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terials, and of the workmanship, seem to bid defiance to time; for, in the course of 1750 years, there is no visible decay in the arch over the passage. The arches over the windows have suffered much more by an idle curiosity, in breaking off pieces by force, than they have by the weather, or the gradual decay of time."

The Author has learned that some specimens of the tophus or tuf used in the Boulogne Pharos have been discovered there, similar to those in Dover Castle; and thence fairly concludes in favour of its great antiquity, that this Pharos " is one of the oldest

pieces of masonry now remaining in this kingdom, and probably one of the first erected in it." Some slight alterations were made in this building by Bishop Gundulph after the Norman Conquest; and in 1259 it was cased with flint, which is now falling off, and the original masonry again exposed to the weather. The Board of Ordnance also sold the lead which covered it for a trifling sum; and the Tower has remained open ever since, and must soon fall to decay, if no patriot-hand be raised to preserve so valuable a monument from the alldestructive powers of rain, frost, and the vicissitudes of the seasons. that a glorious Peace has crowned the labours of the present Constable, we cannot believe that he will forget the preservation of this solitary rem nant of Roman art in our Island. Yet should it, like many other sumptuous Roman buildings, be leveled to the ground, "some fragments of it may still remain for ages scattered about the Castle, to shew that there was once a light-house erected on the Castle-hill by the Romans, to guide their ships into the bay of Dover."


The Church adjoining this Pharos is of a much later origin. The idea that it is of Roman workmanship Mr. L. considers as fully disproved by the fact, that no remains of bases, capitals, or columns, no vestiges of Roman temples, have ever been found in this place; hence he infers that the Romans never had any religious edi. fice here, and consequently that the existing building could not be constructed of Roman materials.

He also observes that the Imperialists built for posterity; and had they raised a Temple here, it must have been as durable as the Pharos, and


"too strongly cemented together to fall into ruins in one or two centuries." The supposed irregularity of the masonry he shews to be erroneous; and, from all the circumstances of the case, concludes, that this Church was erected about the 7th century, when artists were returning from Rome to Britain. The church is in the form of a cross, with a square tower, 28 feet in diameter over the intersection of the nave and transept, and supported by four arches; its the body is 60 feet. The pilasters length from the tower to the end of porting the tower next the transept, and lofty semi-circular arches suparches is nearly perfect after a lapse are built with tiles, and one of the of many ages. In the sides of the tower are several circular holes, and all formed of tiles after the manner windows with semi-circular arches, of the Romans. Probably it was originally intended as a place of observation and defence. After all, although this Church cannot be considered an undoubted work of Roman artists, it may nevertheless be fairly deemed one of the oldest religious edifices now extant in our Island. It seems probable that it was built within the Religious from the ruthless devastafortifications, in order to protect the tions of savage invaders; and from laius, who, in honour of the antiquity time immemorial it had three Chapof their situation, were allowed to wear the habit of Prebendaries. The routine of religious duties, are very ceremonies of saying masses, and the curious, and in some respects singular; but it would extend this article to an abstract of them here. unreasonable length to give even an

The Author gives a brief but interesting account of all the Constables

of Dover Castle, and Wardens of the

Cinque Ports, amounting to 138, from Every reader of the General History the Conquest to the present day. of England should turn to these sketches as a convenient kind of key to the state policy and feeling of the respective Sovereigns and their Ministers. The expences of Royal visits also will convey some idea to the

* By an error of the press, the word chancel is repeated in the Author's description, which renders it somewhat obscure. REV.



present generation what were the grievances of Dover and its vicinity in former times, and how the general circumstances of the Country have meliorated to a degree little comprehended by superficial observers. Some curious items of Republican honesty are likewise recorded, by which it apthat Cromwell and his followers raised the rents of land threefold, and upwards. One piece of land belonging to the Maison Dicu, let at 127. 108. a year, was valued by the Parliamentary Commissioners at 1557. 15s. yearly, although it was not worth above one fourth this sum. The purveyors, during what was called the Commonwealth, plundered the Yeomanry in the neighbourhood of Castles so enormously, that, after the Restoration, a statute was passed that no pre-emption should be allowed or claimed on behalf of the King, which ever after effectually shielded the defenceless inhabitants against-the lawless exactions of those petty tyrants, the Governors of Military Castles. The farmers in the vicinity of Dover suffered more by such exactions than those near any other Castle, in consequence of the frequency of Royal visits, going to or coming from France.

