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three new apertures have been opened, out of which smoke and ashes still continue to be occasionally thrown. The population of the province was calculated at 20,000 souls; and all who have survived the eruption have been ruined, or deprived of every thing they possessed."

forming a repository for tracts which have been or may be written on this subject by those who have made it the object of their research.

Had this been adopted only at the beginning of the last century, how great a mass of Druidism would have been transmitted to the present generation, which is now irrecoverably lost by its tremendous enemies,

Mr. URBAN, Coventry, Dec.13. AMONGST the number of Institu- agricultural innovation, and wanton

tions formed for the preservation of ancient, and accumulation of modern knowledge, it is much to be regretted that, at this momentous period, when the astonishing progress of science seems rapidly approximating that period when (in the words of the Inspired Writer) "the earth shall be filled with the know

destruction! Much, however, yet remains undescribed and unnoticed; and a vast field still presents itself to those who are inclined to explore the ap parently exhaustless subject. Yours, &c. AN EUVATE.


Piermont, Thanet,

Dec. 14. AVING observed in a late Maga

ledge of the goodness of the Lord, H zine a request from Biographi

as the waters cover the sea;" that no Society has been formed for transmitting to posterity an account of those antique relicks which almost exclusively belong to this Island-the long neglected and almost forgotten remains of the ancient Druids.

To those who consider them as a race of men somewhat advanced beyond a savage state; or, as others, who rest satisfied with Julius Cæsar's description; enough has already been said by various writers: but those who conceive Druidism to have been of divine antediluvian origin, and will patiently investigate the remains of Abury, Stone Henge, and Rowl drich, and endeavour to develope their mysterious construction, must be convinced that the little which is known of their early scientific acquirements serves only as a distant beacon, pointing out a path at whose termination the astonished spectator will be overpowered by their long ́concealed light bursting on his senses with effulgent splendour; and irrefragably convince him that numerous modern discoveries are only a renovation of their doctrines as communicated in an enigmatical shape to the initiated.

May I presume to recommend an attentive consideration of this subject to some one whose rank in life, talent, and abilities, are sufficient to insure success in the establishing a Society for the preservation of the little that now remains of their works be drawings and description, and

cus, to be informed of the issue of Sir Watkinson Payler, who was living in 1698, I (who succeeded to the Thoralby estates, in the East Riding of York,) have to inform you, that Sir Watkinson left one daughter, "Mrs. Mary Payler," who left my father (her brother) the above-mentioned estate, and entailed it on me, requesting that I might be christened Watkinson, in hopes that the title might be recovered and continued. This has never been done, although often thought of, in compliance with her wish. The Lady Staughton, mentioned by Biographicus, was my grandmother. My father was her only child. I mean to make an immediate petition for this baronetcy, having a right to the revival in my family; and am bound so to do by the consideration of Mrs. Mary Payler's most earnest wish.



Dec. 15. [Na work of such general and de served celebrity as Leland's History of Ireland, I was surprized to meet with the following inaccuracies: viz. in Vol. II. p. 182, where he speaks of Murrough O'Brien, first Earl of Thomond, he adds, "his son Connor, to whom the Earldom was limited, was by another patent created Baron of Ibrackan.” Now this is manifestly erroneous. Murrough O'Brien, Chieftain of Thomond, was created Earl of Thomond, for life, and Baron of Inchiquin, with re


