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ART. 6. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

Supplement to DR. MITCHILL'S “ Obser- position in which the teeth and bones were

vations on the Geology of North-Ame. found, was somewhat remarkable. Tbe rica,just published by Messrs. Kirk & large teeth, two of which weighed 16lb, Mercein, in the Description of a Fossil each, and several more of less weight and Elephant, discovered in Wythe County, size, were deposited in a manner by themsouthwest of the River Thanhawa, in selves, and deeper in the ground, accordVirginia, written by Dr. John Stranger, ing to their gravity : round about those, to lieut. Wm. L. Brownlow, of the U. some little distance off, were the teeth and S. Marine Corps, stationed at N. York, bones of the lesser animals, placed in a se

dated Wythe County, March 10, 1818. micircle; of the latter I found several jawDEAR SIR,

bones with their teeth sticking fast; and Your letter has been received some in one upper-jaw I found besides a tusk, weeks ago, after my return from North- about 20 inches long, shaped like a cow's Carolina, which should have been an, horn, round, crooked, tapering off to a gwered before this time, had I not been point, hollow at the base, and pointing at a loss to know, what particular infor- forward towards the nose, also a couple of mation Dr. Mitchill wishes with regard to ribs and shoulder blades. The smaller the teeth and bones found on Mr. Kinsa's animals I judged to have been of the land. However, that you may not think carnivorous, from the shape of their teeth, your friendly application to me disregard- which had a double row of high conic proed, I will now comply with your request, cesses, three to each row, between 3 and as well as I can. The place where the 4 inches from the bottom of the root to discovery was made, is a small marshy the top of the tooth, and each was about piece of ground, not more than 40 feet 3 inches long. All the teeth of the large square, in a field which has been for more animal (I found no bones of this animal) than 20 years in cultivation, and has pre were fat, and ribbed transversely. This vious to that time, as I am informed, been remarkable position of the different bones used as a lick by borses and cattle, a and teeth, made me suppose, that the small spring of mineral taste oozes from large animal bad died in a conflict with the spot. The owner of the field observ- the

smaller ones. Or why should I have ed repeatedly in the summer season, in found several sets of teeth and bones of dry weather, after a refreshing shower, the one kind, and all in that semicircle, that the place was covered with a white and but one set of teeth of the large anisubstance like salt. Under this impres. mal opposite to them. None of these sion he began to dig in search of salt wa- teeth were deeper than about 6 feet in ter. The ground being opened a few feet the ground, when a fat limestone rock in depth, he found a few uncommon teeth commenced, which rock must have been and small round bones, about 4 inches once nearer to the surface, for I found long and about 1 1-2 inches in diameter, pine-knots, and pieces of rotten' wood solid and somewbat larger in circumfer. within two feet above it. This, sir, is all ence at each end, like joints of a tail, or the information I can think of, should Dr. toe. The news of this discovery induced Mitchill be desirous to know any other several persons to visit the spot : I also circumstance relative to this affair, I will went, and being desirous to make far- cheerfully give it, if in my power. ther search, I obtained permission to make

I am, Sir, respectfully, a larger opening, say 12 feet square, and

Your humble servant, found a number of still larger teeth and

JOAN STRANGER. bones, belonging, in my opinion, to two different species of animals, larger than any we now have within our states. The bones To the Editors of the American Monthly were so much decayed, that they would

Magazine. generally fall to pieces, when exposed to Tre salivating qualities which our pas. the air; the teeth I preserved, and some tures seem to possess for these last ten or time afterwards put them in the possession fifteen years, so distressing to horses and of Dr. John Floyd, (a member from Vir- neat-cattle, I have long wished to see phj. ginia in the present congress) residing in losophically investigated and publicly anMontgomery county, who probably, sent nounced. The farmer, however, is still them to some Museum. The soil was so left to his own vague conjectures, and strongly impregnated with the mineral, there is not a species of grass or herb that it tasted like copperas itself. The which will grow in pasture land, but has

been accused of producing this deleteri- summer months. Should this suggestion ous effect. Now, permit me to suggest, induce the curious to an investigation of (which I can do with much confidence,) the properties and rapid progress of this that it ought not to be attributed to any insect, and a plain publication of the same, vegetable whatever, but to that species with the best method of counteracting its of spider which, weaving a thick horizon- baneful effects, its object will have been tal web near the surface of the ground, attained, and the suggestor highly graticovers, in some pastures, one-tenth of the fied.

