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spigot, and then will join your excellence | farther, my lord, yet a little farther,' cried the sisted in my original determination. “I must with my trusty iron hearts, who are picking African; they are a long way off still we repeat,' answered I, that I can give this to out the fattest rebels from the windows. Should are nearing the boats – see, the head boat is no one but his eminence himself, without an need be, we will cover your retreat, and as we steering totvards us! Yet a little farther, for express order from his own hand to do so.' have often tasted your bounty, will die in your the love of Heaven ! The unfortunate vice-Pshaw!' cried he, with something of a smile, defence.' In dangerous circumstances there is roy staggered on for a few paces more, when and taking up a pen, which lay with some much magic in a fearless tone; and Don José his weariness again overcame him, his lips sheets of paper on the table, he dipped it in spoke of death in so careless a manner, that I turned livid, his eyes closed, and he fell faint- the ink, and scrawled in a large, bold handcould not help thinking some of the soldiers ing upon the sand. Running down as fast as • Deliver your packet to the bearer, who had been most eager to light the viceroy, I could to the sea, I filled two of the large
• Richelieu.' were somewhat ashamed of their cowardly civi. shells that I found with water, and carrying I made him a low bow and placed the letter in lity. About forty of the bravest soldiers in the them back, dashed the contents on his face ; his hands. He read it, with the quick and in. garrison, who remained with the officer who but it was in vain ; and I went back again for telligent glance of one enabled by long habit to had spoken, would indeed have rendered the more, when on turning round, I saw a fresh collect and arrange the ideas conveyed to him viceroy's escape to the boats secure, but Don party of the insurgents coming down a sloping with that clear rapidity possessed alone by men José was prevented from fulfilling his design. piece of ground that broke the height close by. of genius. In the mean time, I watched his We descended the stairs as fast as the viceroy It would have been base to have abandoned countenance, seeking to detect amongst all the could go; and, at the end of about a hundred him at such a moment, and I returned to his lines with which years and thought had chan. steps, entered a long excavated passage leading side with all speed. The first of the peasantry nelled it, any expression of the stern, vindicfrom the arsenal to the sea-shore, cut through were already within a few paces, and their tive, despotic passions, which the world charged the earth and rock for nearly half a mile, and brows were still knit and their eyes still flash. him withal, and which his own actions suffi. lined throughout with masonry. At the far. ing with the ferocious excitement of all the ciently evinced. It was not there, howeverther extremity of this were just disappearing, deeds they had done during the course of that all was calm. Suddenly raising his eyes, his as we descended, the torches of the other sol- terrible morning. As they rushed on, I saw look fell full upon me, as I was thus busily diers who had taken the first mention of flight Garcias a step or two behind, and called to him scanning his countenance, and I know not as an order to put themselves in security, and loudly in French to come forward and protect why, but my glauce sunk in the collision. had consequently led the way with great expe- the viceroy, assuring him that he bad wished Hal' said he, rather mildly than otherwise, dition. In a moment or two after — by what the people well, and even had been the means you were gazing at me very strictly, sir. Are accident it happened I know not-an explosion of saving my life. The smuggler made no re- you a reader of countenances?' • Not in the took place that shook the earth on which we ply, but starting forward, knocked aside the least, monseigneur,' replied I; “I was but stood, and roared through the cavern as if the point of a gun that one of the peasants had learning a lesson—to know a great man when world were riven with the shock. * God of levelled at my head, and catching me firmly by I see one another time. That answer, sir, heaven! they have blown themselves up!'| the arm, held me with his gigantic strength, would make many a courtier's fortune,' said cried the viceroy pausing ; but the negro hur-while the people rushed on upon their victim. the minister; nor shall it mar yours, though ried him on, and we soon reached the sands The negro strode across his master, and drew I understand it. Remember, flattery is never under the cliffs to the left of the city. To the his dagger - one of the insurgents instantly lost at a court! 'Tis the same there as with a cold chilliness of the vault through which we rushed upon him, and fell dead at his feet. woman-if it be too thick, she may wipe some had hitherto proceeded, now succeeded the Another succeeded, when the dagger broke of it away, as she does her rouge; but she will burning heat of a cloudless sun in Spain. It upon his ribs — the noble slave cast it from take care not to brush off all!' To be detected was but spring, but no one knows what some him, and throwing himself prostrate on the in flattery has something in it so degrading, spring days are at Barcelona, except those who body of his master, died with him, under a that the blood rushed up into my cheek, with have experienced them; and by the pale cheek, hundred wounds."