mainder to his male issue. His nephew, Donogh O'Brien, (the son of his elder brother) was at the same time created Baron of Ibrackan, and Earl of Thomond; the latter title to take place on the death of his uncle, Earl Murrough. The reason of this limitation was, that Murrough had, according to the custom of Tanistry, assumed the principality of Thomond, though his elder brother Connor, Prince of Thomond, had left a son Donogh, an infant; and on his submitting to Henry VIII. was rewarded with the Earldom of Thomond, with reversion to the right heir, Donogh, whose possessions he had usurped. On Earl Murrough's death, the Earldom devolved to his nephew Donogh (from whom sprung the Earls of Thomond in Ireland, Viscounts Tadcaster of England, extinct in 1741 in Henry eighth Earl of Thomond and Viscount Tadcaster); but the Barony of Inchiquin devolved to his son, Dermod, second Lord Inchiquin, whose descendant Murrough, sixth Baron of Inchiquin, was created Earl of Inchiquin in 1654, and was ancestor of Murrough, fifth Earl of Inchiquin, created, in 1800, Marquis of Thomond, and Baron Thomond in the English Peerage, thus uniting the honours of Thomond aud Inchiquin.

The other inaccuracy in Leland is in page 232, where he speaks of M Carthy, chieftain of Desmond, being created Earl of Clancarty. - This chieftain was created (vide Beatson) Earl of Clancare, and Baron of Valentia. The Earldom of Clancarty was not conferred until more than half a century afterwards, on another branch of the Macarthy family. Yours, &c. H. M.

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N Oxford Correspondent states

A his opinion, that, under the pa

tent of Charles II. to Sir John Clot

worthy, the first Viscount Massereene, as quoted in your volumes, Lady Harriet Foster is not entitled to the honour, which he supposes to be limited to the male descendants of Sir John Skeffington, and Mary Clotworthy, daughter of the grantee. The present Earl of Massereene is the last male descendant of that marriage; but his daughter, Lady Harriet Foster, in the event of surviving

her father, certainly becomes enti tled to the Viscounty as "heir general of the body of Sir John Clotwortby."

I conceive also, that the Viscounty of Massereene thus devolving on the heir general, will in future descend, like a Barony in fee, to the heir ge neral, being a female, in preference to the collateral heir male; and that Lady Harriet's grand-daughter (through her eldest son) would take the precedence in succession from her second son. G. H. W.

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Mr. URBAN, Dec. 17. N Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, Vol. 11. p. 71. for Edward, third son, read Ewan, third son.

In the same Volume, p. 715. for Massareene, read Massereene.

Elizabeth Tonson, (see Gent. Mag, for Sept. p. 293.) was first married to Major John Reading, of Saintoff, in Yorkshire, (see Smith's History of Cork): the Rev. Percy Meade was her second husband. She was the eldest daughter of Henry Tonson, esq. of Spanish Island, co. Cork, who died Nov. 25, 1703, ætat. 37, (by Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir Richard Hull, kut. of Leameon) the only son of Richard Tonson, esq. of Spanish Island, temp. Charles II. who had a grant of lands from that monarch for his services during the civil

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PROCEEDINGS AGAINST STATÉ CRIMINALS WITHOUT TRIAL. Proceedings against ELIZ. BARTON, the Nun, commonly called THE HOLY MAID OF KENT, and the Monks her accomplices, for High Treason, 1533 and 1534, the 26 Henry VIII.

THE prisoner, Eliz. Barton, was

charged with pretending to prophecy that if the King pretended to divorce his Queen and marry another wife, he should not survive it month, but die a villain's d death; and several Franciscan monks were charged with countenancing and encourag ing these dangerous speeches; and particularly that one of them, preaching before the King at Greenwich,


denounced Heaven's judgment against him to his face; telling his Majesty, that many lying prophets had deceived him, but he, as a true Micajah, warned him that the dogs should lick his blood, as they had done Ahab's: they also encouraged Queen Catherine to stand it out, and not submit to the King.

