« AnteriorContinuar »
Stretton, Sir Wm. Cave Browne, bart.
Tupton, W. A. Lord, esq.
Walton, Colonel Disbrowe.
Stubbings, C. D. Gladwin, esq.
Produce. Free-stone, grind-stones, whet-stones, manganese, crystals called "Buxton diamonds;" cheese; valerian; elicampane.
Manufactures. Porcelain; ale; worsted; blankets; linen; leather; shoes; hats; agricultural tools; chains; nails; needles; spurs and bridle bits.The first successful attempt to establish the manufacture of calicoes in this kingdom was made at Derby by Mr. Jedediah Strutt, Mr. (afterwards Sir Richard) Arkwright, and Mr. Samuel Need. The machine for making ribbed stockings was invented by Mr. Jedediah Strutt, about the year 1755. The porcelain manufactory was established at Derby by Mr. Duesbury about 1750. The marble works near Bakewell, were first established by Mr. Henry Watson, who first formed into ornaments the fluor spar or "Blue John" of this county. The first vase made of it (in 1743) is preserved in the Museum of his nephew Mr. White Watson, of Bakewell.
942. Derby (which with the towns of Leicester, Lincoln, Stamford and Nottingham, had been restored to the Danes, thence denominated" Fif Burghers"), taken by Edmund.
1215. Bolsover and Peak castles, taken from the Barons in arms against King John, by William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby.
1569. The Shrievalty of this county disjoined from that of Nottinghamshire. 1642. August, Charles I. marched to Derby, after raising his standard at Nottingham against the Parliamentarians. November, Royalists driven from Wirksworth and the Peak by Sir John Gell, who shortly afterwards took Bretby-house, which had been fortified by its owner, the Earl of Chesterfield, for the King.
1643. January, at Swarkston-bridge, Royalists under Colonel Hastings driven from their intrenchments, and Swarkston-house, Sir John Harpur's, taken by Sir John Gill. April, Sutton-house, defended by its owner Lord Deincourt for the King, taken by Colonel Thomas Gell, brother of Sir John. December, South Winfield manor-house garrisoned by the Parlia mentarians, after three days siege, stormed by the Earl (afterwards Duke) of Newcastle.
1644. February, near Ashborne, Royalists defeated, and 170 taken prisoners by the Parliamentarians.-March, on Egginton-heath, Royalists defeated by a detachment from Sir John Gell's army, commauded by Major Molanus
and Captain Rodes.-August 20, South Winfield manor-house, after a siege of above a month by the Parliamentarians, under the Earl of Denbigh, Lord Grey of Groby, and Sir John Gell (during which the Royalist Governor, Colonel Dalby, was slain, and Colonel Hastings repulsed in an effort to relieve it) surrendered by Sir John Fitzherbert to Sir Johu Gell.-August, Staveley-house and Bolsover-castle taken by the Parliamentarians under Major-General Crawford.
1645. August, at Sudbury and at Ashborne, Sir John Gell defeated in skirmishes with Charles I.—September and October, Chatsworth under its Royalist Governor, Colonel Shalcross, successively defended against Colonel Molanus and the Parliamentarians.
1659. At Derby an insurrection against Richard Cromwell.
1817. At South Winfield, June 9, commenced a miserable insurrection to overthrow the constitution. The insurgents proceeded towards Nottingham, but near that town were speedily dispersed by the military, and three of the ringleaders, Jeremiah Brandreth, William Turner, and Isaac Ludlam, were executed at Derby, Nov. 7. (To be continued.)
REMARKS ON THE SIGNS OF INNS, &c. (Continued from Parti. p. 512.)
HE GOAT.-This is not an un
Tommon sign, though Cary mentions only one posting-house, viz. at Woburn in Bedfordshire, thus distinguished; and there it was doubtless adopted by the landlord from its being the crest of the Duke of Bedford, whose principal seat is at Woburn Abbey.
The Welsh goats are much superior in size, and in the length and fineness of their hair, to those of other mountainous countries. The borns of one, measured by Pennant, were 3 feet 2 inches long, and 3 feet from tip to tip. They climb up the most rugged rocks, and ascend the most dangerous places, with amazing swiftness and safety; and when two are yoked together, as is frequently practised, they will, as if by consent, take large and hazardous leaps; yet so well time their mutual efforts, as rarely to miscarry in the attempt. Their strong ungrateful odour is supposed to be useful in preventing disease among horses, on which account we frequently see them in ion stables. They seldom live more than 11 or 12 years.
The meat of a splayed goat, of six or seven years old, is considered the best, being generally very sweet and fat, and makes excellent pastries, lit tle inferior to venison. The haunches are often salted and dried, and supply all the uses of bacon. The horns make remarkably good handles for knives. The skin is used for pistolholsters, and soldier's knapsacks; that of the kid makes admirable gloves.