the burning glow of shame. A slight smile haggard eye, and staggering pace of the vice Though the interview with Richelieu is curled the minister's lip. • Come, sir,' he con. roy, I evidently saw that if the boats were far somewhat long for our pages, it is too well tinued, 'I am going forth for half an hour, off, he would never be able to reach them. We painted to be omitted.
but I may have some questions to ask you; saw them, however, pulling towards the shore “ He led me into a small hall, and thence therefore, I will beg you to wait my return. about three-quarters of a mile farther up, and into a cabinet beyond, hung with fine tapestry, Do not stir from this spot. There, you will the very sight was gladdening. Four or five and lighted single silver lamp. Here he find food for the mind,' he proceeded, pointing soldiers remained, as I have said, with their bade me sit down and left me. In a few mi-out a small case of books; in other respects, commander, and lighted us along the gallery; nutes a door on the other side of the room you shall be taken care of. I need not warn but the moment they were in the open air, opened, and a cavalier entered, dressed in a you to discretion. You have proved that you the view of the boats, towards which their rich suit of black velvet, with a hat and plume. possess that quality, and I do not forget it.' companions who had gone on before were He was tall, thin, and pale, with a clear bright Thus speaking he left me, and for a fett now crowding, was too much for the con-eye, and fine decided features. His beard was minutes I remained struggling with the flood stancy of most of them, and without leave or small and pointed, and his face oval, and some of turbulent thoughts which such an interview orders, all but two ran forward to join the rest. what sharp; and though there was a slight pours upon the mind. This, then, was the The tide was out; and stretching along the stoop of his neck and shoulders, as if time or great and extraordinary minister, who at that margin of the sea, a smooth dry sand offered a disease had somewhat enfeebled his frame, yet moment held in his hands the fate of half firm and pleasant footing, but a multitude of it took nothing from the dignity of his de- Europe--the powers of whose mind, like Ni. large black rocks, strewed irregularly about meanour. He started, and seemed surprised at order, the tempest-god of the ancient Gants, upon the shore, obliged us to make a variety seeing any one there, but then immediately raised, guided, and enjoyed the winds and the of turns and circuits, doubling the actual dis. advanced, and looking at me for a moment, storms, triumphing in the thunders of continual tance we were from the boats. The cries and with a glance which read deeply whatever lines war, and the whirlwinds of political intrigue! shouts from the place of the late combat burst it fell upon—' Who are you?' demanded he: In a short time two servants brought in a small upon our ears the moment we had issued from what do you want? what paper is that in table of lapis lazuli, on which they proceeded to the passage, and sped on us with greater ra- your hand?' 'My name,' replied I, 'is Louis spread various sorts of rare fruits and wines; pidity. Seeing that he could hardly proceed, Count de L'Orme; my business is with the putting on also a china cup and a vase, which I took the left arm of the viceroy, while his Cardinal de Richelieu, and this paper is one I supposed to contain coffee-_a beverage that I faithful negro supported him on the right, and which I am charged to deliver into his hand. had often heard mentioned by my good prehurried him towards the boats; but the mo. Give it to me,' said the stranger, holding out ceptor Father Francis, who had tasted it in the ment after, another shout burst upon our ear. his hand. My eye glanced over his unclerical East, but which I had never before met with. It was nearer, far nearer," than the rest; and habiliments, and' I replied, “ You must excuse All this was done with the most profound turning my head, I beheld a body of the pea- me. This paper, and the farther news I bring, silence, and with a gliding, ghost-like step, santry pursuing us, and arrived at about the can only be given to the cardinal himself.' which must certainly have been learned in the same distance from us that we were from the It shall go safe,' he answered in a stern tone. prisons of the Inquisition. At length one of boats. The viceroy heard it also, and easily Give it to me, young sir.' There was an these stealthy attendants desired me, in the interpreted its meaning. I can go no far- authority in his tone that almost induced me name of his lord, to take some refreshment, ther,' said he; - but I can die here as well as a to comply; but reflecting that I might be called and then, with a low reverence, quitted the few paces or a few years beyond ;' and he made to a severe account by the unrelenting minis- cabinet, as if afraid that I should make him a faint effort to draw his sword. Yet a little ter, even for a mere error in judgment, I per-| any answer. I could not help thinking, as
