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with him, an Act was passed in 1675, which directed that he of the two Prelates in whose diocese the Empefor is crowned, shall perform the ceremony, and that out of the two dioceses they shall do it alternately, The Russian Emperors are crowned by the Patriarch of Moscow, in that capital; the Kings of France, by the Archbishop of Rheims, at Rheims. The Kings of Spain have generally been crowned by the Archbishop of Toledo, in that city. The Kings of Sweden are crowned by the Archbishop of Upsal, at Upsal; those of Poland by the Archbishop of Gnezna, at Cracow; those of Hungary by the Archbishop of Gran, at Presburg. The Bishop of Pampeluna had the right of anointing the Kings of Navarre, and in his absence the Prior of Roncesvalles. The Kings of Scotland were originally crowned at Scone by the Bishop of St. Andrew's.
Our antient Kings, in the granting of lands to their vassals, not only consulted the maintenance of the Nation's power in the reservation of rent or service, but frequently the dignity and splendour of their court. Feast which always follows the Coronation, and which is now perhaps the most perfect model of antient courtly magnificence in the world, the various duties of the household are filled by hereditary grand Officers of the kingdom, who thus perform the services enjoined them by the tenures of their estates.
of State Officers, and of certain of the Nobility and Gentry who by the tenures of their respective estates are bound to perform services of different kinds at the Coronations of the Kings and Queens of England. These petitions, or claims, the Steward had power to examine, and if supported by documents and precedents, to allow them, or to reject, if wanting in the requisite proof: hence the tribunal is called the CoURT OF CLAIMS.
The Officers of State principally connected with the Coronation are, the Lord High Steward, the Lord Great Chamberlain, the Lord High Constable, the Earl Marshal; to which may be added the hereditary Grand Almoner, the Chief Butler, the Sewer, the Grand Carver, the Cup Bearer, the Grand Panneter, the Chief Larderer, and the Napier. Some of these offices are now in abeyance by the extinction of the noble families in which they descended, or have been abolished by a change in the condition of tenure. The duties of such are, however, performed by some persons of rank appointed for the occasions which require them. The High Steward of England, by virtue of his office, was used to sit judicially in the White Hall of the King's Palace at Westminster, near the Chapel, to receive the petitions
Among the different conditions upon which lands were formerly granted by the Crown was that of performing some defined service by the person of the tenant to the person of the King. This service was sometimes a military one, but more commonly official; and the time of its performance was frequently the day of the Sovereign's Coronation, when he also received the homage and fealty of those other tenants who held their lands by these forms of submission. Tenure on the condition above defined was honourable from its certainty and from the required service being due to the Royal person alone: hence it was called magnum servitium, or grand sergeanty. Thus, if the Crown hath granted a manor or estate to any one on the condition that he shall carry a sword or a sceptre at the Coronations of the Kings and Queens of England, such estate is said to be holden in grand sergeanty by the service of carrying such Royal ensign. As another mark of the honour attributed to services of this kind, we find that they cannot be performed by any under the degree of knighthood (they are indeed a branch or mode of knight-service); nor by a minor, or a female tenant; for these a deputy of sufficient rank is appointed, with the Sovereign's licence. The Coronation of Richard II. affords the first record of the proceedings of the Court of Claims. It was then holden on the Thursday before the Festival, by John, King of Castile and Duke of Lancaster, High Steward of England.
The office of Great Chamberlain of England was long enjoyed by the family of De Vere, Earls of Oxford. It was granted to them by Henry I.; but it is now attached to the ancient Barony of Willoughby d'Eresby.
The following is a curious document, exhibiting the right of claim, fees, &c. of the two claimants at the Corona
tion of William and Mary, with the Answer of the Commissioners *:
"To perform the Office of GREAT CHAMBERLAIN at the Coronation and elsewhere; and as such, on the morning of the Coronation Day to enter the King's bed-chamber before he rises, and to give him his stockings, shirt, and drawers." "And on the same day, the said Great Chamberlain and the Senior Chamberlain for the time being, to dress the King in all his Apparel.
["N. B. The like as to the Queen when there is one.]
"Claimant.-ROBERT EARL of LINDSEY, Baron Willoughby, Beke, and Eresby.
"Right of Claim.-As Great Chamberlain of England in fee, and as appertinent to that office.
"Fees. To have Liberationes et hospitia Curie Domini Regis et Reginæ at all times; and on the morning of the Coronation Day, to enter into the King and Queen's bed-chamber before they rise, and to bring to the said King and Queen their shirt and shift and drawers. That the said Earl, together with the first or Senior Chamberlain for the time being, should on that day dress the King and Queen in all their apparel, and to have all the fees, and profits, and advantages, to that of fice due, appendant, and appurtenant, as his ancestors theretofore have been used to have on Coronation Days: i. e. Forty yards of crimson velvet for the said Earl's robe on the Coronation Day, and when the King and Queen are dressed, and ready to issue out of their chamber on that day, then the said Earl is intituled to take and have the bed whereon the King and Queen lay the night before the Coronation, and all its furniture, with valonces and curtains, and all the cushions and cloths hung round the said chamber on that day, and the King and Queen's night gowns which they wore the night before their Coronation Day.
