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teriaks, and of the workmanship, seem “ too strongly cemented together to to bid defiance to time; for, in the fall into ruins in one or two ceo. course of 1750 years, there is no visible turies.” The supposed irregularity, decay in the arch over the passage. The of the masonry be shens to be erarches over the windows have suffered

roneous; and, from all the circummuch more by an idle curiosity, in break

stances of the case, concludes, that ing off pieces by force, than they have

this Church was erected about the 7th by the weather, or the gradual decay of time."

century, when artists were returning

from Rome to Britain. The church The Author has learned that some

is in the form of a cross, with a square specimens of the tophus or tuf used in

tower, 28 feet in diameter over the the Boulogne Pharos have been dis

intersection of the nave and transept, covered there, similar to those in Do.

and supported by four arches; its ver Castie; and thence fairly conclodes in favour of its great antiquity, the body is 60 feet. The pilasters

length from the tower to the end of that this Pharos“ is one of the oldest and lofty semi-circular arches suppieces of m sonry now remaining in this kingdom, and probably one of porting the tower next the transept,

are built with tiles, and one of the the first erected in it.” Some slight arches is nearly perfect after a lapse alterations were made in this building of many ages, in the sides of the by Bishop Gundulph after the Norman

tower are several circular holes, and Conquest ; and in 1259 it was cased

windows with semi-circular arches, with fint, which is now falling off, all formed of tiles after the manner and the original masonry again ex

of the Romans. Probably it was oriposed to the weather. The Board of ginally intended as a place of observaOrdnance also sold the lead which covered it for a trifling sum; and the this Church cannot be considered an

tion and defence. After all, although Tower has remained open ever siocé, undoubted work of Roman artists, it and must soon fall to decay, if no patriot-hand be raised to preserve so

may nevertheless be fairly deemed valuable a monument from the all

one of the oldest religious edifices

pow extant in our Island. It seems destructive powers of rain, frosi,

and probable that it was built within the the vicissitudes of the seasons. Now fortifications, in order to protect the that a glorious Peace has crowded the Religious from the ruthless devasta-labours of the present Constable, we cannot believe ihat he will forget the time immemorial it had three Chap

tions of sa vage invaders; and from preservation of this solitary rempant of Roman art in our Island.

laiós, who, in honour of the antiquity Yet should it, like many other sump

of their situation, were allowed to

wear the habit of Prebendaries. The tuous Roman buildings, be leveled to ceremonies of saying mașses, and the the ground, “some fragments of it

routine of religious duties, are very may still remain for

ages s scattered about the Castle, to shew that there but it would extend this article to an

curious, and in some respects singular; was once a light-house erected on the Castle-hill by the Romans, to guide abstract

of them here.

unreasonable length to give even an their ships into the bay of Dover."

The Author gives a brief but inteThe Church adjoining this Pharos is of a much later origin. The idea of Dover Castle, aod Wardens of te

resting account of all the Constables that it is of Roman workmanship Mr. I. considers as fully disproved by the Cinque Ports, a mounting to 138, from fact, that no remains of bases, capitals, Every reader of the General History

the Conquest to the present day. or columns, no vestiges of Roman temples, have ever been found in this sketches as a convenient kind of key

of England should turn to these place; heoce he infers that the Romaps never had any religious edi.

to the state policy and feeling of the fice here, and consequently that the nisters. The expences of Royal visits

respective Sovereigns and their Miexisting building could not be constructed of Roman materials. He

also will convey some idea to the also observes that the Imperialists

* By an error of the press, the word built for_posterity; and had they chancel is repeated in the Author's deraised a Temple here, it must have scription, which renders it somewhat þeen as durable as the Pharos, and obscure. Rev.



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present generation what were the law making the Mayor guardian of grievances of Dover and its vicinity orphans evinces much deliberate rein former times, and how the general spect to justice and the interests of circumstances of the Country have

the heipiess. Among the penal laws, meliorated to a degree little compre- which are by no means very numerous, hended by superficial observers. Some (a circumstance highly bonourable to curious items of Republican honesty the people, for, had crimes existed, are likewise recorded, by wnich it ap- punishments would nave been devised pears that Cromwell and his fol- for them,) we find a singular chastiselowers raised ihe rents of land three- ment for pickpockets, or “ cutting a fold, and upwards. One piece of land purse." If a cul-purse or private belonging to the Maison Dicu, let at picker be found guilty, he is to be 121. 108. a ytar, was valued by the pilloried, have bis ear cut off, and Parliamentary Commissioners at 1551. expelled the place; should he retura 155. yearly, although it was not worth again, the other ear may be cut off. above one fourth this sum. The This was the Customial f Dover; but purveyors, during what was called in Sandwich if any person without an. the Commonwealin, plundered the ear, or marked as a thief, cine or reYeowanry in the neighbourhood of turned there, be was condemned to Castles so enormously, that, after the death. Another severe, if not unjust, Restoration, a statute was passed that law of Sandwich is, that the chattei no pre-emption should be allowed or property of orphans dyin, under age claimed on behalf of the King, which does noi descend to the heir, but io ever after effectually shielded the de- the Mayor ; in 1351, during the reign fenceless inhabitants against the law. of Edward Ill. many-orphans died, less exactions of those petty lyrants,