they left me, what a system of terror that must 7 of melancholy meaning, to which I did not shall give our readers the most just idea of be, which could drill any two Frenchmen into well know how to reply. I have certainly the industry and research requisite for such a silence like this ! However, I approached the never considered Ovid in that light,' replied I, task :table, and indulged myself with a cup of most and I have to thank your eminence for the “ I have already mentioned five editions of exquisite coffee, after which I examined the pleasure I shall doubtless enjoy in tracing the the Innamorato, which I have collated in order book-case, and glancing my eye over histo- allegories throughout. The thanks are not to render my own correct; and I have now to ries and tragedies, and essays and treatises, my due,' replied the minister; an English add, that I have also collated every line of the I fixed at length upon Ovid, from a sort statesman, near a century ago, wrote a book poem with two other editions in the library of of instinctive feeling, that the mind, when upon the subject, and shewed his own wisdom, the British Museum. I cannot say that any one it wishes to fly from itself, and the too sad while he pointed out that of the ancients. In of these is good, although each of them offers realities of human existence, assimilates much England the reign of reason is much stronger some correct readings peculiar to itself. I had more easily with any thing imaginative than than it is with us in France, though they may at first chosen for my text that of Zoppino, with any thing true. I was still reading, be considered as a younger people.' Then does 4to. 1532 or 33, with which the two editions and though sometimes falling into long lapses your eminence consider,' demanded I, that of Niccolini dated 1539 and 1544 generally of thought, I was nevertheless highly enjoying the change from feeling to reason proceeds agree. These are, however, too modern, and the beautiful fictions of the poet, when the apace with the age of nations, as well as with are often capriciously altered by the editors. door was again opened, and the minister re- men ?' "In general, I think it does,' replied Whenever the pronoun lui occurs instead of appeared. I instantly laid down the book and he; nations set out, bold, generous, hasty, egli, in these editions quel has been substituted. rose, but pointing to a chair, he bade me be carried away by impulse rather than by thought; In like manner, whenever the poet has taken seated, and taking up my book, turned over easily led, but not easily governed. Gradually, too great a license, some alteration has been the pages for a few moments, while a servant however, they grow politic, careful, anxious to made to avoid it. I could not, therefore, al. brought him a cup of fresh coffee and a biscuit. increase their wealth, somewhat indolent, till ways follow the text adopted in these three
Are you fond of Ovid ?' demanded he, at at length they creep into their dotage even like editions ; but I have selected that reading length; and then, without allowing me time to men.-But,' he added, after a pause, the wbich seemed to me most likely to have been reply, he added, “ he is my favourite author ; 1 world is too young for us to talk about the that of the author, whatever was the edition read him more than any other book.' The tone history of nations. All we know is, that they which suggested it, although it might sound which he took was that of easy, common con- have their different characters like different strange to modern Italians; and I have in. versation, which two persons perfectly equal in men, and of course some will preserve their serted such various readings, as I thought deevery respect might be supposed to hold upon vigour longer than others, some will die violent serving notice on account of their peculiarity. any indifferent subject : and I, of course, an- deaths, some end by sudden diseases, some by I have sometimes given the reasons for my swered in the same. Ovid,' I said, 'is cer- slow decay. A hundred thousand years hence, preference; but the work would have extended, tainly one of my favourite poets, but I am men may know what nations are, and judge to double the number of volumes, had I preafraid of reading him so often as I should wish; what they will be. It suffices, at present, to tended to do so in every instance. This will for there is an enervating tendency in all his know our contemporaries, and to rule them by be easily believed when it is remembered that writings, which I should fear would greatly that knowledge—and now, Monsieur le Comte there is scarcely a stanza which does not offer relax the mind.' . It is for that very reason de L'Orme, I thank you for a pleasant hour, several various readings, and which would ad. that I read him,' replied the minister. It is and I wish you good night. Of course, you are mit of long discussion, were I to indulge the alone when I wish for relaxation, that I read, still at an inn; when you have fixed your humour of a commentator. I have never made and then after every thought having been in lodging, leave your address here, and you shall the slightest change without giving to it the activity for a whole long day - Ovid is like a hear from me. In the mean while, farewell !” best attention, and the most mature considera. bed of roses to the mind, where it can repose We shall finish with one of many brief obser- tion. However inelegant the construction, or itself, and recruit its powers of action for the vations, which shew the mind of an author as inharmonious the versification might seem, I business of another.' This was certainly not much as those in conversation do that of the never yielded to the temptation of making any the conversation which I expected, and I paused speaker.
