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Oct. 15.

Ain NG ten And Ballaig, is that says,
MONG the Old Ballads published

of "Tom and Will were shepherd
swains." The description of them is,
"Tom was young, but somewhat bald,
It seem'd no imperfection:
Will was grey, but yet not old,
And browner of complexion."
They were both in love with "Pas-
tora," who favoured neither of them
particularly, though, as the song says,
"Tom thought he, and Will thought he,

Was chiefest in her favour."

Pastora was sent for to Court, to attend the Queen.

"Unto the Court Pastora 's gone,.

There were no Court without her: The Queen among her train had none Was half so fair about her."

Now, Sir, if any of your Correspondents can explain and inform me, who the two gentlemen and lady were, as they must be persons of some distinction, I shall esteem it a favour.

Yours, &c.


T. B.

Elmesthorpe, near Hinckley, Feb. 14. HAVE before me a small book, printed by John Matthews, 1706, called, "The Testament of the twelve Patriarchs, the sons of Jacob, translated out of Greek into Latin in 1242, by Robert Grosthead, sometimes Bishop of Lincoln: and out of his copy into French and Dutch by others, and now Englished. To the credit whereof, an ancient Greek copy, written in parchment, is kept in the Universal library of Cambridge." Is there any new edition of this curious book since the year 1706; or would republishing it be a religious treat to the world at large? Yours, &c.



Elmesthorpe, near Mr. URBAN, Hinckley, March 14. WOULD beg the favour to ask this question from some of your ingenious Botanical Correspondents: Why does Wild Thyme in low cold pasture-land growuponAnt-banks, and not upon level ground, or the spaces between them? Is it from some virtue or effluvia emitted from the Ants, that causes this to grow spontaneous

ly on the banks, and not upon the
adjoining level surface? Shakspeare
"I know a bank whereon the
wild thyme blows."
Yours, &c.



Surinam, July 5. HAVE seen in Part 1. p. 216, my letter of the 2d December last; and referring thereto, I have now to acquaint you, that the Lamb soon the Marmouset Monkey, being loose, died, having been very weak at first; became so troublesome, that I gave it to my A. D. C. Lieut. Thornhill of the 25th regiment. The Kitten has become a very fine large Tom Cat, and although he lives well (I believe he is too lazy to catch rats or mice) he frequently sucks in company with three puppies which the bitch has since borne. Yours, &c. P. BONHAM,

Major-general and Governor.


Dec. 16.

ALTHOUGH individual observations are oftentimes overlooked in the contemplation of general measures; yet, through the medium of your excellent Miscellany, the recommendation of being in good company may aid a remark or trouped a subject which is already anticipated in the public mind, and will of course be argued upon as it affects different classes of persons-I mean the Property-Tax-which, it is pretty plainly intimated, is to be continued or renewed. Without entering either into the objects of the Tax-or the original pressure which gave it birththe principle must impartially be allowed to be objectionable, inasmuch as it lays the foundation of its sources too deep, when it seeks to raise them from such disproportioned means. An income of 607. per ann. and even up to 4001. incapable of any increase to meet the unabating expences of the times, and liable, from situation, to the whole weight of assessment besides, are too low in the scale to contribute 107. per cent. upon the amount. Such a contribution must lie heavy upon the annuisant in the funds, the life-holder of small estates, and with aggravated grievance on many beneficed clergymen, who, compelled to reside on one particular spot, not always with equal advantages, a house perhaps dispropor


tioned in size and expence to the living, or, vice versa, the living to the house, and amenable in common with the commercial or the wealthy man to the same burthen of assessment, can hardly give out of a limited income, under these circumstances, 10 per cent. upon the gross amount of his tithes, in addition to other taxes, without considerable privations, and, if his health fail him, or he has a family, considerable distress in the event of his death.

But it may be said, a general rule cannot admit of these minute exceptions: yet, if they are known to exist, it cannot be deemed invidious to meation them, for indeed they are not likely by other means to reach the walls of St. Stephen;-where, until a late exertion of the Legislature in favour of the Clergy, their advocates seem to have been few, while the Philippics against them have been loud. Nor can it escape notice, that, destitute of some expedient to render the incomes of many of this useful body of men more adequate to support their residence, while the Bill was passing more effectually to secure that object, no saving clause had been thought of, to protect the parsonage house from being liable to assessment, under certain provisions and restrictions.