when their chattels devolved to the the Governors of Military Castles. Mayor, and, by the assent of the The farmers in the vicinity of Dover Jurals, one-third was given to their suffered more by such exactions than heirs, and the rest for the celebration -tbose near any other Castle, in conse- of masses for the souls of the late

quence of the frequency of Royal owners. Many antiquated phrases visits, going to or coming from France. occur in these Customals, of which the

But the most novel and perhaps Author has given an explanation at curious fature in this work is, the the end of the volume. complete cong of the Customals or The plates to this work consist of Usages of the Cinque Ports, wbich figures of various Roman tiles; plans they claim, by prescription, time out of the pier and harbour of Dover; of inind." The general charter, pub- plans of the Roman, Saxon, and Nor. lished by Jeake, which is now become inan fortifications; view of the an.. scarce, is of very secondary import-' tient Church and Roman Pharos ; ance compared with the present pub- portrait on brass of Astone, lication.

Constable of the Castle ; plans of the " It was a rule,” observes Mr. Lyon, first and second floors of the Kcepi in “ with the Baronis of the Cinque Ports, Dover Castle ; sections of the winthat their antiert customs were not to dows; and a portrait from brass of give place to new statutes or new laws; William de Say, Baron de Mamignot, and as their Customals were once consi- Constable of the Castle. Such are dered by them of so much importance, the pictorial illustrations which the they are now, for the first time, made Auihor has thought proper to add to publick.”

his History; and, had he included a They contain what has been deem- View of his own Church, St. Mary's, ed a complete code o! civil and cri. it would then have embraced the chief minal laws ; and in diferent sections objects of antiquity in Dover and its regulate the election of viayor and environs. False notions of delicacy Jurats; and, if they refuse the ofice, may have contribuied to make hiin the people may pu loown their houses; wishhold such an illustration, partithe office of Sailoff, Coroner, mode of cularly as views of it are not very holding Courts, &c. rigns of sauciu. rare; yel a correct representation of ary, Dower, Guardian of Orphans, its most antient features would have and all other matters for the regula- added to the value of his publication, tion' and preseryation of society, are which evinces taste, sound judgment, clearly and explicitly defined. The extensive knowledge, and good sense.

73. Exero

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73. Exercises on the Etymology, Syntax, possible their labours may suggent aa 13. Idioms, and Synonyms of the Spanish useful hint to a Ministers and indeed

Language. By L. I. A. M'Henry, a we believe that it is pretty well knowo Native of Spain, Author of an im- the late Mr. Pilt was accustomed to proved Spanish Grammar, designed hear the opinions of private indi. especially for Self-instructors. pp.128, viduals on affairs where it was possi12ro. Sherwood and Co.

ble they knew more than bimself, THE syota x of the Spanish language The method adopted by Mr. Pitt for is 80 very simple and rational, its redeeming the National Debt is sure idioms so few and comparatively na- and infallible ; but, upfortunately, tural, that it is very difficult to compile fresh loans occurring every year, the a volume of grammatical exercises in remedy appears hopeless, at least to that language, lest the rules and ex- the present generation, however saloamples appear like so many self-evi- tary it may be to our descendants. It dent truths. It is perhaps this circum- would be useless and absurd to recopistance which has occasioned such a mend a work of this pature to general defect in this part of elementary readers; but it may be found acceptSpanish books. The present Author, able to financiers, and such politicians however, has produced unquestiona. as look forward with hope to the terbly the best book of Spanish Exer- mination of a system which appears cises which has hitherto been pub- almost interminable. lisbed; and his addition of the syn- The Author of the Inquiry has, it onyms is a very valuable and very appears, long attended to the diminecessary appendage. We recom- nution and increase of our Public mend him to augment this part very Debt, from the interest he felt as considerably in a new edition, as be member of the community in a subing undoubtedly the best calculated ject of such vital importance, and to make the philosophical beauties of which he now considers to have asthe Castilian tongue familiar to every sumed a most alarming aspect; bereader. Respecting the words es sides, as be bas observed many otherpreciso and és menester, we differ wise well-informed persons seem ime somewhat from Senor M‘H.; the for- perfectly acquainted with the pripcie mer implies “it is absolutely neces- ples, and entertain crude views on the sary,” the latter, “it is requisite.” subject of finance, he hopes what he But menester is a substantive, and has to offer may not prove altogether becoming obsolete as an idiomatic useless. His plao consists in enfor. phrase. The explanation of “ collo- cing certain general principles of fix quial idioms," must greatly abridge nance, though he supposes those unthe labour of learners.

