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bly on the wounded artery until its walls der the sartorius muscle. The lymphatic should unite. The finger was the only vessels were inflamed up to the inguinal compress that could be relied on, and that glands and the leg somewhat swollen, it was employed for thirteen days by re was evident that twenty-four hours longer lieves every three hours. Perhaps it was delay must have placed it beyond the ampunot necessary to continue the application tating period—and the lieutenant was in of so laborious a compress for so long a imminent danger from the delay which time, but the life of a gallant officer was had occurred; but it was thought better in jeopardy, and it was preserved by the to take off the thigh in its present situaonly practicable mode of destroying the tion than risk further delay; after tying wounded artery. Major B. remained with the femoral artery and the profunda, the the army until the succeeding winter; torniquet was loosened, and the surface and when the inflammation subsided, the of the stump appeared to be crowded with discharge from the wound was very great, leaking arteries, and before the patient and the left side of the jawbone, from the could be removed from the table, sevencentre of the chin to the angle of its union teen arteries were tied. There were sewith the head, came off in splinters with veral peculiarities attending this case, but the pus; the destruction of the softer parts the object of making it public is to show was great, and presented a large gaping the importance of early amputations, when appearance. Major B. has been advised the character of the injury clearly makes to have the edges scarified and brought it necessary. Had the limb been ampus together similar to the hair-lip operation- taied on the field, not more than five or success is doubtful The duct of the pa- six arteries would have required the ligarotid gland has been wounded, and there ture, and the experience of the campaign is a continual leaking from it. The sub- proved that primitive operations were the maxillary has been injured and the small inost successful. The system will not reglands on the general surface of the wound main tranquil beyond a day; and delay continually moisten the parts which will after that period endangers the lives of oppose the adhesive process.
the wounded, and I do not recollect a faCapt. James M‘Intosh of the 1st Rifle tal case during the campaign of 1814, Regt. was wounded by a musket ball in where amputation was performed within the action at Conjocita creek, it struck thirty hours after the wound was receivhim on the left side of his neck, near the ed; on the contrary, a large proportion of 4th coraical vertebre. It wounded the the deferred operations of the campaign spine and entered the esophagus, and was were fatal. swallowed without the patient's being conscious of it, and was discharged in a few days afterwards. The concussion of the Second Memoir on the Genus APAIs, conspine produced a great degree of torpor
taining the Description of 24 new Amefor many months, particularly of the left
rican Species. By C. S. Rafinesque. arm, (probably one of the coraical nerves I shall now add 24 new species, which I was wounded,) and the discharge of spi- observed in 1817, to the 12 already deculari of bone in the pus proved the spine scribed in my first memoir on this genus, to have been injured. A portion of the (Amer. Monthly Magazine, vol. i. p. 360.) liquid food which the captain attempted to I mean to proceed every year in the inswallow, passed out the orifice made by vestigation of this interesting genus, which the ball for several weeks. Capt. M'In- inay properly be called the caltle of the tosh left the army the succeeding winter, ants. I have ascertained by actual obhis wound being nearly healed, but there servation the truth of Hubert's discovery was a stiffness of his neck. The ball was respecting this singular fact, having deragged from its collision with the spine, tected the ants in their management of and somewhat diminished in weight. these animals : 1 have seen them carrying
Lieutenant Jonathan Kearsley of the their eggs and young on the plants adapt4th Rifle Regt. was wounded at Fort Erie ed for their food, surveying their growth on the 15th August, 1814. A musket ball and progress, feeding on their honey, struck his left leg about four inches below walking and rambling over them without the knee, and fractured both bones of the disturbing them in the least, &c. It apleg badly. The lieutenant was anxious to pears that several species are raised by save his leg, and the operation of ampu- each species of ants; but the same species tation was delayed four days longer than is not raised by different ants, and eache was prudent. On the fifth day from the herd or colony belongs to a peculiar tribe time be was wounded it was taken off, of ants, which does not suffer other tribes just where the femoral artery passes un- of the same species to come and invade
their property; and if any dares to do it, the species, it deforms the leaves and rolls a war often ensues. These wonderful them over its nest. facts are not the most astonishing among 17. Aphis viburnum-acerifolium. Body those belonging to the natural history of oboval, olivaceons brown, head black the ants; a genus of insects which has truncated, antens two-thirds of body's claimed my most constant attention, and ledgth brown, black at the top, as well as which I hope to illustrate shortly by de- the legs, appendages shorter than the vent, scribing the American species thereof; which is acute. The young ones are olitheir policy exceeds that of many human vaceous rufous ; the males are entirely societies!
