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his relations, he had the Court's leave to inform him, they had found the Admiral capitally guilty, and requested him to prepare him for his sentence. The gentleman to whom this communication was made, went up to him immediately, but could not for some time address him, he was so much overcome with the most poignant surprise and grief: his countenance, however, and the embarrassment of his manner, led the Admiral to suspect that he was advancing towards him to communicate some unpleasant intelligence; and he said to him, 'What is the matter? have they broke me?' The gentleman, perceiving from this question. that he was totally unprepared for his sentence, besitated still more: upon which the countenance of the Admiral was observed to change a little, and he added, "Well, I understand if nothing but my blood will satisfy, let them take it. A few minutes afterwards, one of his friends endeavoured to support and reconcile him to his fate, by observing, that a sentence without guilt could be no stain; and that when all the circumstances of his case were taken into consideration, it was extremely improbable that the sentence now passed upon him would be carried into execution; he begged him, therefore, to indulge the hope of obtaining a pardon. To this he replied, What will that signify to me? What satisfaction can I receive from the liberty to crawl a few years longer on the earth, with the infamous load of a pardon at my back? I despise life upon such terms, and would rather have them take it.""


When the fatal day, March 14, arrived,

"About 11 o'clock, Admiral Byng walking across his cabin, and observing

the crowd of boats out of one of the cabin windows, took up a spying-glass, to view them more distinctly. The decks, shrouds, and yards of all the ships that lay near, were crowded with men; upon which he remarked, 'Curiosity is strong; it draws a great number of people together; but their curiosity will be disappointed: where they are, they may hear, but they cannot see.' A gentleman said to him, To see you so easy and composed, Sir, gives me as much pleasure as I can have on this occasion; but I expected no less from the whole of your conduct heretofore; and the last actions of a man mark his charac ter more than all the actions of his life.' I am sensible they do, Sir,' replied he, and am obliged to you for putting me in mind. I find innocence is the best

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foundation for firmness of mind.'-He continued to walk about in the cabin for some time; enquired what time it would be high water; observed that the tide would not suit to carry his body ashore after dark; expressed some apprehensions, that his body might be insulted, if it were carried ashore in the day-time, on account of the prejudices of the people against him: but his friends assuring him that there was no such disposition among the inhabitants. of Portsmouth, he appeared very well satisfied on that head.-He walked out of the great cabin to the quarter deck, accompanied by a clergyman, who had attended him during his. confinement; and two gentlemen, his relations. One of these went with him to the cushion, and offered to tie the bandage over his eyes; but he having a white handkerchief ready folded in his hand, replied, with a smile on his countenance, I am obliged to you, Sir; I thank God I can do it myself; I think I can; I am sure I can ;" and tied it behind his head himself. He continued upon his knees rather more than a minute, much composed, and apparently recommending himself to the Almighty; and then dropped his handkerchief, the signal agreed upon, a few minutes before twelve o'clock. On this, a volley was fired from the six marines, five of whose bullets went through him, and he was

in an instant no more.'

"Voltaire, in his Age of Lewis XV. chapter 31, mentioning the condemna, tion of Admiral Byng, says, that Marshal Richelieu, who, from the height of a plain country, had seen all the engagement, and who could form a judgment. of it, in vain sent a declaration to him (Voltaire,) in justification of Admiral Byng, which soon reached the King of England; but he does not give Marshal Richelieu's declaration; the following are copies of it, and of the letter which Voltaire wrote, in English, to the Admiral, when he transmitted the Marshal's.

"Sir-Though I am almost unknown to you, I think it is my duty to send you the copy of the letter which I have just received from the Marshal Duke of Richelieu honour, humanity and equity command me to convey it into your hands. This noble and unexpected testimony, from one of the most candid, as well as the most generous of my countrymen, makes me presume your judges will do you the same justice. I am, with respect, Sir, &c. VOLTAIRE. To the Hon. J. Byng, Esq.' "Sir-I am very sensibly concerned for Admiral Byng. I do assure you, whatever

whatever I have seen or heard of him, dees him honour. After having done all that man could reasonably expect from him, he ought not to be censured for suffering a defeat. When two commanders contend for victory, though both are equally men of honour, yet one must necessarily be worsted; and there is nothing against Mr. Byng but his be ing worsted, for his whole conduct was that of an able seaman, and is justly worthy of admiration. The strength of the two fleets was at least equal: the English had thirteen ships, and we twelve, much better furnished and much cleaner. Fortune, that presides over all battles, and especially those that are fought at sea, was more favourable to us than to our adversaries, by sending our balls into their ships with greater execution. I am persuaded, and it is the generally-received opinion, that if the English had obstinately continued the engagement, their whole fleet would have been destroyed. In short, there can be no higher act of injustice, than what is now attempted against Admiral Byng; and all men of honour, and all gentlemen of the army, are particularly interested in the event. RICHELIEU.""

