A Picture of Yarmouth, with numerous The Seventh Number of the Journal of Engravings. By Mr. John PRESTON, New Voyages and Travels, containing the Comptroller of the Customs at Great Count de Forbin's Travels in Egypt, in Yarmouth. 1818 ; illustrated by many curious En- Letters from Persia, giving a Descripgravings.

tion of the Manners and Customs of that Memoir of the Rev. R. B. Nickolls, interesting Country. LL.B. Dean of Middleham, &c.

An Account of the Colony of the Cape A Volume of Poems, Songs, and "Son- of Good Hope, with a view to the lufor. nets. By John Clare, a Northampton. mation of Einigrants, shire peasant.

A Memoir of Charles Louis Sand, to Parga, a Poem; with illustrative notes. which is prefixed, a Defence of the Ger

Elements of Gymnastics, or Bodily Ex- man Universities. ercises and Sports. Also the Elementary Specimens of the Living British Poets, Drawing-Book. By Pestalozzi.

with Biographical Notices, and Critical The first Volume of a cabinet Edition Remarks. By the Rev. G. CROLY, A. M. of the Poets of Scotland, containing Ram- Theory of Elocution. By Mr. SMART, say's Gentle Shepherd, and other Poems. the Reader of Shakspeare. Preparing for Publication :

A Greek and English Lexicon. By Gleanings in Africa, collected during a JOAN Jones, LL. D. Author of a Greek long Residence, and many trading Voyages Grammar, &c. to that Country; particularly those parts An Essay on Nervous Deafness, and which are situated between Cape Verd and Cases said to be so. By Mr. WRIGHT. the River Congo, a distance of two thou- The Family Mansion, a Tale. By Mrs sand miles, during the years 1799 to 1811 TAYLOR, of Ongar.

We have mạch pleasure in giving our soon discovered, from the number and Readers the following extract from a Let- importance of the documents, to present ter lately received by T. S, Champneys, labour almost without end, and led to the Esq. of Orchardleigh House, Somerset, acquisition of the originals by purchase, from one of his agents in Jamaica : from M. Tassoni. Though the sum which

"I am certain, Sir, it will give you he received for them was inconsiderable, pleasure, to hear that Mr. Warner's ex- yet so little value did M. Tassoni set upon cellent Sermons (on the Epistles and Gos- them, that he actually considered himself pels, &c.; and old Church of England much overpaid. As they were perused, principles, &c.) have reached Kingston, however, their immense worth became and are now in the Press, for a Jamaica known; and Mr. Watson, unfortunately, edition ; the greater part of which is al. considered himself under no necessity of ready bespoken ; for they are sought after concealing the value of private property, with avidity; and will, I have no doubt, which he bad legally bought from a combe very shortly in general reading through- petent vender. But under an absolute or out the island.”

despotic Government right is no protecIt is no small compliment to our good tion. The archives of the Stewarts were old Church, and its Orthodox Ministers seized by an order of the Papal Governthat the Rev. Author of the above-men- ment, in the apartments of the proprietor; tioned Discourses, has, within these last and Cardinal Consalvi justified this desfew months, received diplomas from the potic act by a brief avowal, that the Imperial Cæsarean Society of Natural Stewart papers were too great a prize for History at Moscow, and the Dutch Society any subject to possess. · Wilh his emi. of Sciences at Harlem, constituting him an nence, Cardinal Consalvi, the proprietor Honorary Member of these respectable in vain remonstrated against this injusestablishments.

tice, and at length notified his determi

nation to appeal to his own Government, STEWART PAPERS.- Erroneous accounts the British Consul having pusillanimously having been published by several of the declined to interfere. The Roman Go. newspapers, respecting this valuable ac- vernment, upon further reflection, saw the quisition, we think it may be interesting measures which it had adopted could peito the public to be accurately informed. ther be justified nor tolerated ; and in this It is now about two years since these im- dilemma, it sought refuge from a curious portant documents were discovered at expedient-it offered to the Prince ReRome, by Mr. Watson, a Scots gentle gent, as a present, that property which man, then resident in that city, in a situ- had been taken by force from one of his ation which must soon have produced their subjects. In Great Britain, the “rights destruction, from the joint operation of of Kings" are better understood. The vermio and the elements. M. Cosarini, British Government never denied the right the Auditor of the Pope, was the executor of Mr. Watson to property which he had of Cardinal York, the last male descendant fairly bought though it wisely entered of James II. The executor did not long into a negotiation with him for the purpose survive the Cardinal; and his successor, of rendering objects of such peculiar na. M. Tassoni, became his representative as tional interest, the property of the nation, executor of the Cardinal York. To M. A respectable commission has lately been Tassoni, then, application was made for appointed under the Royal warrant of the leave to examine the papers.