blackish or black, with a black oblong All the species of the genus Aphis have spot on the wings This species is raised many enemies, such as birds, reptiles, and by the formica melanogaster, or the black the larva of several species of the genera belly ant with red breast, head and feet, Syrphus, Hemerobrus, &c. which destroy and it is upon it that I have observed many them sometimes by thousands, else they of the facts noticed in the introduction. would often propagate to an incredible ex. 18. Aphis crategus-coccinea. Body obtent; yet they are very hurtful to many oval, pale green, with two dark stripes on plants, which they disease, reduce to in- the back of a brownish green; antens anition, and sometimes kill, by depriving green half of body's length, appendages them of their sap or juice. When they very short, vent'acute. Feeds on the attack garden plants, they may be de- leaves of the crategus coccinea. stroyed by rubbing a wet feather on those 19. Aphis cornus-stricta. Body oboval, plants, they are easily detacbed and kill- black, head squared truncated; antens ed by it; they may also be easily killed two-thirds of body's length with a white by the smoke of tobacco or brimstone. base, legs white at the top, appendages
About 60 European species are known. very short, vent nearly acute. The males I have detected already 36 species in have the wings double the body's length, the United States, where I suspect that with a large black oblong spot undermany hundreds exist.
I shall proceed to neath. Covering the branches (rarely the enumerate those observed last year in the leaves) of the cornus stricta. state of New York, mostly near Fishkill, 20. Aphis populus-grandidentata. Body and conclude by a syuoptical division of oboval obtuse, reddish black, head truncathe species already observed.
ted, back annulated, antens one-third of 13. Aphis rosa-suaveolens. Body oboval body's length, appendages obtuse, exoblong, green, brown or blackish, with ceedingly short, vent obtuse. Male with two pale stripes on the back ; antens near- many oblong blackish spots on the wings. ly as long as the body and brownish, ap- This species is found on a very high pendages very short, legs black at the tree, and often on the upper leaves and base and tip, white in the middle ; wings, branches. Length one line. It is rewith a brown spot in the males. The markable by the many spots on the wings young ones are green, the old ones are of the male, while most of the species blackish.
have only one large spot on the lower side 14. Aphis diplepha. Body oboval, pale of each wing, and a few species have ungreen, with two rows of bristles on the spotted wings sides of the back, eyes black, antens ru. 21. Aphis populus trepida. Body obfous as long as the body, legs rufous, ap- oval, pale green, with two dark or brown pendages longer than the vent, which is stripes on the back, which is annulated, acute. This species is found on many gar- head truncated, antens whitish two-thirds den roses, the specific name means double of body's length, feet whitish, appendaciliated.
ges elongated, as long as the vent, which 15. Aphis rhodryas. Body oboval ob is acute. I have not seen the male of this long, pale green, antens two-thirds of the species. length of the body, brown as well as the 22. Aphis jacoben-balsamita. Body oblegs, appendages short.-On many wild oval oblong, very slightly annulated, enroses, which the specific name indicates. tirely of a shining bronze colour; antens
16. Aphis viburnum-opulus. Body ob- as long as the body, not shining, with some oval, slate colour, antens black, white at brown rings; legs with black knees and the base, very short, only one-fourth of the articulations; appendages black,stiff, longbody's length, appendages black and very er than the vent, which is acute appendishort, vent black, legs black, white at the culated. A very fine species of a metalbase. The young ones are of a greenish lic brass colour, the young ones are more gray. This species feeds on the leaves in- oblong, darker, more annulated; the old stead of the stems; as usual with most of ones are of a light or pale colour, nearly
obtuse behind, and smooth or scarcely an as the body, head truncated, appendages pulated.