"I received this original letter from Marshal Duke de Richelieu, the 1st of January, 1757, in witness of which I have signed my name,


In the Memoir of Admiral Hawke, his glorious contest with Conflans, in November 1758, is thus related:

"On the 20th, about half an hour after eight o'clock in the morning, the Maidstone frigate let fly her topgallant sails, which was a signal for discovering a fleet. About nine Lord Howe, in the Magnanime, made signal that they were enemies. Sir Edward Hawke immediately told his officers, that he did not intend to trouble himself with forming lines, but would attack them in the old way, to make downright work with them; and accordingly he threw out a signal for seven of his ships to chace, in order to allure the enemy to fight.-As the British neared on the French, the weather became squally and rough; but Conflans in a very gallant style seemed to offer battle: his courage, however, soon cooled, and long before the fleets were within the range of shot, he changed his plan, and stood right afore the wind towards the shore. It was two in the afternoon before our headmost ships could get up with his rear; but at that time the Warspite and Dorsetshire began to fire.-The imagination can conceive nothing more sublime than the spectacle which the hostile squadrons

presented at this moment. A dreadful storm darkened the face of the heavens. The sea was rolling in tremendous waves, which on all sides were dashing themselves into foam on treacherous rocks and shallows unknown to the English pilots. In the midst of these terrible circumstances, calculated from the very majesty of the physical power in action, to awe and intimidate, two adverse navies, the greatest that had been employed in one of the greatest wars in the annals of Europe, freighted with the fate, and worthy of being entrusted with the glory of the rival nations, were preparing for battle.-It was a moment, as if nature had resolved to contrast the tameness of physical terror with the grandeur of heroism; and to shew how much more sublime are the moral sentiments of a collected mind, than all the aweful phænomena of the heavens darkened, and the ocean agitated by a tempest, with the multifarious dangers of secret rocks and unknown shallows.-In the open sea Conflans might have hazarded a battle, without the imputation of temerity, as his fleet was equal in force to that of. Hawke, but like a prudent commander, he endeavoured to avail himself of all the advantages arising from the local knowledge of his pilots, who were well acquainted with the navigation of the shallows. He directed them to steer in

such a manner, as to decoy the English among the rocks. But the very execution of this proceeding, which at the time was thought disreputable to his character as a commander, required more time in execution than the occasion allowed, and the British ships came up with the French before they were well prepared for action. At half an hour after two o'clock, the British van opened their fire on the French rear. The Formidable, a French man-of-war, commanded by Admiral de Verger, a man of great courage and noble determination, behaved in the most heroic manner; broadside after broadside were poured into her by the British, as they sailed successively past towards the van of the Enemy; and she returned their fire with a promptitude that excited the admiration of friends and foes. In the mean time, the Royal George, with Hawke on board, was approaching the Soleil Royal, which bore the flag of Conflans. Intent, as it were, only on her prey, she passed on without heeding the shot of the other ships. The sea was dashing over her bows, and as she came rapidly nearer, she appeared as if she had been actuated by the furiousness of rage. Her pilot seeing the breakers



foaming on every side, told the Admiral that he could not go farther, without the most imminent danger from the shoals. You have done your duty in pointing out the danger,' said Hawke;

but lay me alongside of the Soleil Royal.' The pilot bowed in obedience, and gave the necessary orders.-The Superbe, a French ship of seventy guns, perceiving what was intended by the movements of the English Admiral, generously interposed between her commander, and received the whole fatal broadside which the Royal George had intended for Monsieur Conflans. The thunder of the explosion was succeeded by a wild shriek from all on board: the British sailors gave a shout of triumph, which was instantly checked by a far other feeling; for the smoke clearing away, only the masts of the Superbe, with her colours still flying, were seen above the water, and in a moment they were covered by a roll of the sea, and seen no more: but the Soleil Royal was spared; she escaped to the shore, where she was afterwards burnt with disgrace. -About four in the afternoon, the Formidable, which had maintained the whole battle with such heroic determination, struck her colours, but not until after all her officers had been killed. The Heros, a seventy-four, also struck; and the Thesee, of seventy guns, was sunk like the Superbe.-Darkness coming on, the remainder of the Enemy's fleet fled; seven ships of the line hove their guns overboard, and ran into the river Villaix; about as many more, in a shattered condition, escaped to other ports.The wind blowing strong inshore, Hawke made the signal for anchoring to the westward of the small island of Dumet. Here the fleet remained during the night, and as the tempest continued to increase, the darkness was occasionally broken by the flashes of cannon, and the howl of the wind; and the roar of the breakers was augmented in horror by the sound of guns of distress.-This action, more memorable on account of the terrific circumstances in which it was fought, than any other of equal magnitude in the annals of heroic achievement, was duly appreciated by the whole of Europe at the time; and the celebrated Voltaire did honour to that gallantry of his nation, which has since been so lamentably obscured by the atrocious and vulgar miscreants, who, from the commencement of the revolution, have successively usurped the antient government,-in admitting that there were natural circumstances, which gave an inherent superiority to the English ma