acquainted with the management of

our National Debt will censure him 74. An Inquiry concerning the Rise and for his labours in proving truisms or Progress, the Redemption and present incontrovertible principles ; those, on

of the
National Debt
of Great Britain. But the contrary, who are

aware that our

measures of finance have for many Robert Hamilton, LL.D., F.R.S.E. years been conducted on opposite Professor of Natural Philosophy in the principles, will not consider the argyMarischal College and University of ments he adduces unnecessary. Aberdeen. Longmani and Co.

In the second part of his Inquiry, HAPPY indeed would it be for the Dr. Hamilton gives a particular detail inbabitants of the United Kingdom, of the origin, progress, management, if any member of the community redemption, and present state of the could devise a plan to fairly, honest- Public Debt, the facts of which are ly, and with a strict regard to justice, partially, but by no means generally appibilate that Leviathan,--that de

known; therefore a publication of vouring monster,—the National Debt.

this kind seemed to him nearly jodisAlthough it may appear presump- pensable. He adds, tuous in any but Statesmen to enter

« The Author could not well bave into discussion upon money matters, which are inextricable even to many

fixed upon a certain degree of informa

tion as wbat bis Readers already posof themselves, we are far from wish- sessed, and supplied the remainder. Had ing to discourage reflecting persons he attempted to do so, his work would from studying such subjects, as it is have presented a mutilated appearance,


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without being a great deal shorter. He conceive a greater public evil. Among has, therefore, drawn up such a Narra- its probable consequences we may reckon tive as may communicate full informa- internal insurrections, and foreign invas tion on the subject to a young person or sions by rival or hostile nations, taking a foreigner, who has no previous know- advantage of the time of our distress ledge of it."

and weakness. Every friend to Britain, The best authorities that could be

every friend to humanity, must depre

cate such an event. And a proper sense procured were consulted for the ma

of the calamities in which it would interials of the statements previous to

volve us, should keep us at a cautious the year 1786, which, if they are not

distance from the verge of so dreadful a decidedly correct, at least nearly

apprecipice.” proaeb the facts. The Acts of ParIrament relative to finance, and the

75. The History of England, from the official papers laid before the House

earliest Period to the Close of the Year of Cominons, furnished those since

1812. By J. Bigland, Author of " Lots the above period. He trusts that his ters on the Study of Antient and Moerrors are neither numerous nor im

dern History,

," History of Spain," portant, though it cannot be expected History of Europe,” &c. % vols. 8vo. that none have been committed where

Longman and Co. so great a number of figures and state

THE necessity for works of this wents were employed.Dr. H.

nature must be sufficiently obvious to teives that he cannot give any reason- the publick, upon adverting to the able cause of offence in freely dis- changes in our style, and the real or cussing the measures of eminent

fancied improvements in our lanStatesmen, and the plans of respect- guage. Those who read to acquire able Authors: he therefore examines, general kuowledge, and youth, cerin the third portion of the work, the tainly ought to be in possession of propriety of the measures adopted in brief statements of bistorical facts, the management of our finance; and

narrated in the idiom of the day, this he has done, as he trusts, without while the studious man and the Anasperity, though under the necessity tiquary solace themselves with antient of assigning his reasons for thinking manuscripts in the public repositories, their opinions or measares erronevus and the buge volumes of our elaboin certain cases.

rate Historians. We should suppose We think it due to the Author of that the following extract from the this Inquiry to state, that he really Preface will operate much in Mr. seemis desirous of drawing the atten- Bigland's favour with those who can tion of the publick to the most ra- think freely and candidly on all sub. tional means for the promotion of jects, and do not wish every fact economy, and the extinction of our

wrested either to one party-feeling or potent funded Enemy. And that he is

another by artful reasonings of the pot one of our modern reformers, author : the following paragraph from page 33

“ In the execution, party-spirit and is sufficient testimony.

religious prejudice are wholly excludeda “ Perhaps some think, though they The ill-authenticated, uninteresting, and do not venture to say, that matters may ephemeral occurrences wbich, in every be restored by means of a public bank- period of time, furnish the idle tattle of ruptcy; and that this Nation, after such the day, and soon sink into merited oba measure, will retain the same degree livion, are either omitted or slightly of internal wealth, and support the same touched; and the Reader's attention is strength and importance in its relations directed to subjects and events truly to Foreign States, as if no National Debt national, universally interesting, and had ever existed." It will not be neces- worthy of remembrance.” bary to enter into a long refutation of