amendment, with the rash idea of improving without making any reply, thinking that the “ Yet, although not knowing it, my mother, the poem. Although none of the seven edi. minister would soon enter upon those important I am sure, did not escape without feeling some tions which I have collated offers one single subjects on which I could give the best and small share of maternal pride at her son's first stanza, probably, as I have printed it, yet my latest information ; but on the contrary, he achievement. I saw it in her face, I heard it text is wholly derived from them. I have not proceeded with Ovid. There is a constant in her tone; and often since I have had occa- departed from the rule of never altering with struggle,' eontinued he, between feeling and sion to remark, how like the passions, the feel out an authority, except in very few instances, reason in the human breast. In youth, it is ings, and the prejudices, which swarm in our when all the editions which I have consulted wisely ordained, that feeling should have the bosoms, are to a large mixed society, wherein were so evidently wrong as to make nonsense ; ascendancy; and she rules like a monarch, the news that is painful to one is pleasing to and even then I have had the pleasure of findwith Imagination for her minister-though, by another, and joy and sorrow are the results of ing the alterations which I resolved upon makthe way, he added with a passing smile, so the same cause, at the same moment. Man's ing, supported by the old editions of Domenislight that it scarcely curled his lip, though, heart is a microcosm, the actors in which are chi; the first of which I have constantly had by the way, the minister is often much more the passions, as varied as opposed, as shaded under my eyes." active than the monarch. In after years, when one into the other, as we see the characters of The volume begins with a life of Bojardo, feeling has done for man all that feeling was men, in the great scene of the world.” which at once embraces a panoramic view of intended to do, and carried him into a thou. As an historical novel, these pages have the his own poem and its historical bearings ; and sand follies, eventually very beneficial to him- great and rare merit of marking the spirit as for ingenious inference and historical accuracy, self, and to the human race, Reason succeeds well as the manners of their time; the real per- research to find and great taste to select, is a to the throne, to finish what feeling left. un- sonages introduced are drawn with equal ani- model for poetical essays. The materials for done, and to remedy what she did wrong. Now mation and accuracy, while in the story itself Bojardo's life are few, and of slight interest ; you are in the age of feeling, and I am in the the interest is well sustained to the last, and a and Mr. Panizzi has most judiciously turned age of reason ; and the consequence is, that tone of imaginative reflection, and touches of his attention to the history of the poem, rather even in reading such a book as Ovid, what we picturesque description, are the lights and than of the poet. We select the following aneccall is as different as the wax and the honey shades which fill up the picture. Public opinion dote for its rarity ; few bards having been in which a bee gathers from the same flower. has amply confirmed our praise of Richelieu such good plight. What touches you, is the wit and brilliancy of and Darnley; but we must say we think De “The poet in his younger days was fond of the thought, the sweetness of the poetry, the L'Orme much superior to his predecessors. conversing with the old inhabitants of his cas. bright and luxurious pictures which are pre.