rine, in all ages, over that of France.In stating this, it ought not to be concealed, that the character of the French nation had even then, in the public conduct of its officers, in many instances, declined from the integrity of its former honour; and that in the transactions which immediately originated from this engagement, the symptoms of that abominable profligacy which has in later times spread a moral pestilence throughout the world, were very distinctly manifested."

The character of this brave Admiral is elegantly delineated:

"Lord Hawke indicated by his external qualities the natural vigour of his intellectual faculties. He was above the ordinary stature of his countrymen; and the structure of his frame had that uniform compactness of appearance throughout, which makes the body seem as if it were in all its limbs subject to the action of the mental powers-an organization equally remote from meagreness, the uniform sign of some mental weakness, when it is not the effect of disease, and from pillowyness of muscle, which is as uniformly an index of the indolence that occasions stupidity. He was, however, rather a well-formed than a handsome man: the expression of his countenance was more respectable than agreeable, for, although his disposition was neither haughty nor passionate, there was a tincture of severity in his character, which repressed the affection of familiarity. His forehead was tall, but somewhat square, indicating at once quickness of apprehension, and that firmness of resolution which is distinguished from obstinacy, by being subject to the influence of persuasion. It was only in the cast of his eyes that the symptoms of his constitutional severity manifested itself; for in other respects, we should have expected from the character in the rest of his features, that he was a man of frank inclinations, and disposed to jocularity, though his humour might have been tinged with satire. Nothing in his appearance could have led the world to believe him eccentric; but there was much to excite respect, and to induce a belief that he was no ordinary character. His life, conduct, and great success, verify and confirm these observations."

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téan effort: but, from the late events, the Author himself thinks it sary to account for the seeming inconsistency of prophesying what has already taken place."

"The greatest part of this Poem was written abroad, when it was understood there that Buonaparte was pursuing a rapid career of victory into the heart of Russia; and was ready for the press the beginning of last November-it cannot be material to the Reader to know why it was not published before."

The Satire concludes by a remark, that, if Napoleon be not bereft of every spark of truth,

"He must himself confess, his claims all lost,

Or centres all in this poor single boast: The brightest genius in the embattled [yield, Beneath whose arm the greatest heroes In human butchery skill'd, the first of [guin'd plain, Whose bloody triumphs stain th' ensanVain madman, no! the meteor's feeble [dayIs sought in vain, amidst the blaze of As misty vapours of a summer's night. Disperse and fly before the morning's light;

So all thy glories vanish in the flame, The splendid lustre of a Wellesley's name, Marcellus' sword he bears, and Fabius' shield, [yield;

All to his prudence or his fire must And what to glory adds a nobler grace, No pang of conscience can its charms efface,

Staff of the weak, the lowly, and op[name is blessed: By all whose prayers have weight, his The scourge of tyrants, to the good a friend, [end. Wisdom his guide, and justice is his Nations that felt death's agonizing pang, By him are rescued from the lion's fang, Like Jesse's son, the shaggy beast he [throat;

Tore the poor bleeding victim from his Drove him with shame a fugitive from [pain.

Spain, Writhing with guilt, and agony, and

10. Thoughts on various Charitable and other important Institutions, and on the best Mode of conducting them. To which is subjoined An Address to the Females of the rising Generation. By Catharine Cappe. Dedicated, by Permission, to William Wilberforce, Esq. 8vo. pp. 110. Longman and Co.

Mrs. Cappe has several times appeared before the publick as a WriGENT. MAG. July, 1814.

ter; and uniformly with credit for benevolence and good intention. In the present Tract she discusses some important points, relative principally to the Education of Females, arranged, under the following heads:

1. An Inquiry into the Motives that led to the Institution of the various Female Charity Schools throughout the Kingdom about the beginning of the last Century; the objects intended to be obtained by them; the peculiar Abuses to which they are liable; and the best Means of preventing or rectifying these Abuses-exemplified in a His tory of the Grey Coat School in York."

2. "On the new Regulations intro duced into the Grey Coat School by the Ladies' Committee, and of the Suce cess of their arrangements."

3. "Of the comparative Advantages of the many long-established Charity Schools in various parts of this Kingdom, even when under the best Regulation; and of Day Schools;-whether as they regard Society at large, or the Benefit of the Individuals educated in them."

4. "On the Practice of Apprenticing Females for their Labour."