short. Length of the body one line, vent 23. Aphis oreaster. Body oblong, of a mutic. brownish or dark bronze colour; head 30. Aphis polanisia-graveolens. Body truncated; antens brown, as long as the black oblong oboval slightly annulated; body, legs brown; appendages longer antens as long as the body, base and top than the vent, which is appendiculated; gray ; legs with the base and a ring in the males with unspotted wings. Found on middle gray; appendages longer than the several species of aster on the highlands, vent, which is acute; males with a brownie particulaly the aster simpler ; the specific ish spot on the wings. Found near New. Dame means mountain-asters.
burgh, in June, on the leaves and flowers 24. Aphis erigeron-etrigosum. Body of the polanisia graveolens or cleome do. oboval oblong, reddish; antens as long as decandra L. where it is singular that they the body, blackish as well as the legs; ap- should be raised, since the vicidity of this pendages longer than the vent which is plant must be some impediment: length inucronute. In the old ones the body be- of the body one line. comes flattened, of a reddish brown, and 31. Aphis arabis-mollis. Body oboval the appendage of the vent becomes longer. oblong glaucous green, a row of black
25. Aphis gibbosa. Body oboval, red- dots on each side; antens brown nearly dish fulvous, head truncated, thorax yel- as long as the body, appendages short, lowish and gibbous, abdomen acute slight- vert acute. A small species, less than ly apnulated; antens longer than the body, one line in length. brown, base gray; legs gray, knees and 32. Aphis polygala-senega. Body obfeet black; appendages brown, longer oval brown; antens longer than the body, than the vent, which is appendiculated ; with pale rings, as well as the legs; ape males with unspotted wings. Found near pendages short, vent nearly obtuse. NoNewburgh, on several species of solidago, ticed in June; length about one line. particularly the S. odora, S. altissima, &c. 33. Aphis brassica-napus. Body ellip
26. Aphis canthelis. Body oblong cu- tíc, pale greenish, covered with a white neate, of a dark brown bronze colour, dust, a blackish spot on each side; head bead truncated, abdomen slightly annula- narrow truncated; antens half body's ted; antens as long as the body, blackish length, blackish as well as the legs ; vent as well as the legs; vent acute, append- acute, appendages short, dentiform. Found ages elongated erect: males blackish, in gardens, sometimes also on the brassica. with a linear yellowish spot on the wings. 34. Aphis erigeron-canadense. Body Noticed on the solidago nemoralis ; size oboval green; antens brown, shorter than very unequal, from half a line to two the body; appendages brown, · ngated lines long : the specific name means yel- one third of total length, oviduct elonga. low spotted.
ted. The body is about one line long, the 27. Aphis annulipes. Body oboval, red- oyiduct appears as a third appendage, dish brown, bead truncated; antens two- Found on Long-Island. thirds of body's length; legs with pale 35. Aphis ambrosia. Body oboval, yel. rings; vent obtuse, appendages very short low, acute behind; head truncated ; andivergent. Observed in September near tens half the length of the body, a little Oysterbay, Long-Island, on the Hieracium brownish, feet tipped with brownish; apgronovi and H. paniculatun, length one pendages brown elongated upright: very line.