The King hereupon, in November 1533, caused the said Eliz. Barton and her accomplices to be apprehended, and brought before the Court; among whom were the following monks, viz. Richard Master, Dr. Bocking, Richard Deering, Henry Gold, Edward Twaites, and Thomas Laurence; and here, before a great appearance of Lords, they all confessed the cheat, without being put to the torture; whereupon they were all ordered to stand exposed in St. Paul's during Divine Service, and read their respective confessions, which they did, and were afterwards committed to the Tower; but the Nun and the rest pretending afterwards that they were terrified into those confessions, the King brought the matter before the Parliament; and the Nun, with Master Bocking, Richard Reily, and Henry Gold, were attainted of High Treason; and Thomas Gold, Thomas Laurence, Edward Thwaits, John Addisson, and Thomas Abel, her confederates, were adjudged guilty of Misprision of Treason. Sir Thomas More, and Dr. Fisher Bishop of Rochester, had so far countenanced the impostor also as to converse with her in person, and send their chaplains to attend her, for which the Bishop of Rochester was attainted of Misprision of Treason by the same Act of Parliament, and Sir Thomas More's name was at first inserted in the bill of attainder, but struck out at the instance of his friends.

The Nun, with the said Master Bocking, Deering, Reily, and Gold, were executed at Tyburn on the 20th of April; where the Nun declared, that she justly deserved to die, though those who suffered with her, she said, were more to blame: they were learned men, but she a poor illiterate wench, whom they praised beyond measure, because they profited by what she feigned, and suggested to her that it was the Holy Ghost, and not she that spake; that she, being puffed up with their praises, thought

she might feign what she would, and that had brought her into this condition; she begged God's and the King's pardon, and desired the prayers of the multitude.

The King also, to shew his resentment against the Observant Friars who principally encouraged this imposture, expelled from their houses those of Richmond, Greenwich, Canterbury, Newark, and Newcastle. And the insolence of those friars is supposed to be one of the principal inducements the King had for surpressing the rest of the monasteries, where visions and miracles were too often pretended, to advance the interest of the monks in general, or of their respective houses.

This Nun was originally an inhabitant of the village of Addington in Kent; and, being subject to hysterical fits, which distorted her limbs and features, she said many things that carried an air of piety and devotion in those fits; and was generally taken by the people of the neighbourhood to be inspired, of which the said Richard Master, Vicar of the parish, being informed, proposed to make great advantage, as it is said, and taught her to counterfeit trances, and inveigh against the wickedness of the times, and particularly against heresy and innovation in religion. Master afterward confederating with the abovesaid Dr. Bocking, a canon of Christ Church in Canterbury, they persuaded her to chuse Bocking for her confessor, and to remove to the Nunnery of St. Sepulchre, in Canterbury, where she took the habit, and pretended to prophesy, as related already.


Dec. 26.

IN of hate timal query; but N general I hate the pedantic af

a satisfactory answer to my present question, your Readers will find neither unamusing nor uninstructive.

No Author or Antiquary has yet, I think, decidedly mentioned for what precise purpose the Holly and Evergreens are placed in houses and churches at Christmas. One venerable Autient assures us, with an excellent grace, that the "misletoe was hung in houses and churches at the end of the year, to disperse the Evil spirits which at that time assembled.” Another wisely informs us, that "it

is a custom copied from our Pagan ancestors," but keeps us quite in the dark with respect to their intentions in making use of it.-From another Reverend Father we learn

-Then they use the Bacchus weed, Because they mean then Bacchus-like to feed."

Dr. Chandler says, "the houses were decked with evergreeus in December, that the Sylvan spirits might repair to them, and remain unnipped by the frost and cold winds, until a milder season renewed the foliage."

All these learned and ingenious surmises are equally likely, and equally fantastic.

Bourne, Stow, Dekker, Coates, and Herbert, are good authorities, that it has been a custom time immemorial; but they are all silent with respect to its origin and intention: at least I can collect from them little else than that it was more used in the Universities and the Southern parts of Britain than in the North ;~ and that the misletoe was not allowed to be used in Cathedrals and Churches, because it was considered to be a prophane plant, on account of the uses to which it was applied by the Druids. Now, Sir, I am well assured that your Correspondents are both numerous enough, and sufficiently skilled in ancient lore and antiquarian research, to solve all the doubts, and answer all the questions (which will admit of solutions or answers) that can be put to them upon the subject of the manners and customs of our forefathers. Some one of them will perhaps give himself the trouble, and me the pleasure, of a satisfactory answer to this hitherto unanswered question. W. D. W.