Prince Regent, to inquire into their nature grauted, together with permission to copy and their value, and will report upon them at pleasure. This last indulgence was accordingly.

It was

to:

ARTS AND SCIENCES.
ROYAL INSTITUTE OF FRANCE.

The following are the examples alluded Public Sitting of the four Acadamies.

In the public Sitting of the four Acade. “ For three centuries we have witnessed mies of the Royal Institute of France, Mr. the Learned Societies of all polished naCharles Dupin delivered a discourse, the tions united in one fraternal bond; not subject of which was the influence of the only the Learned of a siugle empire, but Sciences upon the humanity of nations. the most celebrated philosophers of all In showing how far the Sciences had not nations. From every quarter an appeal only softened the manners of mankind, has been made to every talent, and prizes but also the otherwise inexorable laws of offered for the research of great truths, or war, Mr. Dupin quoted instances with re-' their application to the useful purposes of spect to England and France ,which claim mankind. the admiration of all the friends of civi. “ Crowns of merit have been awarded lization.

by the Amphictyons of Science to the su'perior talent of all, without the invidious

cessary in the various branches of Lithodistinction of native and foreigner.

graphy. “ Nor has war restrained the limits of Alois Senefelder is the sou of one of this peaceful concourse, The Society the performers of the Theatre Royal at where Newton once presided, has founded Munich. ln early life he devoted himself a prize for the greatest discovery relative to the study of jurisprudence at the Unito the laws of light and heat. The theory versity of Ingolstadt; but the death of his of Malus, respecting the polarization of father compelled him to quit the Univerlight, merited the prize. The judges were sity; and, having long had a strong incliEnglish, the author a Frenchman : the nation for the stage, he embraced that war was at its height, and the two coun- profession ; two years' experience of the tries were exasperated by victory and de- misery attending upon which cured his feat, by the songs of a Tyriaus and the enthusiasm, and he resolved to try his harangues of orators, by fallacious pamph- fortune as a dramatic author. In that oclets, and the hirelings of a policy without cupation, although his first piece was fashame or remorse.

vourably received by the public, he also “ But Justice held the balance with one proved ultimately unsuccessful. During hand, and the prism of Newton with the the publication of some of his works, howother; — admitting no delusion, she ever, he availed himself of an opportunity gives her reward in silence, uninfluenced of becoming acquainted with the particuby passion.

lars of the process of printing. A new di" England presents her with no work rection havioġ thus been given to his.ta. equal to that of the learned Malus, and lents, M. Senefelder, by several ingenious Justice places the crown on the brow of methods, endeavoured to form substitutes an enemy scarred with wounds, the ho.

for types. Among those methods was that nourable marks of battle waged between of writing the letters in an inverted shape, the two pations under the walls of Cairo

with a steel pen, on a copper-plate previa and Alexandria.

ously covered with etching ground, and “Science is not only just-impassable biting them in with aquafortis. This reonly when equity requires it; she in every quired much practice, and, to correct the other case succours mankind with her be. mistakes of his novitiate, M. Senefelder, névolent aid.

ignorant of the usual varnish for what is " During thirty years of war and blood. technically termed "stopping out," comshed-Civilization, the daughter of Science, posed one for himself of wax,soap,andlamphas maintained her rights, and often ap- black. Finding copper-plates expensive plied them to the noblest purposes. for these rude essays, he had recourse to

“ Thus the Institute of France and the Kellheim stone, the surface of which was Royal Society of London have rivaled easily susceptible of being ground and poeach other io generous philanthropy. At lished.--We give the singularly carious their intercession, captives have been account of the actual invention of the Art liberated, whose learning might be useful of Lithography, which immediately followto mankind *; and, to their praise be it ed, in M. Senefelder's own words. spoken, the Governments on both sides “ I had just succeeded in my little lathe sea have always yielded with zeal to boratory in polishing a stone plate, which the solicitations of those scientific Institu, I intended to cover with etching ground, tions, who in gratitude have paid the ran. in order to continue my exercises in writsom of the liberated by their presents. ing backwards, wlien my mother entered

“ The Academy of Sciences, by award, the room, and desired me to write her a ing to the celebrated Davy, about the bill for the washer woman, who was wait. same period, the prize for his Galvanic ing for the linen. I happened not to have researches, showed itself equally impar. the smallest slip of paper at hand; nor tial, and superior to the prejudices of po- was there even a drop of ink in the inkpular hatred.

stand. As the matter would not admit of LITHOGRAPHY.

delay, and we had nobody in the house to

send for a supply of the deficient mate. A complete Course of Lithograpby, by rials, I resolved to write the list with my Alois Senefelder, inventor of the Art of

ink prepared with wax, soap, and lamp. Lithography and Chemical Printing, has

black, on the stone which I had just pobeen translated from the original German.