"Answer.-It appearing to the Commissioners that the Earl of Lindsey was then in possession of, and execution of, the office aforesaid, and that his grandfather Robert Earl of Lindsey, was put into possession of the said office by King Charles I. by the advice of Parliament; that the Claimant's father, Montague Earl of Lindsey, executed the office at the Coronation of King Charles II.; and that the present Claimant executed it at the Coronation of the late King James: therefore the claim was allowed. As to the service when done to the Queen, the Earl was to appoint such person as the Queen
It is extracted from an interesting Pamphlet, announced for publication in our Literary Intelligence, p. 59.
should approve of to perform the same; thereupon the Earl, with the Queen's approbation, appointed the Countess Derby to perform the said service in his right, and she executed the same accordingly. As to the fees and allowances claimed, they were allowed. The Earl, previous to the Coronation, received the forty yards of velvet. At the Coronation he executed the office, and received his fees aforesaid in special.
"Another Claimant.-WILLIAM RICHARD EARL OF DERBY.
"Right.-As cousin and heir of Henry de Vere, the last Earl of Oxford, Great Chamberlain of England; that is to say, son and heir of Charles Stanley, late Earl of Derby, who was son and heir of James Stanley late Earl of Derby and Elizabeth his wife, and which Elizabeth was daughter of Edward de Vere last Earl of Oxford
and Chamberlain of England, and sister and heir to the said Henry Earl of Oxford, and which Henry was seized in fee of the said Office of Great Chamberlain of England, and being so seized died without leaving any issue of his Body. Whereby the petitioner, as cousin and heir as aforesaid to the said Henry Earl of Oxford, ought to have to him and his heirs the said office of Great Chamberlain of England.
"Answer.-The claim of the Earl of Derby disallowed, by reason that it was not allowed at the last or at any other Coronation; as also because the Earl of Lindsey's claim to the office of Great Chamberlain of England, had been already allowed by the present Lords Commissioners. Entry to be made accordingly. Salvo jure, &c."
It may be interesting to those who feel curious on the subject, to learn what quantity of Plate is given at the time of the Coronation, according to the Claims delivered in to the Lord High Chamberlain of England for that day.
1. The Lord High Almoner for the day, according to claim, two large gilt basons305 oz.
2. To the Duke of Norfolk, as Earl of Arundel, claiming as Chief Butler of England, a gold cup of a wine quart-32 oz.
3. To the Lord Mayor of London, as assistant to the Chief Butler, and to serve the King with wine after dinner, a gold cup-30 oz,
4. To the Mayor of Oxford, as assistant to the Lord Mayor of London, a gilt cup, or potole, weighing about-110 oz.
5. To the Lord of the Manor of Great Wimondley, in Hertfordshire, as Chief Cupbearer, a silver gilt cup, weighing about-32 oz.
6. To the Champion of England, as
Lord of the Manor of Scrivelsby, in Lincolnshire, now in the Dymock family, a gold cup, of Winchester pint-30 oz.
7. To the Barons of the Cinque Ports, for their claim of supporting the King and Queen's canopies, each by twelve silver staffs of eight feet in height, with bells to each staff, weighing 40 oz. The 24 staffs and bells weigh in all-960 oz. 8. The staff of the Lord High Constable of England is of silver, the ends gold enamelled with the King's arms, and his own, weighing about-12 oz.
9. The staff of the Earl Marshal of England is of gold, enamelled black at each end, and engraved with the King's arms and his own, in length 28 inches, and weighs about-15 oz.
10. The gold coronet for Garter King of Arms, weighing about-24 oz.
11. The sceptre or rod for Garter, part
silver and part gold-8 oz. 19 dwts.
12. The gold chain and badge for Garter-8 oz.
13. The gilt Collar of S. S. with badges for Collar-30 oz.
14. The same for Lord Lyon, King of Arms for Scotland; in all-70 oz. 19 dwts. 15. The same for Bath King of Arms; in all-70 oz. 19 dwts.
16. The silver gilt coronet for Claren
cieux King of Arms, about-18 oz.
17. The silver gilt Collar of S. S. for the badges of Portcullis only-20 oz.
18. The gold chain and badge-about 7 oz. 1 dwt. 17 gr.
19. The same for Norroy King of Arms; in all about-46 oz.
20. The Collar of S.S. partly gilt and partly white, for the six Heralds-120 oz.
21. The Collar of S.S. all plain silver, for the four Pursuivants-30 oz.
22. The Usher of the Black Rod for England, whose garniture is of gold lace, upon a fine black ebony stick or rod, weight about-5 oz. 6 dwts.
23. The Usher of the Green Rod for
Scotland, whose garniture is of silver, part gilt upon a green weighing about
-20 oz. 15 dwts.