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* Rev. Rich. Geo. Barrington, Viscount Barrington, Preb. of Durham. Very Rev. James Hewitt, LL. D, Viscount Lifford, Dean of Armagh.

Hon. and Right Rev. Will. Beresford, D. D. Archbp. of Tuam, Lord Decies.

Right Hon. and Right Rev. Lord John Geo. Beresford, D. D. Bishop of Raphoe. Heir Presumptive to the Marquisate of Waterford.

Right, Hon. and Right Rev. Lord Rob. Loftus, Bishop of Killaloe. To the Marquisate of Ely.

Hon. and Rev. Aug. Barry. To the Earldom of Barrymore.

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Rev. Will. Crosbie. To the Barony of Bandon.

Hon. and Rev. Fr. P. Stratford. To the Earldom of Aldborough.

* Hon. and very Rev. Richard Bourke, Dean of Ardagh. To the Earldom of Mayo.

The Hon, and Rev. Hamilton Cuffe. To the Barony of Desart.

P. S. I should be glad, in my turn, to learn from some Correspondent who may be considered the heir presumptive to the Marquisate of Sligo, none being given in Debrett, or the other Peerages of the day?

Mr. URBAN, West-Ham, Nov. 26. O the Gentleman's Magazine, which N turning over the volumes of

contain a valuable collection of letters on subjects of Antiquity, I do not recollect any Essay on the Numeral Roman Characters now used in England; and wish therefore some Correspondent fond of such research, would oblige the publick with his thoughts relating to them. I apprehend they were introduced into this Island in the first century, but in what year, remains a question yet involved in obscurity. INDAGATOR.



Nov. 30.

THINK the following Epitaph, which I copied on a late tour over the Continent, from a plain, but neat and appropriate monument near Leipsig, may not be an unacceptable communication. If the closing lines of it are ipso facto true--there may be in the Polish regiments some common soldiers, who, perhaps, could graduate at one of our Universities.

Yours, &c. COSMOPOLITES. "Hic in undis Elystri Josephus Poniatowsky Princeps summus, exercitus Polonorum præfectus, Imperii Gallici Mareschallus, tribus vulneribus letiferis acceptis, ultimus ex acie discedens, dum receptum magni Gallorum exercitus tue

Son of the late Earl of Mayo, and Archbp, of Tuam, who was son of John Earl of Mayo, by the grand-daughter of John Parker, Archbp. of Dublin. Dean Bourke, above named, is married to a daughter of Rob. Fowler, Archbp. of Dublin, and is brother of the Hon. Joseph and George Bourke, both clergy. men of the Established Church. Few noble families can boast such intimate and such repeated connexion with the ecclesiastical order.

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Upon the Coronation of his preWasdole, (who was then a medical sent Majesty, the late Doctor John practitioner at Carlisle, but latterly resided inSpring-Gardens), travelled on horseback from Carlisle to London, being a distance of 306 miles, in 28 hours; and immediately after the conclusion of the ceremony, he set off for Carlisle, also on horseback, and arrived at home in less than 29 hours; being a distance of 612 miles in 57 successive hours, and at the rate of about 11 miles an hour the whole way. What rendered the expedition of this arduous journey the more remarkable was, that the Doctor encountered much difficulty in procuring posthorses, owing to the number of carriages that were passing along the road on that memorable occasion. Yours, &c.


P. I.

Aug. 22.


A STONE with the following in scription was lately found in digging the foundation of a church at Norton, near New Malton, Yorkshire and near the same place were found also one entire urn, some fragments of urns, parts of a patera, and one of the ears with the mouth of a vase or guttu. The stone is 13 inches by 8 inches, and appears to have been inserted in a building as one of the walling-stones. Yours, &c.







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