As we are all well aware how the this opinion. The extent of distress at

Nation was divided in political opitending a public bankruptcy, whether

pion for a period of more than twenty brought on systematically, or overtaking us in the necessary consequence of our

years past, we imagined a good test being overwhelmed with the magnitude

of Mr. Bigland's professions might be of our debt, would be so great; the

found in his account of Mr. Fox's present overthrow of every thing valua

election in 1784, and the disputes on ble so complete, and their future extri- the Regency Bill; the result is highly sation so ungertain; that we can hardly creditable to his veracity, as will be


seen in the succeeding short illus- ceipts in Magazines and old Cookery tration, from p. 641 of the second books : and it is astonishing, in such a volume :

Country as this is, where every family

who can, do make Wine, that there €¢ At this period, Great Britain, at

never has been an express Treatise pubpeace with her neighbours and united at

lished on the subject that has discussed home, enjoyed every kind of public it with any science, order, or perspicuity. felicity; but ber brilliant prospects were

Much useful information, it is presumed, suddenly obscured by an incident which

will be found bére, given in a very small excited the most gloony apprehensions.

compass, as this Treatise contains every In the autumn of 1788, his Majesty was

requisite communication and informaattacked with a dangerous indisposition, tion for the Making, Managing, and whicb continued so long, that the Par

Preservation of Domestic Wines: a comliament, after wany interesting debates,

munication so much and so long wanted Desolved tbat the Prince of Wales should

by the publick at large." be requested to accept the Regency under certain limitations. But, early in

This important desideratum Mr. the ensuing year, the happy event of Carnell has now supplied ; før, in this his Majesty's convalescence put a stop

scientific volume will be found no less to the contests which agitated the Ca- than sixty different Receipts, which binet and the Senate. The sorrow and cannot but be highly acceptable to alarm which the illness of the Sovereign the good Housewife. had diffused throuth the Nation, now These are followed by “ Fifty-nine gave way to the most unequivocal de important and useful Vivarious Obmonstrations of joy; and, on his Majesty's servations;" and also by an entertain. first appearance in publick, and his so

ivg Essay intituled Jemn procession to St. Paul's, to return 'thanks to Heaven for his recovery, all

“ The British Vintage ; . containing

the celebration of the principal part of elasses of people strove, with laudable

a recent Domestic Vintage: inclusive of emulation, to exhibit proofs of attachment to his person and government."

a very instructive and interesting Ex

perimental Lecture, on the Vinous and We may safely and conscientiously Spirituous fermentations of Wine add two other testimonies jo support Making." of Mr. Bigland's claims upon public

De gustibus nil disputandum. But encouragement; and those are, bis

here are Wines of every flavour, from manly and bumane inanger of speak- the sparkling Gooseberry (the English ing of the Abolition of the Slave Champagne) to the quiescent Ginger; trade, and the animation with which

and of the latter there are even four his sentences are composed when re- varieties, all good and palatable. lating those National military and Experto crede Roberto. Daval triumphs that have at length given a prospect of repose to suffer, 77. The Juvenle Arithmetic; or. Child's jog Europe.

Guide to Figures; being an Easy In

troduction to Joyce's Arithmetick, and 76. A Treatise on Family Wine-making : various others now in use. By a Lady.

calculated for making excellent Wines Part I. pr. 70, 12mo. Souter. from the various Fruits of this United

"AS in this age a Mother may inCountry; in relation to strength, bril

struct her Children without feeling herliancy, health, and economy: explana

self compelled to ask pardon for exercistory of the whole process, and every ing one of the most pleasing maternal other requisite Guide after the Wine 'duties, the Author of this little work is is made and in the Cellar ; composed not without bope that it will be very from practical knowledge, and written generally adopted in Nurseries and Infant expressly and exclusively for Domestic Schools. - The usual modes of teaching Use ; containing sixty different sorts Aritbmetick not admitting of'easy illusof Wine. To which is also subjoined, tration, are not adapted to very tender the Description of part of a recent

capacities. The principle of the Juvenile British Vintage, inclusive of an inte

Arithmetick is so familiar, that it is in fact resting Experimental Lecture.

By in almost hourly exercise. Count how P. P. Carnell, Esq. F.H. S. &c. 8vo.

many plums are here,' says a parent to pp. 158. Sherwood and Co.

the child, and if you tell me right you “ THE little tbat has ever been print. shall have them;" the author makes the ed on the subject of Family Wine-making parent go a little further, and the infant, has been no more than a scattered few in the most agreeable way, acquires the of highly-defective and incoherent Re first four rules of Arithmetick. Cherries,


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