tle respecting past events, and was very gener. sented to your imagination ; while all that Orlando Innamorato di Bojardo, Orlando Fu- ous to those from whom he „sought such infor. affects me little ; and shadowed through a thou. rioso di Ariosto; with an Essay on the Ro- mation; so that, when one wished good luck sand splendid allegories, I see great and sublime mantic Narrative Poetry of the Italians : to another, it was usual to say Heaven send truths, robed, as it were, by the verse and the Memoirs and Notes by Antonio Panizzi. Bojardo to your house.” poetry in a radiant garment of light. What Vol. II, London, 1830. W. Pickering. Ít is much to be regretted that we have no can be a truer picture of an ambitious and PERHAPS by quoting the exact words of the remains of the music which formerly accomdaring minister than Ixion embracing a cloud ?' indefatigable editor, the second portion of whose panied poetry: on this subject our author and he looked me full in the face, with a smile labours now calls for our notice and praise, we remarksi
“ His poetry was not written to be read, but not have followed her to India ; and thus be Beltrame, who, as the eldest brother, had a to be sung, and was submitted to those musical, would have defended his king and his country better right to them. As this, however, proved as well as metrical laws, by which that of from the invaders. Every event is attached to to be a falsehood, Almonte, who regretted Petrarca had been governed. In his days, the first coming of Angelica into France, not having been ensnared into an unworthy action, music was still subject to poetry; and the in- only indirectly, but, in some cases, in the most gave Galaciella leave to pass a sentence on tie animate instruments were designed to support, direct manner. The Christians are beaten by traitor, proportionate to his enormities, and he not to drown the human voice. Hence it is, the Saracens on account of Orlando's absence, was therefore put to death. Almonte next that lyrical compositions, written since that just as the Greeks are by the Trojans, on strongly urged Galaciella to return to Africa, period, and not intended to be accompanied by account of the absence of Achilles ; the absence and apostatise, which she did not intend to do. such inusic, are no longer possessed of the same in both cases is produced by the passions, which But thinking this to be the only means of melodious harmony. "The lines of Petrarca, are sung by the poets ; in Bojardo, love ; in escaping from his hands, she pretended to with those of Dante, Guido Cavalcanti, and a Homer, anger. The loss of the Christians, as consent, and was shipped off. On the high few others of the same stamp, as well as those well as that of the Greeks, is indirectly the seas this brave heroine made a sudden assault of Bojardo, breathe a strain of sweet, majestic, effect of this love, and of this anger.” on the sailors, part of whom she threw over, rich, and glowing melody, which has seldom, if The analysis of many romantic traditions is board, and did not cease till she had got rid of ever, been seized by even the happiest imi- given in a most animated style : witness the every one of them, by some means or other. tators of Petrarca. These imitators put forth following.
Thus remaining the only person alive in the their skill, and succeeded to a wonderful de “ Agolante succeeded to the African throne. ship, she was driven by the wind to a solitary gree, in substituting a metrical harmony for He was the father of Trojano, Almonte, and place, where Ruggero and Marfisa were born, melody. The distribution of accents, or panses Galaciella, a heroine. The father of Agolante, and where also she died.” in the lines of the old bards, was determined by who was called Bramante or Brabante, had The Orlando Innamorato begins in this vothe musical time; and when the sister art been formerly killed by Charlemagne ; and one lume, and the notes affixed are most excellent : ceased to be the inseparable companion of of his sons, Guernieri, fell by the hand of we quote one, as a specimen of the lively man. poetry, a spurious and artificial jingle was Milone, the father of Orlando, and one of ner in which the writer seems himself touched affected, whilst pure melody was no longer one Charlemagne's bravest knights. Agolante, with the spirit and sarcasm of his author. of the principal elements of poetry. Hence, it and his sons and daughters, determined upon “ Galerana, or Galeana, was daughter of is as difficult to understand by what means the invading Christendom, with the intention of Galafro, King of Spain, and sister of Marsiglio, lyrical effusions of those ancient poets read so revenging the death of Brabante and Guer- Balugante, and Falsirone. She fell in love peculiarly, and at the same time so simply nieri; and, as the first step towards the ac- with Charlemagne, who was five years older musical, as it is impossible to emulate their complishment of this object, they attacked than herself, when he lived incognito as page exquisite beauty in this respect."