But the most novel and perhaps curious feature in this work is, the complete copy of the Customals or Usages of the Cinque Ports, which -they claim, by prescription, time out of mind." The general charter, published by Jeake, which is now become scarce, is of very secondary importance compared with the present publication.

"It was a rule," observes Mr. Lyon, "with the Barons of the Cinque Ports,

that their antient customs were not to

give place to new statutes or new laws; and as their Customals were once considered by them of so much importance, they are now, for the first time, made publick."

They contain what has been deemed a complete code of civil and criminal laws; and in different sections regulate the election of Mayor and Jurats; and, if they refuse the office, the people may pul down their houses; the office of bailiff, Coroner, mode of holding Courts, &c. right of sanciuary, Dower, Guardian of Orphans, and all other matters for the regulation and preservation of society, are clearly and explicitly defined. The

law making the Mayor guardian of orphans evinces much deliberate respect to justice and the interests of the helpless. Among the penal laws, which are by no means very numerous, (a circumstance highly honourable to the people, for, had crimes existed, punishments would have been devised for them,) we find a singular chastisement for pickpockets, or "cutting a purse." If a cu-purse or private. picker be found guilty, he is to be pilloried, have his ear cut off, and expelled the place; should he return again, the other ear may be cut off. This was the Customal of Dover; but in Sandwich if any person without an ear, or marked as a thief, came or returned there, he was condemned to death. Another severe, if not unjust, law of Sandwich is, that the chattel property of orphans dying under age does not descend to the heir, but to the Mayor; in 1351, during the reign of Edward III. many orphans died, when their chattels devolved to the Mayor, and, by the assent of the Jurals, one-third was given to their heirs, and the rest for the celebration of masses for the souls of the late

owners. Many antiquated phrases occur in these Customals, of which the Author has given an explanation at the end of the volume.

The plates to this work consist of figures of various Roman tiles; plans of the pier and harbour of Dover; plans of the Roman, Saxon, and Norman fortifications; view of the antient Church and Roman Pharos; portrait on brass of Robi. de Astone, Constable of the Castle; plans of the first and second floors of the Keep in Dover Castle; sections of the windows; and a portrait from brass of William de Say, Baron de Mamignot, Constable of the Castle. Such are

the pictorial illustrations which the Author has thought proper to add to his History; and, had he included a View of his own Church, St. Mary's, it would then have embraced the chief objects of antiquity in Dover and its environs. False notions of delicacy may have contributed to make him withhold such an illustration, particularly as views of it are not very rare; yel a correct representation of

its most antient features would have added to the value of his publication, which evinces taste, sound judgment, extensive knowledge, and good sense. 73. Exer


73. Exercises on the Etymology, Syntax, Idioms, and Synonyms of the Spanish Language. By L. I. A. M'Henry, a Native of Spain, Author of an improved Spanish Grammar, designed especially for Self-instructors. pp.128, 12mo. Sherwood and Co.

THE syntax of the Spanish language is so very simple and rational, its idioms so few and comparatively natural, that it is very difficult to compile a volume of grammatical exercises in that language, lest the rules and examples appear like so many self-evident truths. It is perhaps this circumstance which has occasioned such a defect in this part of elementary Spanish books. The present Author, however, has produced unquestionably the best book of Spanish Exercises which has hitherto been published; and his addition of the synonyms is a very valuable and very necessary appendage. We recommend him to augment this part very considerably in a new edition, as being undoubtedly the best calculated to make the philosophical beauties of the Castilian tongue familiar to every reader. Respecting the words es preciso and es menester, we differ somewhat from Senor M'H.; the former implies "it is absolutely necessary," the latter, "it is requisite." But menester is a substantive, and becoming obsolete as an idiomatic phrase. The explanation of "colloquial idioms," must greatly abridge the labour of learners.

74. An Inquiry concerning the Rise and Progress, the Redemption and present State, and the Management of the National Debt of Great Britain. By Robert Hamilton, LL. D., F.R.S.E. Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Marischal College and University of Aberdeen. Longman and Co.