D. D. surface during the greater part of the Marcellus, April 2, 1818.

GENTLEMEN,

The following is taken from a Glasgow paper of the 20th of January last ; if you deem it worth a place in your useful magazine, you can give it one.

P. H.

“ Sir-Allow me to submit to you, a reference to the curious coincidence of the figures 1818, which depote the present year, viz. that the two first are 18, the two last 18, and the sum of all

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18 do. 19 34,542

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18 do. 23 41,814

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18 do. 24 43,632

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Messrs. EDITORS,

common sense, and ordinary intelligence, The writer of the fifth article in your that some of the remarks in that review Magazine for April, assumes to have tak are reprehensible. en a survey “ of ancient and modern The writer would make us believe that times and nations.” He does not appear in the English “ island, more has been acto be exactly qualified for such a task. I complished for the glory of our species than do not intend to offer a review of the “Re- in all other regions of the globe !"- This is view of Ellis's embassy to China ;" I beg hyperbolical—it is untrue. No one will leave merely to rectify a few of the mis- deny that England deserves our admiratakes, which occur in that article. tion ;-let her possess that meed, but let

It must be evident to every person of other countries not be deprived of their

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just portion. And, when we speak in lustre on England. And it would be an general terms of any individual people, easy matter to quote names and works to

regions of the globe;" when we prove the fallacy of the assertion : “compresume to make estimates of individual pared with the strain of the British muses, and national character, let that which is the poetical productions of their continenexceptionable and commendable, equally tal rivals lose almost the whole of their claim our consideration. As to "achieve- attraction."

K. ments in literature, science, and the arts,” England, though eminent, is by no means Though we do not intend to open the transcendent. Some of the most bene- door of discussion, in regard to the corficial inventions and discoveries were in- rectness of opinions stated in the reviews troduced into England from other coun- which appear in this miscellany, yet we tries. Many indisputable facts might be bave no hesitation in giving place to coradvanced to prove this assertion. How- rections in regard to statements of facts. ever, for the present, the following may The review of Ellis's book is from the pen suffice as a reply to the erroneous state- of a gentleman of talents and learning, ments set forth in the review.

whose contributions frequently enrich our “ In the year 1769, kine-pox was de- pages. Having a just confidence in his scribed in a we paper: Allgemaine abilities, and not imagining that he could Unterhaltungen, published at Göttingen,) make the subject, of which he professed as a well known disease · here in this to treat, an occasion of offence, we percountry' (Germany) which infects persons mitted his sheets to be sent to the press who attend the dairies and prevents the without our inspection. There were many infection of small-pox." Dr. Jender, assertions, in that article, besides those (an Englishman with a German name) complained of by our correspondent, first published his “ Inquiry into the causes which, had we had an opportunity to reand effects of Variola Vaccina,” &c. in vise it, we should have expunged. The 1798, twenty-nine years later.

extravagant eulogium on British genius Some have attributed “ the invention was entirely misplaced in an American of Logarithms” to lord John Napier, a publication; and some of the literary Scotchman. But “ there is greater rea- opinions advanced by the author of that son to believe that a German clergyman, review are opposed to those_previously Michael Stiefel was the inventor of Lo- expressed by ourselves. EDITORS. garithms, in 1599.”'

“ In 1793, Walther, a citizen of Nürnberg, first observed astronomical refrac- To the Editors of the American Monthly

Magazine and Critical Review. “ In 1604, John Kepler, a German, GENTLEMEN, established a theory of refraction.”

One of your correspondents, in the “ In 1609, the same predecessor apd Magazine for last month, communicated pioneer of the immortal Newton, dis- remarks on the method I proposed for covered that the courses of the planets are finding the latitude by altitudes of the sun eliptic, &c. &c. He made some calcu- taken at a distance from the Meridian. lations of the proportionate motions of the For my communication entitled, Hints on celestial bodies ; suspected a power of the Methods of determining the Latitude gravitation and attraction universally and and Longitude of places on the Land, your mutually operative among the planets." readers are referred to the Magazine for

“On the 29th of December in the December last. Your correspondent from same year, Simeon Marius (Meyer) at New-Bedford, is entitled to my thanks for Ansbach, first observed the satellites of the kind remarks he has made upon it, Jupiter; and in 1618, Kepler made some and the friendly manner in which he unfurther discoveries relative to the revolu- dertakes to convince me of my supposed tion of the planets.”