Italy. Being satisfied that the most terrible at the Spanish court, his throne having been Among our own poets, Moore possesses this warrior they would have to engage with was usurped by Oldrigi and Lanfroi. Seeing that melody in its highest perfection. May not Ruggero di Risa, or Reggio, in Calabria, they the boy was rather shy, she told him that she this then be ascribed to his writing to music, resolved to besiege that city, where the gallant was in love with him, and in due time they and his own musical recitation ?- his own per- knight, who was called after it Ruggero di Risa, eloped. I wish the reader should not be scan. formance of his songs rather resembling har- lived with his father Rampallo or Rampaldo. dalised at this. The ladies in romances are monious and measured reciting, than what is Milone, a natural brother of Ruggero, and in general the first to make advances, because now termed singing; for in our modern style very brave, together with Beltrame, the eldest a hero must be irresistible in all respects. of singing, the voice almost resigns its faculty brother, a thorough villain, dwelt also in that Hence, the eldest son usually wants to be of speech, to become certainly the sweetest of place. In single combat Ruggero thrice smote legitimated per subsequens matrimonium. Gainstruments.
down Galaciella in the most graceful manner lerana was a very fine creature, and one Bra“ Bojardo received the traditions respecting possible. He was very loath to do so, but as mante of Africa, who was forty-five years of Charlemagne as a foundation for his poem, but the lady insisted upon fighting, he could not age, having gone into Arragon with thirty introduced at the same time a very important help knocking her down as often as she wished: thousand men, to ask her in marriage, Galafro novelty by enlivening them with love, which is when she was tired, he told her she was his saw no objection ; but Marsiglio, who was a constantly banished from them in their pri- prisoner. Never did knight gain a fairer prize. very learned man, and fond of necromancers,' mitive state. He went farther; he took for As he was one of the handsomest cavaliers that said that it was not reasonable that a lady his principal hero, Orlando; and for the subject ever wielded a sword, some malicious persons only fifteen years old should marry a man who of his poem, the love of that hero, whilst the suspected at the time that the battle was not was forty-five,' and the others agreed with romancers agree in saying, that Orlando was fairly fought, but that the lady did her best to him. These stories are told in tbe Reali di never so foolish (or so noble-hearted) as to fall be taken prisoner. There are circumstances Francia, which I believe to have been written in love. The boldness of this innovation can- which would almost induce a belief that such by a young blue-stocking, married to an old not now be fully appreciated, when the ro- was the case. For, it so happened, that as man; and this I judge, from seeing the great mantic traditions are matter of curious inquiry soon as he advised her to become a Christian, aversion which the writer invariably expresses for the learned, instead of being the subject of she yielded to his request, which was not sup- at any such marriage." popular belief, as they were in Bojardo's time. ported by weighty theological arguments ; nor Every library, aspiring to add the treasures His daring to alter the stories generally re- is there any reason for believing that she was of other languages to our own, will be deficient ceived, is a sufficient proof of the self-confi- influenced by supernatural agency. Her con- without this requisite and excellent work; and dence, as well as sound taste of the poet. He version was followed by her marriage with we cannot but think such a production will had perceived the charms, which love spread Ruggero, to the great disappointment of Bel- awaken, and turn much attention to the fair over the romantic traditions respecting Arthur trame, who aspired to ber hand. But Gala- field of Italian literature. Mr. Panizzi bas and his court; and it was from the romances of ciella said, that she would marry no one except done credit to his own country, and service to the Round Table, as we shall see by Bojardo's her conqueror. The traitor Beltrame, availing ours: we wish his undertaking all the success own words, that he borrowed the idea of em- himself of the opportunity of being alone with it merits, and we can scarcely say more. bellishing his poetical effusions with love and the lady, had the assurance to claim a share in the ladies. He had the merit of being the first her affection; a proposal which she received of the romanesque poets, who, faithful to the and answered, as was becoming a young bride
Lyell's Principles of Geology. title which he gave to the work, wrote on the and a heroine. She disdainfully told him that
(Second Notice.) subject, as he had promised his readers he his request was insulting; and as he would not In resuming the notice, began in onr last would do.