24. The wedges of gold which the King and Queen offer at the Altar, each two wedges, at 20 oz. each; in all gold-40 oz.
ANECDOTES OF THEIR LATE
E extract the following inte
lowing Letter from her Majesty, writ ten with her own hand :
"My dear Mrs. Delany will be glad to hear that I am charged by the King to summon her to her new abode at Windsor for Tuesday next, where she will find all the most essential parts of the house ready, excepting some little trifles, which it will be better for Mrs. Delany to direct herself in person, or by her little deputy, Miss Port. I need not, I hope, add, that I shall be extremely glad and happy to see so amiable an inhabitant in this our sweet retreat; and wish, very sincerely, that my blessing amongst us that her merits dear Mrs. Delany may enjoy every deserve. That we may long enjoy her amiable company, Amen. These are the true sentiments of
“ My dear Mrs. Delany's very affectionate Queen,
"I received the Queen's Letter at dinner, and was obliged to answer it instantly, with my own hand, without seeing a letter I wrote. I thank God I had strength enough to obey the gracious summons on the day appointed. I arrived here about eight o'clock in the evening, and found his Majesty in the house ready to receive
deed unable to utter a word; he I threw myself at his feet, inraised and saluted me, and said he meant not to stay longer than to desire I would order every thing that could make the house comfortable and agreeable to me, and then retired. Truly I found nothing wanting, as it is as pleasant and commodious as I could wish it to be, with a very pretty garden, which joins to that of the Queen's Lodge. The next morning her Majesty sent one of her Ladies to know how I had
Wresting anecdotes from Letters rested, and how I was in health, and
from Mrs. Delany (widow of Dr. Patrick Delany) to Mrs. Frances Hamilton, from the year 1779 to the year 1788; comprising many unpublished and interesting Anecdotes of their late Majesties and the Royal Family: "On Saturday, the 3d of this month, one of the Queen's messengers came and brought me the fol
whether her coming would not be troublesome? You may be sure I accepted the honour, and she came about two o'clock. I was lame, and could not go down, as I ought to have done, to the door; but her Majesty came up stairs, and I received her on my knees. Our meeting was mutually affecting; she well knew
the value of what I had lost; and it was some time after we were seated (for she always makes me sit down) before we could either of us speak. It is impossible for me to do justice to her condescension and tenderness, which were almost equal to what I had lost. She repeated, in the strongest terms, her wish and the King's, that I should be as happy as they could possibly make me; that they waved all ceremony, and desired to come to me like friends. The Queen delivered me a paper from the King, which contained the first quarter of 3001. per annum, which his Majesty allows me out of his Privy Purse. Their Majesties have drank tea with me five times, and the Princesses three. They generally stay two hours or longer. In short, I have either seen or heard from them every day. I have not yet been at the Queen's Lodge, though they have expressed an impatience for me to come."
In a subsequent Letter, we are told that
"The daily marks of Royal favour (which, indeed, should rather be termed friendly) cannot be arranged in a sheet of paper; they are bestow ed most graciously, and received most gratefully, and with such consideration as to banish that awe which otherwise would be painful to me; and my sensations, when I am in their company, are respect, admiration, and affection. I have been several evenings at the Queen's Lodge, with no other company but their own most lovely family. They sit round a large table, on which are books, work, pencils, and paper. The Queen has the goodness to make me sit down next to her; and delights me with her conversation, which is informing, elegant, and pleasing beyond description, whilst the younger part of the family are drawing and working, &c. &c. the beautiful babe, Princess Amelia, bearing her part in the entertainment; sometimes in one of her sister's laps-sometimes playing with the King on the carpet, which, altogether, exhibits such a delightful scene, as would require an Addison's pen, or a Vandyke's pencil, to do justice to. In the next room is the band of music, who play from eight o'clock till ten. The King generally directs them what pieces of music to play, chiefly Handel's."
"It is impossible for me to enumerate the daily instances I receive from my Royal friends; who seem unwea ried in the pursuit of making me as happy as they can. I am sure you must be very sensible how thankful I am to Providence for the late wonderful escape of his Majesty from the stroke of assassination; indeed, the horror that there was a possibility that such an attempt would be made, shocked me so much at first, that I could hardly enjoy the blessing of such a preservation. The King would not suffer any body to inform the Queen of that event, till he could show himself in person to her. He returned to Windsor as soon as the Council was over. When his Majesty entered the Queen's dressing-room, he found her with the two eldest Princesses; and entering in an ani mated manner, said, Here I am, safe and well!" The Queen suspected from this saying, that some acci dent had happened, on which he informed her of the whole affair. The Queen stood struck and motionless for some time, till the Princesses burst into tears, in which she immediately found relief by joining with them. Joy soon succeeded this agitation of mind, on the assurance that the person was insane that had the boldness to make the attack, which took off all aggravating suspicion and it has been the means of showing the whole kingdom, that the King has the hearts of his subjects. I must tell you a particular gracious attention to me on the occasion: their Majesties sent immediately to my house to give orders I should not be told of it till the next morning, for fear the agitation should give me a bad night. Dowager Lady Spencer was in the house with me, and went with me to early prayers, next morn ing at eight o'clock; and after Chapel was over she separated herself from me, and had a long conference with the King and Queen, as they stopped to speak to her on Our coming out of Chapel. When we returned to breakfast, I taxed her with her having robbed me of an opportunity of hearing what their Majesties said to her, by standing at such a distance. She told me, it was secret; but she had now their permission to tell me what it was, and then informed me of the whole affair."