lished, and from which I could copy it at The work is divided into two parts: the

leisure. one very interesting, the other bigbly im

“ Some time after this, I was just going portant. The first relates to the history

to wipe this writing from the stone, when of the inventor and the invention : the

the idea all at once struck me to try what second comprehends minute instructions

would be the effect of such a writing with with respect to the different processes

ne

my prepared ink if I were to bite in the * Ao justance is recorded in our present stone with aquafortis ; and whether, perObi'uary; sce account of Mr. Forbes. haps, it might not be possible to apply

.printing printing ink to it in the same way as to book on stove, which was to be done in wood engravings, and so take impressions, ibe conmon correct hand, I found great from it. I hastened to put this idea in difficulty in producing the letters reversed execution, surrounded the stone with a upon the stone. My ordinary method of horder of wax, and covered the surface of writing music on stone, was first to trace the stone to the height of two inches with the whole page with black lead-pencil on a mixture of one part of aquafortis and paper, wet it, place it on the stone, and ten parts of water, which I left standing pass it through a strong press.' In this five minutes on it; and on examining the way I got the whole page traced, reversed, effect of this experiment, I found the writ- on the stone. But this being extremely ing elevated about a tenih part of a line tender, and easily wiped off, I should have (or a hundred and twentieth part of an preferred an iuk to the pencil. After havinch). Some of the finer and not suffi- ing Iried some experiments witb red chalk ciently distinct lines had suffered in some and gum water, and common writing ink, measure, but the greater part of the let- which did not satisfy me, I prepared a ters had not been damaged at all in their composition of linseed-oil, soap, and lampbreadth, considering their elevation, so black, diluted with water; with this ink I that I confidently hoped to obtain very traced the music or letters on paper, and clear impressions, chiefly from printed transferred it to the stone, and thus obcharacters, in which there are not many tained a perfect reversed copy on the lat. fine strokes.

ter.

This led me to the idea whether it - “now proceeded to apply the printing would not be possible to compose an ink, ink to the stone, for which purpose I first possessing the property of transferring itused a common printer's ball; after some self to the stone, so that the drawing might unsuccessful trials, I found that a thin be made at once complete, and to prepare piece of board, covered with fine cloth, the paper in such a manner, that, under answered the purpose perfectly, and com- certain circumstances, it might discharge municated the ink in a more equal man- the ink with which writing or drawing was ner iban any other malerial I had before executed on its surface upon the stone used. My further irials of this method plate, and not retain any part of it.” greatly encouraged my perseverance." The effort to accomplish this purpose

In order to exercise this newly in- cost Mr. Senefelder several thousand difvevted art, a little capital was necessary ferent experiments; some of which he deto construct a press, and purchase stunes, scribes. At length he was successful. paper, and other materials. M. Senerel - “ I observed that every liquid, especider tried many expedients for that pur- lly a viscous liquid, such as a solution pose, among which was even offering to of gum, prevented the ink from attaching enlist as a privale in the artillery ; but itself to the stone. I drew some lines with failing in all, be sunk into the deepest de. soap on a newly polished stove, moistenspondency. However, the sight of a page ed the surface with gum-water, and then of wretchedly priuted music suggesting to touched it with oil colour, which adhered him the idea that his new method would only to the places covered with soap. In be particularly applicable to music print- trying to write music on the stone with a ing, he formed a connexion with Mr. Gleiss- view to print in this way, I found that the ner, a musician of the Elector's band, ink ran on the polished surface: this I oband by means of a common copper plate viated by washing the stone with soappress, printed several musical composia water or linseed-oil before I began to write ; tions, which were sold with some profit. but in order to remove again this cover of Thus encouraged, he and his partner con- grease wbich extended over the whole sur. structed a new press, by which they hoped face (so that the whole stone would have greatly to faciliiate their objects. In this, been black on the application of the cohowever, for reasons minutely described lour), after I had written or drawn on the in the narrative, they were deceived : and stone it was necessary to apply aquafortis, the disappointment induced M. Senefelder which took it entirely away, and left the to turn his attention to the best forms of characters or drawings untouched. My a lithographic press. After many failures, wbole process was therefore as follows:he induced M. Falter, a music-seller at To wash the polished stone with soapMunich, to furnish him with the means of water, to dry it well, to write or draw upon making a large press, with cylinders, and it with the composition ink of soap and a cross, the construction of which M. Se- wax, then to etch it with aquafortis, and nefelder conceives is, to this day, the best Jastly to prepare it for printing with an inadapted for Lithographic printing ; pro- fusion of gum-water. I had hoped to be vided the stones are of sufficient thick- able to dispense with the gum-water, but ne-s, and dispatch is not a consideration. was soon convinced that it really enters The account of his next invention, which into chemical affinity with the stone, and was one of great ira portance, we again stops its pores still more effectually against give in M. Senefelder's own words.