cease to annoy her, she gave him a sound Number, of Mr. Lyell's “ Principles of Geo“ Considering the succession of events, all drubbing to teach him good manners. The logy,” we confess ourselves unable to do full tending to shew the love of Orlando for Ange- villain then betrayed the city, Risa, into the justice to the work, without going more at lica, and the mischief done by her beauty hands of Almonte, who was besieging it; on length into the subject than is compatible with among the Christians, we cannot doubt this that occasion Rampallo, Milone, and Ruggero, our miscellaneous columns. We shall, how. love to be the main action of the poem. The were murdered, and Galaciella was taken pri- ever, bring together a few of the points in love of Orlando is the chief subject of the Inna- soner. It was then discovered that Beltrame, which the author differs in opinion from former morato, as the anger of Achilles is that of the to induce Almonte to agree to the treachery, geologists, accompanied by some extracts, shew. Riad. The events proceed and grow out of gave him to understand that Rampallo was ing to what extent he has succeeded in renone another without interruption. Had not unjustly partial to Ruggero, and would have dering the subject attractive for the general Orlando been in love with Angelica, he would left to him the dominions, to the prejudice of reader.
Mr. Lyell is of opinion, that the very com- a level with its banks ; so that if it should difficulty ; for it is known that calcareous rocks monly received notion among geologists, that rise perpendicularly eight or ten feet, it would are forming in the delta of the Rhone, the the organic remains found in the several strata, lay under water the adjacent fat country of Adriatic, and other localities. Precipitation is from the lower red sand-stone to the tertiary Upper Canada on the west, and the state of acknowledged to be the means whereby the series, had a progressive developement in the New York on the east. The river where it surplus mineral matter is disposed of, after the order of creation, is erroneous; and this opinion issues is about three quarters of a mile in consumption of a certain portion in the secrehe supports, by citing an instance of the re- width. Before reaching the falls it is pro- tion of testacea and zoophytes. But some have mains of fish being found in Perthshire in pelled with great rapidity, being a mile broad, imagined, that before muriate of soda can in quarries of the old red sand-stone, which is about twenty-five feet deep, and having a de- like manner be precipitated, the whole Medilower in the series than the coal or mountain scent of fifty feet in half a mile.” After this terranean ought to become saturated with salt, limestone. The vertebræ of a reptile has also immense body of water has been precipitated as the brine springs of Cheshire, or Lake Aral, been found in the mountain limestone of Nor- over a precipice of 160 feet, “ the bed of the or the Dead Sea. There is, however, an essenthumberland, which the author deems conclu- river below the falls is strewed over with huge tial difference between these cases ; for the Me. sive as to the fact of the higher class of animals, fragments which have been hurled down into diterranean is not only incomparably greater as well as testacea and vegetable remains, having the abyss. By the continual destruction of the than these two basins, but its depth is enorexisted at the very remote era when the oldest rocks, the falls have within the last forty years mous. In the narrowest parts of the straits of of the secondary class of strata were deposited. receded nearly fifty yards, or, in other words, Gibraltar, where they are about nine miles Some farther researches, however, are neces- the ravine has been prolonged to that extent. broad, between the isle of Tariffa and Alcansary to determine this point satisfactorily. Through this deep chasm the Niagara flows zar point, the depth varies from one hundred
The comparatively recent origin of the hu- for about seven miles, and then the table-land, and sixty to five hundred fathoms; but beman race, Mr. Lyell also considers as affording which is almost on a level with Lake Erie, tween Gibraltar and Ceuta, Captain Smyth no argument in favour of that progressive order suddenly sinks down at a place called Queens- sounded to the extraordinary depth of nine of animal creation which is contended for by town, and the river emerges from the ravine hundred and fifty fathoms ! where he found some geological writers; and which is sup- into a plain which continues to the shores of a gravelly bottom, with fragments of shells. ported by a mass of very strong inductive evi. Lake Ontario. There seems good reason for Saussure sounded to the depth of two thousand dence against the few isolated facts advanced the general opinion, that the falls were once at feet, within a few yards of the shore at Nice. in the present work. But we must allow the Queenstown, and that they have gradually re- What profundity may we not, then, expect author the benefit of his own evidence. “ As trograded from that place to their present posi- some of the recesses of this sea to reach? The suming, then, that man is, comparatively