On a review of the same, it is “ The first account of a Steam-Engine frankly acknowledged, that the example is given by Matthesius, a clergyman in or case alluded to, was stated, inadverIoachimsthal, Bohemia, in the year 1562,” tently, in such a manner as to give a a long time before the Marquis of Wor- wrong impression of the use I made of it. cester was born.

The altitudes taken Aug. 6, 1817, were Every person acquainted with litera- intended for the correction of a patent ture in general, knows very well that on lever watch, not well regulated, and for the European continent, there is as bright obtaining the apparent time a nearly as a constellation of “men of letters, and possible for other observations. The mean in the sphere of divinity” as ever shed a of these gave the time per watch, 8 b.

tion."

error.

T

& m. 38.8 sec. the mean altitude corrected and lastly 43', he will discover the last to 32° 24'-3.5", and in this instance, the po be true, because all the elements, or data, lar distance was reduced to the time per are in harmony with each other. It is watch. It may not be improper to remark, confessed, that at the time, I was reasonthat having taken the latitude of my ing in a circle of my own førining, and school-room and observatory, at No. 331 seemingly had a right thus to reason, havBroadway, in Sept. 1816, it was found to ing found the centre. But this being be 40° 42' 58" N. In August and Septem- done, it ought to have been my care to ber, 1817, great paids were taken to ve- go out of it, and give the problem its prorify or disprove its correctness. To effect per limitations. Hoping it is not too late, this, altitudes were taken near the meri- in some measure to atone for this omisdian, and when possible, the meridian al- sion, it is thus stated : The longitude of titude. And after I had found to my satis- a place on the land, and the true time befaction, that all the best observations tend- ing known, to determine the latitude of the ed nearly to the same point; several sets same, by altitude of the sun, taken two or of altitudes which had appeared to be three hours before or after noon, with a very correct, and first taken for obtaining sextant and artificial horizon, when the the true time, were now selected to verify meridian altitude is too great to be meathe latitude by the method your corres sured by those instruments.

Your corpondent alludes to. In the foregoing ex. respondent will doubtless admit the posample, the watch being 7 m. 35 sec. slow, sibility of obtaining the true time indethe polar distance was now reduced to pendent of the latitude; and may be inthe apparent time, and from these ele- formed that there is no necessity of taking ments the latitude came out essentially the altitudes so near the horizon, as to be the same as before. In three or four ex- very sensibly affected by the difference periments of the same kind, the variations between the true and mean refraction ; from 40° 43' was not more than two or and also, that the errors arising from this three seconds; hence it was concluded, source, may be so diminished, as to bethat the latitude, times, and altitudes, come almost insensible, by the use of the were all very nearly correct. This me Barometer and Thermometer. It will be thod, it is believed, will prove an assumed, seen, from what has already been stated, or supposed latitude, to be true when it that I still differ in opinion from your coris actually so; and if I am not much de- respondent in several particulars; and I ceived, will discover whether it is mate- cannot agree with him where he says, “ A rially incorrect. And, although it is ad- small error in the altitude, taken at a dismitted, that the problem as it stands in tance from the meridian, will cause a conmy former communication, can be of no siderable error in the latitude." I think great value in discovering the true lati- he will be convinced by a little reflection, tude, I cannot agree with your correspon- that an error of the meridian altitude, will dent that it will prove fallacious.

cause an error of the same amount in the Let us suppose the true latitude, for an latitude; whereas the absolute error in example, to be 40° 43' N. and the longi- the other case will be less than the small tude 74" W. the altitudes truly taken error of the altitude. In matters of sciat the time aforesaid, would correspond ence, truth, and not strife, should be the to this only. And if the observer had sup- object of its votaries. Under the impresposed it to be 40° 40, the apparent time sion of a similarity of feeling, between deduced from this would differ from the bim and myself, in this respect, I remain, former about 44 seconds, and instead of Gentlemen, reproducing the latter, would bring out

Your most obedient servant, 40° 38'. Now perceiving that 40 is too

M. NASH. far to the southward, let him try 41', 42 Nero-York, April 10, 1818

ART. 7. LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE.

LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. polished rectangular or triangular plates
GREAT BRITAIN.

or mirrors at one of their edges, that their VERY pretty little instrument was surfaces may form an angle of about 18°

A

Dr. Brewster of Edinburgh. He calls it inches long, according to the local disthe Kaleidoscope (nanos, udos, and 0x076.) tance of the eye, and are placed together It is constructed by placing together two in a tube, one end of which is left entirely

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GERMANY.

open, and the other nearly closed, ex: College of Physicians and Surgeons in
cept a small aperture. The eye is fixed the University of the State of New York,
at the latter; the object being then placed was held on the 7th of April last. The
at the other extremity is seen in the form degree of Doctor in Medicine was grant-
of a brilliant, luminous circle, which is ed to the following thirty-five gentlemen
divided into as many sectors (each con who had been students of the University,
taining a representation of the part of the had undergone the several examinations
object seen,) as the number of times the required by its laws, and publicly defend-
angle of the reflector is contained in 360°. ed their respective Inaugural Disserta-
When the object is tinged with different tions. After the candidates had received
colours, and in motion, more numerous their academic honours, the venerable and
and beautiful forms and colours, all of learned President, Samuel Bard, M. D.
perfect symmetry, play around this extre- LL. D. delivered an interesting address
mity of the reflector, having a most pleas- to the graduates.
ing effect, and more than verifying the John B. Aycrigg, of New York, on
projected occular harpsichord of Custil- Sphacelus.
lon. The instrument may be adapted to Abner Alden, of New-York, on Plu-
take in large objects at a distance, and ritis.
to vary the figure from that of the circle Charles P. Allen, of New-York, on
to a square, &c. It is of great utility to Diabetes.
ornamental artists in multiplying their ar Joseph Baxter, of Massachusetts, on
rangements and combinations of colours, Cutaneous Perspiration.
figures, &c. as pattern makers, gilders, Ezekiel Robins Baudouine, A. B. of
jewellers, &e. almost precluding the la- New-York, on the Diseases of Dentition.
bour of design.

Remi Seraphin Bourdages, of Canada,
See Patent. Repertory of Arts, &c. Sur l'inflamation aigue du systeme mu-
Nov. 1817.

queur.

Frederic Burnham, of New-York, m

Assimilation and Life.
It is confidently asserted that the Uni-
versity of Berlin is to be located at Wit-

Joseph Canby, of Ohio, on Telanus.

Stephen C. Farrar, of Virginia, on tenberg, that very ancient seat of the

Emetics.
sciences; or at Bonn, an ancient German
city on the Rhine.

Jeremiah Fickling, of South Carolina,
Baron Von Sack intends to make a

on Phlegmasia Dolens. scientific tour in Egypt. He will be ac

Thomas Fortier, of Canada, Sur Les companied by Mr. Wilhelm Müller,

agent phenomenes de la puberte, chez la Femme.

David H. Fraser, A. M. of New York, of the Academy of Berlin. In the month of July, 1817, the turf

on the Medical Police of the Navy. diggers near Friedleburg, in the Parish

John F. Henry, of Kentucky, on Puerof Etzel, East Friesland, discovered a

peral Fever.
human skeleton below the stratum of peat, the Secale Cornutum.

Herman L. Hoffman, of New York, on
or turf, which seemed to have been su-
perinduced subsequent to the interment

Benjamin F. Hickman, of Virginia, on of the body, which reposed on a stratum Typhus Fever.

Abraham Hopper, of New Jersey, on of sand. Simultaneous evidences which this discovery presented, warrant the con- Epilepsy.

Abraham T. Hunter, of New-York, on clusion that the human body, of which the skeleton is still entire, must have lain the Plethora of the Aged. there upwards of 2000 years!

Jesse Isler, of North Carolina, on the Epidemic, as it appeared in Tarborough,

North Caroling. At a meeting of the Hon. the Board of John G. Lance, of South Carolina, on Regents of the University of New York, the Yelloro Fever of Charleston. held at Albany, on the 24th of March last, Thomas G. Mower, of Massachusetts, JOAN W. FRANCIS, M. D. Professor of the on Gangrene. Institutes of Medicine in the College of Jacob C. W M.Donald, of South CaPhvsicians and Surgeons of the Univer- rolina, on the Yellow Fever of Charleston. sity of New York, was also elected to the Archibald Nicholson, of Georgia, on Professorship of Forensic Medicine in the Hepatitis. same Institution, recently made vacant by Richard B. Owen, of Tennessee, on the death of Professor James S. String- Hydrocephalus. bam.

James M. Pendleton, A. B. of New: The Annual Commencement of the York, on Puerperal Fever.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

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