Charitable foundations, and the great trading Companies of the Metropolis, give to their spiritual persons, houses free of taxes--and, surely, are the labours of the exemplary conscientious Parish-priest less deserving at the hands of the State?

It will no doubt be said, that the Clergy are part of that State, and therefore to bear its burthens. But if Religion and sound morals be proved, from the highest antiquity, to be the animating and preserving principle of all good policy, more efficacions than any other in promoting the public security-surely, they who labour in such concern, contribute in no trifling degree to the permanency of all political society, and have a peculiar claim to the suffrages of a well regulated Government.

It may be said, Mr. Urban, that I am a cleric, and partially advocating for my brethren—or I am an annuitant -or a life-estate man-or something more insignificant; yet, if it should appear that the tax in question is

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Mr. URBAN, Pentonville, Nov. 14." PERMIT me to state that the inha

bitants of Pentonville and Islington (and probably other places) have lately been honoured with visits by two well-meaning gentlemen, whose design is, as they state, to erect, or establish, some sort of Charitable Institution, which no one ever heard of, nor they perhaps intend putting into execution. These worthy persons, so desirous of subscriptions, after inquiring for the gentleman of the house, make their obeisance, begging pardon for the great freedom of calling; and humbly submit for inspection a long list ofnames from whom, they say, have been received liberal donations for carrying into effect their laudable design. If they fail of drawing from the hard hearts of the solicited the assistance so absolutely necessary, they present a six-penny pamphlet, and demand the small charge of three shillings for the benefit of their munificent Institution. Now, Mr. Urban, I take the liberty of suggesting that the most effectual method of obtaining the requisite support would be, to publicly pronounce and declare their magnanimous intentions, most distinctly explaining the nature of the intended relief, and the characters engaged to superintend it; whereby the gentlemen would save themselves much travelling and superfluity of language, and the petitioned much anxious apprehension of being duped by needy designing persons.

If these gentlemen are actuated by disinterested motives, and should peruse this friendly hint, they may improve their charitable scheme with much less exertion than in the manner at present adopted.

Yours, &c.



1. Eustace's Classical Tour through Italy; (continued from page 560.) INtreating of the villas, in the neigor N treating of the villas in the neigh shews superior taste; and his descriptions are always glowing and satisfactory.

"We shall now proceed to the Villa Borghese, or Villa Pinciana (so called from the proximity of the Porta Pinciana, now shut up), which, from the space it occupies (supposed to be about four miles in circumference), its noble vistas, frequent fountains, ornamental buildings, superb palace, and almost innumerable, antiquities, is justly considered as the first of the Roman Villas, and worthy of being put into competition with the splendid retreats of Sallust or of Lucullus. It stands upon a continuation of the Pincian hill, at a little distance from the walls of the city, about half a mile from the Porta Flaminia, or del Popolo. It covers the brow of the bill, and from the terrace has a noble view of the City, and of the Vatican. The gardens are laid out with some regard both for the new, and for the old system, for, though symmetry prevails in general, and long alleys appear intersecting each other, lined with statues, and refreshed by cascades, yet here and there a winding path allures you into a wilderness formed of plants abandoned to their native luxuriancy, and watered by streamlets murmuring through their own artless channels. The ornamental buildings are, as usually happens to such edifices, deficient in correctness and purity of architecture. The temple of Diana is encumbered with too many ornaments. The Ionic temple in the little island is indeed graceful, but rather too narrow for its elevation,-a defect increased by the statues placed upon the pediment. One of these ornamental buildings contains a considerable collection of statues, &c. found on the site of Gabii (for ruins there are none), the territory of which now belongs to this family.

"The Casino, or palace itself, is of great extent; but, though erected on the plans and under the inspection of the principal architects of the age, and though built of the finest stone, yet it neither astonishes nor pleases. The reason of this failure of effect is evident; the ornaments are so numerous, and the parts so subdivided, as to distract the eye, and to leave no room for any one predominant impression. The bassoGENT. MAG. Suppl. LXXXIV, PART

relievos and statues scattered with such prodigality over the exterior of this Casino are sufficient, if disposed with judg