the fat, avd opens them to the water. Io “ Being employed to write a prayer- less than three days after my first idea, I

pro

produced as perfect and clear impressions course, a variable mixture of nitrogen or as any that have since been obtained. azote, and probably on an average might Thus this new art had in its very origin not be purer than nearly the reversed proarrived at the highest degree of perfection portions of the atmosphere; that is, 70 as to the principle, and good and expe- to 80 per cent. of oxygen to 20 or 30 rienced artists were only wanting to shew nitrogen ; and it is worthy of observation, it in all the varieties of application." whether this circumstance might not have

This new invention, together with that influenced the result. Contrary to exe, of a lever-press, enabled M. Senefelder lo pectation, the gas was skilfully prepared carry on bis business more extensively. and perseveringly used. From the first, Proceeding with his experiments, he says, the difficulty of breathing and other op

"I discovered that my chemical print pressive affections were relieved; the ing process was not limited to stone only; young lady grew rapidly better, and in a but that other substances, as wood, me- few weeks entirely recovered her health, tal, paper, even fat substances, as wax, A respectable physician, conversant with shellac, and rosin, might be used instead the case, states, in a letter now before us, of it in some cases, and under certain cir- “ that the inhaling of the oxygen gas recumstances."

lieved the difficulty of breathing, increased RespiRaTION OF Oxygen Gas. the operation of diuretics, and has effected From Dr. Silliman's American Journal

her cure.

Whether her disease was hyof Science.

drothorax, or an anasarcous affection of A young lady, apparently in the last the lungs, is a matter, I believe, not sét. stages of decline, and supposed to be af.

tled." fected with hydrothorax, was pronounced DEAFNESS.-Mr. Wright, Surgeon Aurist beyond the reach of ordinary medical aid. to herlate Majesty, Henrietta-street, Covent It was determined to administer oxygen Garden, has invented a new lostrument, gas. It was obiained from nitrate of

very portable and convenient, for assisting polass (saltpetre) ; not because it was the Hearing, and preventing the injury genebest process, but because the substance rally arising from the use of ear-trumpets. could be obtained in the place, and be- This instrument be allows persons afflicted cause a common fire would serve for its with deafness to inspect, or have made by extrication. The gas obtained had, of their own workmen.

ANTIQUARIAN AND PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCHES. ANTIQUITIES IN ARABIA PETRÆA. into the valley of Ellasar, where they noMr. Bankes, who has visited some of ticed some relics of antiquity, which they the most celebrated scenes in Arabia, in- conjectured were of Roman origin. They tends, it is understood, to publish, on his pursued their journey parily over a road return home, an account of his excursion paved with lava, and which was evidently to Wadi Moosa (the valley of Moses), with a Roman work, to Shubac. In the neigh engravings of the drawings which he made bourhood of tbis place, they encountered of the hitherto undescribed excavated some difficulties from the Arabs. The temples there; as well as of the ruins of travellers, however, after some captious Jerrasch, which excel in grandeur and negotiation, at last obiained permission beauty even those of Palmyra and Balbec. to pass, but not to drink the waters. On This gentleman, in company with several crossing a stream, they entered on the other English travellers, left Jerusalem for wonders of Wadi Moosa. The first ob. Hebron, where they viewed the mosqueject that attracted their attention, was a erected over the tomb of Abraham. They mausoleum, at the entrance of which stood then proceeded to Karrac along the foot two colossal animals, but whether lions or of mountains, where fragments of rock- sphinxes, they could vol ascertain, as salt indicated the patural origin of that they were much defaced and mutilated. intense brine, which is peculiarly descrip. They then, advancing towards the priptive of the neighbouring waters of the cipal ruins, entered a parrow pass, vary. Dead Sea. Karrac a fortress situated ing from 15 to 20 feet iu width, overhung on the top of a hill. The entrance is by precipices, which rose to the general formed by a winding passage, cut through height of 200, sometimes reaching 500, the living rock. It may be described as a feet, and darkeving the path by their promass of ruins. The inbabitants of the jecting ledges. In some places, niches place are a mingled race of Mahometans were sculpiured in the sides of this stuand Christians, remarkably hospitable, pendous gallery, and here and there rude and living together in terms of freer inter- masses stood forward, that bore a remote course ihan at Jerusalem. The women and mysterious resemblance to the figures were not veiled, nor seemed to be subject of living things, but over which time and to any particular restraints. They passed oblivion had drawn an inscrutable and

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