The hair is manufactured into the whitest wigs. The suet is much superior to that of the ox or sheep for making candles. The milk is sweet, nourishing, and considered very be neficial in consumptive cases, which is not surprising, as the goat browzes only on the tops, tendrils, and flowers, of the mountain shrubs, aud medicinal herbs, rejecting the grosser parts. The blood was formerly thought useful in pleurisy, and is noticed by Dr. Mead. The "gall of goat" is among the ingredients of the witches' cauldron in Shakspeare's "Macbeth."
Capricornus, or the goat, was adopted as a sign of the Zodiac, from the circumstance of the Sun having just reached the winter solstice, or its greatest declination, and this animal, from its propensity to climbing, was considered typical of the sun's ascent, and its horns, according to ancient hyeroglyphics, were the emblems of the heat consequent on such ascension.
Wild goose chase, a well-known term for a difficult pursuit, and the title of one of Beaumont and Fletcher's best comedies, I once thought to have been probably a corruption of Wild goat's chase, as the hunting of the latter animal, being particularly difficult and dangerous from its activity in leaping from crag to crag, appeared more appropriately to illustrate the meaning of the phrase; but it appears to have originally desig nated a sort of horse-race, and the name was probably derived from wild geese flying a great height, preserving great regularity in their mo tion, and frequently forming a straight
line. Lawrence, in his "Delineation of the horse" thus notices it:
"Markham in his Cavallarice, and that Mirror of learned riding-masters, Michael Baret, describe a mode of running matches across the country, in their days, denominated the Wild goose chase, an imitation of which has continued in occasional use to the present time, under the name of Steeple hunting that is to say, two horsemen, drunk or sober, in or out of their wits, fix upon a steeple, or some eminent distant object, to which they make a straight cut over hedge, ditch, and gate the devil take the hindmost. The Wild goose chase was a more regular thing, and it was prescribed, that after the horses had run twelve score yards, the foremost horse was to be followed wherever he went by the others, within a certain distance agreed upon, or be beaten or whipped up by the triers or judges. A horse being left behind twelve score, or any limited number of yards, was deemed beaten, and lost the match. Sometimes it happened that a horse lost the lead, which was gained, and the chase won by the stouter, although less speedy antagonist; and the lead has often been alternately lost and won, no doubt to the rapturous enjoyment of those who could relish such laborious and dangerous amusements, which I fear were also attended with disgusting circumstances of cruelty, in the triers beating up the hind-most horse."
Shakespeare mentions_this_helter skelter amusement in his "Romeo and Juliet," where Mercutio says, "If thy wits run the wild goose chase, I have done;" and Burton in his "Anatomy of Melancholy," tells us that "riding of great horses, running at ring, tilts and tournaments, horse races, wild goose chases, are the disports of great men."
Helter skelter, an expression, denoting cheerful hurrying progression, is used by Shakespeare in the 2nd part of Henry IV. where Pistol thus addresses Falstaff:
“Sir John, I am thy Pistol, and thy friend,
And helter skelter have I rode to thee, And tidings do I bring, and lucky joys, And golden times, and happy news of price[king,
Sir John, thy tender lambkin now is Harry the Fifth's the man."
It is probably derived from the hilaritèr celeritèr of our Roman con
querors, which have precisely the same meaning.
Sir Thomas Browne, in his " Vulgar Errors," supposes that the very general superstition, that the devil, whatever shape he assume, always appears with a cloven-foot, arises from his being mentioned as frequently taking the form of a goat; and remarks, "that whereas it is said in Scripture, thou shalt not offer unto devils, the original word is Seghnirim, that is, rough and hairy goats." Also "that the goat was the emblem of the sin offering, and is the emblem of sinful men at the day of judgment."
There is a curious tale told of Rich, the manager of Covent Garden theatre, celebrated for his extreme activity in the character of harlequin. He had ordered a hackney-coachman to drive him to the city, when passing along a very narrow street, he perceived the window of a friend's house open, and into the house. immediately jumped from the coach The unconscious
coachman drove on to the place he was directed, and on opening the door perceived that his passenger had disappeared. After muttering some curses
"the bilking rascal," he was returning to his stand, when Rich, watching the opportunity, threw himself from the window into the coach, and began swearing at the driver, for not taking him to the place he had appointed. The fellow stared, and seemed much alarmed, but turning round, he again proceeded to the place of destination, and whilst he was letting down the steps, Rich offered to pay him, but the man declined taking the money, saying that "he had made a vow, not to receive any money from his customers that day;" but Rich insisting on his accepting it, the driver jumped upon his box, and flogging his horses, cried out, "No, no, Mr. Devil, I know you well enough, for all you wear shoes."
Old Nick, a caut name for the devil, is satirically derived by Butler in his "Hudibras," from the famous Florentine, Nicholas Machiavel, born in 1469, whose treatise, entitled "The Prince," describing the arts of a tyrannic government, has given origin to the word Machiavelism, used as synonimous with political intrigue. The lines in Hudibras are,
"Nick Machiavel had ne'er a trick
A Writer in this Magazine, who