ment and effect, to adorn the three consists of several large saloons and largest palaces in Europe. The interior apartments, and a gallery; all of which, particularly the latter, are lined and inlaid with the richest marbles, and supported by the noblest pillars, intermingled with bronze and gilding, and adorned with the best specimens of antient art in sculpture and in painting. Such, indeed, is the value of this collection, and such the splendour of the apartments in which it is displayed, that no Sovereign in Europe can boast of so rich a gallery, or of a residence so truly imperial. This Villa, with its valuable collection and furniture, escaped undamaged during the French invasion, owing to the apparent partiality which one of the Princes of the family is supposed to have manifested towards the Republican system*. Its gardens are always open to the publick, who, in a Latin inscription, by no means inelegant, are welcomed, or rather invited, to the free enjoyment of all the beauties of the place, and at the same time entreated to spare the shrubs and flowers, and to respect the more valuable ornaments, the urns, statues, and marbles. The Romans accordingly profit by the invitation, and resort in crowds to the Villa Borghese, particularly on Sundays, when the walks present a very lively and varied scene, composed of persons of all descriptions and ranks, moving in all directions through the groves and alleys, or reposing in groupes in the temples or near the fountains. This liberal mode of indulging the publick in free access to palaces and gardens, and thus sharing with them, in some degree, the advantages and pleasures of luxury, a mode so common in Italy, merits much praise; and may be recommended as an example that deserves to be imitated by the proprietors of parks and pleasure grounds, particularly in the neighbourhood of great towns and cities."

We pass over a great number of interesting articles in order to meet our Traveller at Naples, a city which offers a variety of most important subjects for description and discussion.

*"This Prince has since married a sister of Buonaparte, and made over to him his unparalleled collection: he has, in return, obtained his contempt.' II.



In common with all other writers, Mr. Eustace exclaims with delight on the first view of the Bay, and the edifices that border its shores. When he awoke on the morning preceding his arrival, the azure surface of the water was as smooth as glass, over which glided countless boats.

"On the right, the town extended along the semicircular shore, and Posilipo rose close behind it, with churches and villas, vineyards and pines scáttered in confusion along its sides and on its ridge, till, sloping as it advanced, the bold hill terminated in a craggy promontory. On the left, at the end of a walk that forms the quay, and skirts the sea, the Castel del Uovo, standing on an insulated rock, caught the eye for a moment; while beyond it, over a vast expanse of water, a rugged line of mountains stretched forward, and, softening its features as it projected, presented towns, villages, and convents, lodged amidst its forests and precipices, and at length terminated in the Cape of Minerva, now of Surrentum. Opposite and fall in front rose the island of Caprese with its white cliffs and ridgy summit, placed as a barrier to check the tempest and protect the interior of the Bay from its fury. This scene, illuminated by a sun that never shines so bright on the less-favoured regions beyond the Alps, is justly considered as the most splendid and beautiful exhibition which Nature perhaps presents to the human eye, and cannot but excite in the spectator, when beheld for the first time, emotions of delight and admiration that border on enthusiasm."

Earthquakes, and the inroads of barbariaus have deprived Naples of even the vestiges of its antient magnificence; and the moderns have not supplied the deficiency by structures which our Author considers as equivalents; the churches and palaces being less remarkable for taste than their magnitude and riches. In speaking of the blood of St. Januarius, sup posed to liquefy on particular occasions, we find the following candid admission of the Author partly expressed in a note.

"His supposed blood is kept in a vial in the Tesoro, and is considered as the most valuable of its deposits, and îndeed as the glory and the ornament of the Cathedral and of the City itself. Into the truth of the supposition little inquiry is made; and in this respect, the Neapolitans seem to have adopted the maxim of the antieint Germans : Sanolius

ac reverentius de Diis credere quam scire.” The blood of St. Stephen in the Church of St. Gaudioso, belonging to the Bene dictine Nuns, is said to liquefy in the same manner, but only once a year, on the festival of the Martyr."

We should have rested perfectly satisfied with this account of the liquefaction, from which the Author's opinion might be readily gathered; and, with reference to the general libe rality of his sentiments, we cannot but feel hurt that he has considered it necessary to be more explicit in the note alluded to.

"The Author (he adds) has been adcused of a want of candour, in not having expressed in a more explicit manner his opinion of the miracle alluded to. Few readers, he conceives, will be at a loss to discover it; but, if a more open declaration can give any satisfaction, he now declares that he does not believa the liquefying substance to be the blood of St. Januarius,"

Whatever want of taste the Neapolitans have discovered in the instances adduced, the charge of a paucity of Charitable Endowments cannot be brought against them. Hospitals are very numerous, and adapted to every calamity of mind and body; many are richly endowed; they are all clean, well regulated, and equally well attended. To the infinite honour of the individuals so employed, the Hos pitals are abundantly supplied with attendants, whose sole reward is the certainty of being useful to their fellow-creatures; and the government of them is administered by persons of the highest rank and best educations.