small, body only half a line long, Found 23. A phis hieracium-paniculatum. Body on Long-Isiand on several species of the oblong, of a shining reddish brown, abdo- genus ambrosia: they are raised and bred men a little curved or depressed above, by a new species of ants, such I have and annulated; antens as long as the called formica fasciata. body, whitish at the base as well as the 36. Aphis acaroides. Body oboval redo legs; rent acute, appendages elonga- ish, obtuse behind, antens very short, fec: ted horizontal : male with vertical ap- brown, appendages obtuse wart shaped. pendages, mucronute vent, and wings with The smallest species observed, scarcely a greenish brown spot. Found on the one-fourth of a line long, having much the hieracium paniculaturn only, in October, appearance of an acarus ; found also on Dear Flatbush, Long-Island, a very singu- Long-Island on the dileptium virginicum, lar species, the bind part of the body is flepidium virginicum L.) raised likewise raised; the males are much larger than by the formica fuscietá, which is itselt the fernales.
rather a small ant. 29. Aphis verbena-hastata. Body pale Whenever a genus bocomes extensive green anpulated oboval; antens as long in species, it is nepcsfary to Spide in VOL, IU, -No, da
sub-genera and sections, in order to reach shape it might assume on crystallization, with a greater degree of facility the know- did not seem to have, as in salt and other ledge of the species which it contains. I substances, any particular relation to its shall therefore propose the following tem- chemical constitution. The practical utiporary divisions among the American spe- lity of such investigation, therefore, was, cies already detected.
in regard to water, no longer thought of,
while its modes of congelation were from I. Division. Antens bent.
time to time expatiated upon, rather with 1. Sub-genus. Cladoxus. Body flattened, the air of speculative relaxation than se
no appendages, antens club-shaped. vere discrimination. Much, however, has Sp. 12.
even in this way been accumulated; and 2. Sub-genus. Lorerates. Body thick, though much may remain to be known,
with appendages, antens not club- I believe, in what I have to offer there shaped.
will be found little if any originality. 1. Section. Body annulated. Sp. 1. Water, undergoing congelation in the 2. Section. Body not annulated. Sp. 2. heavens, and falling upon the earth, ex
hibits itself in the form either of snow or II. Division. Antens not bent. hail; that congealing upon the surface of 3. Sub-genus. Dactynotus. Body or back of the earth is termed ice. “ Hail is of annulated.
the same nature as ice: snow is of the 1. Section. Antens shorter than the same nature as white frost. That snow body. Sp. 20, 21.
may be formed, it is necessary that the 2. Section. Antens as long as the body. aqueous particles diffused through the air Sp. 22, 26, 28, 29, 30.
should congeal before they have united 3. Section. Antens longer than the into gross drops." The causes producbody. Sp. 25.
ing solidification in bodies, may sometimes 4. Sub-genus. Adactynus. Body not an so operate, that the masses concreting nulated.
shall assume certain regular and system1. Section. No appendages. Sp. 3. atic figures. These, in chemistry, are 2. Section. Usual appendages, antens termed crystals. In water, crystalliza
shorter than the body. Sp. 4, 5, tion is ascribable only to abstraction of 6, 7, 8, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 27, 33, caloric; but in other substances it is ef34, 35, 36.
fected also by evaporation. The crystals 3. Section. Usual appendages, antens of snow, particularly, are distinguished
as long as the body. Sp. 10, 13, from all others in another respect; viz. 14, 23, 24, 31.
they consist of little, thin, smooth, and 4. Section. Usual appendages, antens narrow bars of transparent ice, so dislonger than the body. Sp. 2, 11, 23. posed that they form planular or flattened
hexagonal stellæ, or stars, rather than so
lid masses of a cuboidal or pyramidal conMemoir on the Crystallization of Snow; figuration. These stellæ, or stars, though
read before the Lyceum of Natural His- of sufficient magnitude for occular intory, New-York, April 8th, 1817. By spection, are, however, of rare occurP. S. Townsend, M. D.