HAPPY indeed would it be for the inbabitants of the United Kingdom, if any member of the community could devise a plan to fairly, honestly, and with a strict regard to justice, annihilate that Leviathan, that devouring monster,-the National Debt. Although it may appear presumptuous in any but Statesmen to enter into discussion upon money matters, which are inextricable even to many of themselves, we are far from wishing to discourage reflecting persons from studying such subjects, as it is

possible their labours may suggest an useful hint to a Ministers and indeed we believe that it is pretty well known the late Mr. Pitt was accustomed to hear the opinions of private indi viduals on affairs where it was possible they knew more than himself. The method adopted by Mr. Pitt for redeeming the National Debt is sure and infallible; but, unfortunately, fresh loans occurring every year, the remedy appears hopeless, at least to the present generation, however salutary it may be to our descendants. It would be useless and absurd to recommend a work of this nature to general readers; but it may be found acceptable to financiers, and such politicians as look forward with hope to the termination of a system which appears almost interminable.

The Author of the Inquiry has, it appears, long attended to the diminution and increase of our Public Debt, from the interest he felt as a member of the community in a subject of such vital importance, and which he now considers to have assumed a most alarming aspect; be sides, as he has observed many otherwise well-informed persons seem imperfectly acquainted with the principles, and entertain crude views on the subject of finance, he hopes what he has to offer may not prove altogether useless. His plan consists in enfor cing certain general principles of finance, though he supposes those unacquainted with the management of our National Debt will censure him for his labours in proving truisms or incontrovertible principles; those, on the contrary, who are aware that our measures of finance have for many years been conducted on opposite principles, will not consider the arguments he adduces unnecessary.

In the second part of his Inquiry, Dr. Hamilton gives a particular detail of the origin, progress, management, redemption, and present state of the Public Debt, the facts of which are partially, but by no means generally known; therefore a publication of this kind seemed to him nearly indispensable. He adds,

"The Author could not well have fixed upon a certain degree of information as what his Readers already possessed, and supplied the remainder. Had he attempted to do so, his work would have presented a mutilated appearance,


without being a great deal shorter. He has, therefore drawn up such a Narrative as may communicate full information on the subject to a young person or a foreigner, who has no previous knowledge of it."

The best authorities that could be procured were consulted for the materials of the statements previous to the year 1786, which, if they are not decidedly correct, at least nearly approach the facts. The Acts of ParIrament relative to finance, and the official papers laid before the House of Commons, furnished those since the above period. He trusts that his errors are neither numerous nor important, though it cannot be expected that none have been committed where so great a number of figures and statements were employed.-Dr. H. conserves that he cannot give any reasonable cause of offence in freely discussing the measures of eminent Statesmen, and the plans of respectable Authors he therefore examines, in the third portion of the work, the propriety of the measures adopted in the management of our finance; and this he has done, as he trusts, without asperity, though under the necessity of assigning his reasons for thinking their opinions or measures erroneous in certain cases.

We think it due to the Author of this Inquiry to state, that he really seems desirous of drawing the attention of the publick to the most rational means for the promotion of economy, and the extinction of our potent funded Enemy. And that he is not one of our modern reformers, the following paragraph from page 33 is sufficient testimony.

"Perhaps some think, though they do not venture to say, that matters may be restored by means of a public bankruptcy; and that this Nation, after such a measure, will retain the same degree of internal wealth, and support the same strength and importance in its relations to Foreign States, as if no National Debt had ever existed. It will not be necessary to enter into a long refutation of this opinion. The extent of distress attending a public bankruptcy, whether brought on systematically, or overtaking us in the necessary consequence of our being overwhelmed with the magnitude of our debt, would be so great; the present overthrow of every thing valuable so

so complete and their future extrication so ungerfain; that we can hardly

conceive a greater public evil. Among its probable consequences we may reckon internal insurrections, and foreign invasions by rival or hostile nations, taking advantage of the time of our distress and weakness. Every friend to Britain, every friend to humanity, must deprecate such an event. And a proper sense of the calamities in which it would involve us, should keep us at a cautious distance from the verge of so dreadful a precipice."

75. The History of England, from the
earliest Period to the Close of the Year
1812. By J. Bigland, Author of "Let-
ters on the Study of Antient and Mo-
dern History,"
""History of Spain,"

History of Europe," &c. 2 vols. 8vo.
Longman and Co.

THE necessity for works of this nature must be sufficiently obvious to the publick, upon adverting to the changes in our style, and the real or fancied improvements in our language. Those who read to acquire general knowledge, and youth, certainly ought to be in possession of brief statements of historical facts, narrated in the idiom of the day, while the studious man and the Antiquary solace themselves with antient manuscripts in the public repositories, and the huge volumes of our elabo rate Historians. We should suppose that the following extract from the Preface will operate much in Mr. Bigland's favour with those who can think freely and candidly on all subjects, and do not wish every fact wrested either to one party-feeling or another by artful reasonings of the author:

"In the execution, party-spirit and religious prejudice are wholly excluded. The ill-authenticated, uninteresting, and ephemeral occurrences which, in every period of time, furnish the idle tattle of the day, and soon sink into merited oblivion, are either omitted or slightly and the Reader's attention is touched; directed to subjects and events truly national, universally interesting, and worthy of remembrance."