"Besides, to almost every Hospital is attached one, and sometimes more Confraternities, or pious associations, formed for the purpose of relieving some particular species of distress, or of averting or These Confra remedying some evil. of equality, and of course open to all ternities, though founded upon the basis ranks, generally contain a very conse derable proportion of noble persons, who make it a point to fulfil the duties of the Association with an exactness as honour able to themselves, as it is exemplary and beneficial to the publick. These persons visit the respective Hospitals almost daily, inquire into the situation and circumstances of every patient, and oftentimes attend on them personally, and render them the most humble ser vices. They perform these duties in disguise, and generally in the dress or uniform worn by the Confraternity,

the express purpose of diverting public attention from the individuals, and fix Ing it on the object only of the Assodiation."

The number of Charitable foundations in Naples is upwards of sixty; seven are Hospitals, in the general acceptation of the term; thirty are receptacles for orphans, foundlings, &c.; five are Banks for the supply of the industrious Poor with small sums of money; and the remainder are Schools and Confraternities. The incomes of most of these establishments are considerable; but, whatever may be the annual deficiency, it is amply supplied by donations, most of which are from unknown benefactors.

We cannot conclude this sketch of Neapolitan charity in a way more honourable to the inhabitants than by the insertion of one paragraph more on the subject.

"When a patient has recovered his health and strength, and is about to return to his usual occupations, he receives from the Establishment a sum of money sufficient to compensate for the loss of time and labour unavoidable during his illness; a most benevolent custom, and highly worthy of imitation. A long illness or dangerous accident deprives a poor labourer or artizan so long of his ordinary wages, and throws him so far back in his little economy, that he cannot without great difficulty recover himself and regain a state of comfort. From this inconvenience the small sum grant ed by the charity of the Hospital relieves him, and restores him to his trade in health, strength, and spirits."

A long and ingenious disquisition on the site of the tomb of Virgil will amuse the classical reader. On the Author's last visit to it, he found that it sometimes afforded an asylum to assassins, and was at the moment used as a place of concealment for several Sbirri, or soldiers of the Police, who waited to seize a murderer.

(To be continued.)

2. The History of the Town and Port of Dover, and of Dover Castle, with a short Account of the Cinque Ports. By the Rev. John Lyon, Minister of St. Mary's, Dover. In 2 vols. The Second Volume, illustrated with 10 plates: 21. 2s. Longman and Co.

THAT mutilated but venerable remain of antiquity, Dover Castle, is amply and accurately described in this Second Volume of Mr. Lyon's work.

About 1780, what the Author calls the reforming, or rather deforming system began in this Castle; and, had not he taken correct plans of it previous to that period, all knowledge of its original features and structure must have been lost for ever. He is hence enabled to give an historical and ichnographical account of this building, from its reputed foundation by P. O. Scapula about A. D. 47, re jecting the fable of its erection by Julius Cæsar, down to the present age. A Pharos having been erected at Boulogne by Caligula, the utility of such a thing was no less obvious at Dover, and accordingly one was erected within the fortress. The form of the building was octagonal with out; and within, a square with equal sides, each measuring about 14 feet, and the walls to the first floor were 10 thick. Time has rendered it impossible to discover if the walls retained the same thickness, or to what height they were carried.

"It is a singular fact," observes the Author," which has for ages escaped the prying eye of the Antiquary, that the Roman masons built the walls of this Tower with a stalactical concretion (tophus)* instead of stone. It was formed under water, and they cut it into small blocks about a foot in length, and 7 inches deep; but they were not all of equal size or solidity. The walls were raised first with seven courses of the stalactical blocks, and then two courses of tiles; and this work was continued alternately: but the tiles are of different dimensions, and some of them were cast in moulds peculiar to the makers of them at this place. The tiles of the course on the Eastern side of the Tower, and nearly level with the first arch, were about 22 inches in length, with a projecting part at one end on each side, and an open space at the other, of equal dimensions, so that, when they were laid in the wall with their ends reversed, they might fit into each other. The surface of the tiles on one side had many curved furrows, and four hemispherical knobs, or one equi-distant from each angle of the tile. There were originally two windows, and as many passages, on the ground-floor, in the middle of each side of the square. The entrance on the North-East is about six feet wide, and the durability of the ma

*This is the calc tuf of Jameson and Werner; the chaux carbonatée concre tionée tuf of Brogniart; and the travertin of Breislak. REV.


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