rence, “ the flocculi being ordinarily of
irregular and unequal figure.”+ Hence The doctrines of crystallization bave they have been remarked upon by very long received the attention of chemical few. When they do occur, therefore, philosophers. Of late years, the elucida- they should be noted. I had the satisfactions of the Abbè Haüy, on this subject, tion of witnessing these beautiful and sinhave far outstripped the labours of others; gular configurations on Saturday afterand his discoveries, going to establish the noon, the 1st of March, 1817; and again identity of chemical laws and mathemati- a few days after that. The weather on cal demonstration, have given a peculiar the day that I first discovered them, was grandeur to this part of analytical philo- cloudy, with the wind at S. W. but so sohpy, and left little else to be done by moderate as not to be perceptible. The those who follow him. Crystallography, temperature of the air was about 30° or however, 'where it applies to the evanes 31°. These forms were assumed when cent forms of watery concretions, has not the snow fell very gently, and in such been much attended to. The observance of these forins, and the delineation of the
* M. De Ratte. Vidc Art. Neige, Encyclovarieties they assumed, was all that seemed pedie des Sciences et des Arts. Paris. 1774.
fol. necessary: for the component parts of
+ Vide Art. Neige, Encyclop. des Arts et des water were well known, and whatever Sciences.
small quantities that it was hardly noticed. delineated in the same work, as copied The radii of the stars were all of equal from the Miscellanea Berolinensia, vol. length, diverged in the same plane, and vi. and amount to seventeen. The basis at exact angles of 60°, the length of each of the crystal in these stellæ remains radius about the 1-7th of an inch. When the same in each, viz. a planular, hexthe snow fell in quantities, these forms angular star; and the varieties they exwere no longer visible, and it appeared, as hibit seem rather to have the appearance usual, in locculi of minute needles irregu- of extrinsic decoration than any radical larly associated. The state of the atmos- mutation. The modifications refer either phere on both the days when I observ to the radii or the centre. The followed these crystals was not materially dif- ing are those which came under my noferent.
tice on the days above mentioned. They By referring to the article Neige, in all seem to diifer more or less from those the French Encyclopedia,* I found this delineated in the French Encyclopedia, subject there treated at large by Mons. except the first and second; but could I De Ratte,f the author of that article. have inspected them by the microscope, The varieties spoken of by M. De Ratte, it is probable I should have found a more are found most beautifully and minutely general analogy.
P.S. T. dd.
1. Anderson, sculp. Crystals enlarged 13 from nature. 1st. The crystal here is a simple hexan variety, forked into three prongs, which
gular star-the radii plain little needles are of the same length, and diverge as of equal length and breadth, and the in the last, at angles of 60°. Proceedcentre formed simply by their conver ing from the centre of the star, and begence—the angle of convergence in tween every two radii, are petals of half this as well as in all the succeeding, the length of the radii. and in those given by M. De Ratte, 5th. The radii three-pronged as before, being uniformly at 60 degrees.
and after the same manner-pinnated 20. 'The radii and centre are both so ex about midway, towards the centre of the
panded as to resemble the petals and star, the pinnæ or collateral branches disk of a compound flower. Seen also being of equal length, and in the proin Feb. 1818, by the Rev. Mr. Schaef portion to the main radius of about one fer, of New-York.
to eight. Seen also by Mr. Schaeffer. 3d. The same as the first, i. e. a simple 6th. A simple star, except a circular flat
star, differing from it only in having knob on the extremity of each radius the extremities of the radii bifurcated, the diameter of this knob about the these bifurcations being at angles of 60° 1-16th of an inch. to the parent radius, and about 1-4th 7th. Like the last, except that the radii the length of that radius.
converge also on a central koob, whose 4th. The ends of the radii are, in this diameter appeared double that of the
circumferal knobs. Vide Encyc. des Arts et des Sciences. 8th. The centre an equilateral hexagonal Folio, printed at Paris, 1774. (des planches Physiques.)
plane; with a succession of similar bex† Perpetual Secretary of the Royal Society
agonal figures drawn upon it, one within of Sciences of Montpelier.
the other. The radii proceed from each