As we are all well aware how the Nation was divided in political opinion for a period of more than twenty years past, we imagined a good test of Mr. Bigland's professions might be found in his account of Mr. Fox's election in 1784, and the disputes on the Regency Bill; the result is highly creditable to his veracity, as will be


seen in the succeeding short illustration, from p. 641 of the second volume :

At this period, Great Britain, at peace with her neighbours and united at home, enjoyed every kind of public felicity; but her brilliant prospects were suddenly obscured by an incident which excited the most gloomy apprehensions. In the autumn of 1788, his Majesty was attacked with a dangerous indisposition, which continued so long, that the Parliament, after many interesting debates, Desolved that the Prince of Wales should be requested to accept the Regency under certain limitations. But, early in the ensuing year, the happy event of kis Majesty's convalescence put a stop to the contests which agitated the Cabinet and the Senate. The sorrow and alarm which the illness of the Sovereign had diffused throuth the Nation, now gave way to the most unequivocal de monstrations of joy; and, on his Majesty's first appearance in publick, and his solemn procession to St. Paul's, to return thanks to Heaven for his recovery, all elasses of people strove, with laudable emulation, to exhibit proofs of attachment to his person and government."

We may safely and conscientiously add two other testimonies in support of Mr. Bigland's claims upon public 'encouragement; and those are, bis manly and humane manner of speaking of the Abolition of the Slavetrade, and the animation with which his sentences are composed when relating those National military and naval triumphs that have at length given a prospect of repose to suffering Europe.

76. A Treatise on Family Wine-making : calculated for making excellent Wines from the various Fruits of this United Country; in relation to strength, brilhancy, health, and economy: explanatory of the whole process, and every other requisite Guide after the Wine is made and in the Cellar; composed from practical knowledge, and written expressly and exclusively for Domestic Use; containing sixty different sorts of Wine. To which is also subjoined, the Description of part of a recent British Vintage, inclusive of an interesting Experimental Lecture.


P. P. Carnell, Esq. F. H. S. &c. 8vo. pp. 158. Sherwood and Co.

"THE little that has ever been printed on the subject of Family Wine-making has been no more than a scattered few

of highly-defective and incoherent Re

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ceipts in Magazines and old Cookery books and it is astonishing, in such a Country as this is, where every family who can, do make Wine, that there never has been an express Treatise published on the subject that has discussed it with any science, order, or perspicuity. Much useful information, it is presumed, will be found here, given in a very small compass, as this Treatise contains every requisite communication and information for the Making, Managing, and Preservation of Domestic Wines: a communication so much and so long wanted by the publick at large."

This important desideratum Mr. Carnell has now supplied; for, in this scientific volume will be found no less than sixty different Receipts, which cannot but be highly acceptable to the good Housewife.

These are followed by "Fifty-nine important and useful Vinarious Observations;" and also by an entertaining Essay intituled

"The British Vintage; containing the celebration of the principal part of a recent Domestic Vintage: inclusive of a very instructive and interesting Experimental Lecture on the Vinous and Spirituous Fermentations of WineMaking.'

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De gustibus nil disputandum. But here are Wines of every flavour, from the sparkling Gooseberry (the English Champagne) to the quiescent Ginger; and of the latter there are even four varieties, all good and palatable.Experto crede Roberto.

77. The Juvenile Arithmetic; or Child's Guide to Figures; being an Easy Introduction to Joyce's Arithmetick, and various others now in use. By a Lady. Part I. pp. 70, 12mo. Souter.

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"AS in this age a Mother may instruct her Children without feeling herself compelled to ask pardon for exercising one of the most pleasing maternal duties, the Author of this little work is not without hope that it will be very generally adopted in Nurseries and Infant Schools. The usual modes of teaching Arithmetick not admitting of easy illustration, are not adapted to very tender capacities. The principle of the Juvenile Arithmetick is so familiar, that it is in fact in almost hourly exercise. • Count how many plums are here,' says a parent to the child, and if you tell me right you shall have them;" the author makes the parent go a little further, and the infant, in the most agreeable way, acquires the first four rules of Arithmetick. Cherries,


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