5. Further Considerations on the subject of Female Apprenticeships, and especially with reference to those placed out by the Foundling Hospital."

6. Reflections on the want of Success in attaining the Objects of many benevolent Institutions. - Female Apprenticeships one Cause of Failure.Suggestions respecting the best Mode of placing out young Girls on their leaving a Charity School."

7. "On the great Utility of Benefit Clubs, or Friendly Societies."

8. "On Hospitals or Infirmaries for the diseased Poor, stating the Importance of Lady Visitors to Female Wards."

In a note on her concluding Essay Mrs. Cappe says,

"I am told that it is no uncommon thing for the education of a young lady, at one of these fashionable seminaries, to cost from five hundred to one thousand pounds per annum!! How large a portion of this sum is expended on posture-masters, attitude-masters, the teachers of the waltz, and the fandango, I am not competent to say; but I will venture to affirm that the parents or guardians of these unfortunate young people may be said in respect to them, cation is concerned,) in the words of (as far at least as this part of their edu the general confession in the established liturgy, to have literally left undone those things which they ought to have done, and to have done those things which they ought not to have done."""


11. Reflec

11. Reflections on Materialism, Immaterialism, the Sleep of the Soul, an Intermediate State, and the Resurrection of the Body; being an Attempt to prove that the Resurrection commences at Death. By John Platts. 8vo. pp. 40. Sherwood and Co. AFTER the able and the candid manner in which this important question has recently been discussed by several of our ingenious Correspon dents (see p. 17.) it may be sufficient to cite the following paragraph:

"The sum of what I have said, may be reduced to the following propositions. That death is neither the destruction, nor the interruption of human consciousness. That there is neither an intermediate state of happiness, nor of insensibility between death and the resurrection. That there will be no resurrection of the body. That the resurrection means, either a future state, or, the transition to that state, and that it commences immediately at death; when we shall appear before the Judgment-seat of Christ, and receive, according to the things done in the body, whether they were good, or whether they were evil; and that this is the coming of Christ, the end of the world, and the Judgment-day, to every individual. I am not so vain as to suppose, that what I have written will decide this difficult question. After all, we must

Wait the great teacher Death, and God

adore :'

being fully assured, that, living or dying, in the instant of birth, or in the moment of death, we are safe in the hands of the all-merciful and ever-living Creator of all beings and all worlds."

12. The Tyrant's Downfall; NapoleIonics; and The White Cockade. By William-Thomas Fitz-Gerald, Esq.Exit Tyrannus.-8vo. pp. 32.

A very elegant republication of the several Philippics of our moderu Tyrtæus, against the Emperor Napoleon in the plenitude of his power.

"Nothing," says Mr. Fitz-Gerald, "is more common than for men of unsettled Principles, and vacillating Politics, to boast of their consistency; or for Writers, both in Prose and Verse, to elaim for themselves, the Merit of predicting Great Events, after their full accomplishment. To avoid these observations applying to himself, the Author begs leave to refer his Reader to the dates of his Napoleonics, and partieularly to The White Cockade, printed at the end of The Extracts, and pub,

lished last January, to prove his legitimate title to the Prophetical meaning of VATES whether he has the smallest claim to the Poetical sense of that word, it would be presumption in him to determine; that must rest with the Public, from whose Verdict there is no Appeal : all be can call his own are Consistency Country, unbiassed by Party considerof Character, a devoted love to his ations, and an undeviating detestation of the greatest and basest Tyrant that was ever permitted to desolate the Earth! Perhaps he ought to make some apology for coining the word Napoleonics; but he wanted a short explanatory title for the series of Poetical Attacks, which he has, systematically, made upon The Corsican for the last ten years."

Happy in catching at the proper moment for celebrating the virtues of our late illustrious Visitor, the republication is thus inscribed:

"The Homage of an Englishman to ALEXANDER the Great and Good! At length arriv'd the long-expected day, Emperor of all the Russias. When Britons prov'd how willingly they Homage to Virtue, Honour, and Renown, pay In the great Prince who wears the Russian Crown!


The Tyrant conquer'd, and the World restor❜d, Sword;

By Russia's Valour, and Britannia's To Freedom's Noble Isle, endear'd to Fame,

came !

The Good, the Glorious Alexander When the fell Corsican's destroying hand Ravag'd with Sword and Fire his Native Land;

Th' Imperial Hero scorn'd to basely yield,

But led his Warriors to the Patriot Field; There crush'd the Foe-and from the [Seine !

Russian Plain, Pursued the Plunderer to the Banks of When guilty Paris open'd wide her Gate, When all her Crimes in conscious WitAnd at his feet lay trembling for her Fate; [Foes!

ness rose,

And Hope despair'd of Pity from her Great Alexander, as humane as brave, Renounc'd Revenge, and conquer'd but

to save!

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