speak- tion, about seven miles distant. If the ratio evaporation being very rapid, the surface water ing, of modern origin, can his introduction be of recession had never exceeded fifty yards becomes impregnated with a slight excess of considered as one step in a progressive system, in forty years, it must have required nearly salt; and its specific gravity being thus in. by which, as some suppose, the organic world 10,000 years for the excavation of the whole creased, it falls to the bottom, while lighter advanced slowly from a more simple to a more ravine ; but no probable conjecture can be of water supplies its place at top from the current perfect state ? To this question we may reply, fered as to the probable period time con- of the Atlantic and the great rivers. But the that the superiority of man depends not on sumed in such an operation, because the retro. heavier fluid does not merely fall to the bottom, those faculties and attributes which he shares grade movement may have been much more but flows on till it reaches the lowest part of in common with the inferior animals, but on rapid when the whole current was confined one of those submarino basins into which we his reason, by which he is distinguished from within a space not exceeding a fourth or a fifth must suppose the bottom of this inland sea to them. If the organisation of man were such of that which the falls now occupy. Should be divided. By the continuance of this process, as would confer a decided pre-eminence on him the erosive action not be accelerated in future, additional supplies of brine are annually careven if he were deprived of his reasoning it will require upwards of 30,000 years for the ried to deep repositories, until the lower strata powers, and provided only with such instincts falls to reach Lake Erie (twenty-five miles dis- of water are fully saturated, and precipitation as are possessed by the lower animals, he might tant), to which they seem destined to arrive in takes place-not in thin films, such as are said then be supposed to be a link in a progressive the course of time, unless some earthquake to cover the alluvial marshes along the western chain, especially if it could be shewn that the changes the relative levels of the district. shores of the Euxine, nor in minute layers, like successive developement of the animal creation Should Lake Erie remain in its present state those of the salt estangs' of the Rhonehad always proceeded from the more simple to until the period when the ravine recedes to its but on the grandest scale, - continuous masses the more compound, from species most remote shores, the sudden escape of that great body of of pure rock salt, extending perhaps for hun. from the human type to those most nearly water would cause a tremendous deluge; for dreds of miles in length, like those of the approaching to it. But this is an hypothesis the ravine would be much more than sufficient mountains of Poland, Hungary, Transylvania, which is wholly unsupported by geological to drain the whole lake, of which the average and Spain.” evidence. On the other hand we may admit, depth was found, during the late survey, to be
It is a question of vast geographical interest that man is of higher dignity than were any only ten or twelve fathoms. But in couse-to future generations, and scarcely less to the pre-existing beings on the earth, and yet ques- quence of its shallowness, Lake Erie is fast present proprietors and occupiers of land on tion whether his coming was a step in the filling up with sediment; and the annual our eastern and southern coast, to investigate gradual advancement of the organic world ; growth of the deltas of many rivers and tor- the destructive agency that is continually going for the most highly civilised people may some- rents which flow into it is remarkable.” on by the water of the ocean. We therefore times degenerate in strength and stature, and We do not remember any preceding geological think the following remarks of Mr. Lyell become inferior in their physical attributes to writer giving a satisfactory theory of the pro- worthy of much attention. the stock of rude hunters from whom they duction of those enormous masses of rock salt
" The current which flows from the northdescended."
which contribute so materially to the mineral east, and bears against our eastern coast (of Leaving this difficult problem for the de- riches of this country, and certain portions of England) transports materials of various kinds. termination of our metaphysical readers, we the European continent. Alluding to the con- It undermines and sweeps away the granite, shall proceed to give an extract which will stant current which flows from the Atlantic gneis, trap-rock, and sand-stone of Shetland, be far more generally interesting, as illustra. into the basin of the Mediterranean, and the and removes the gravel and loam of Holderness, ting in a remarkable degree the influence fresh water carried off by evaporation, being Norfolk, and Suffolk, which are between fifty of running water in excavating deep valleys the only outlet for this vast mass of water, and two hundred and fifty feet in height, and and depositing the débris of socks in the bot- flowing in on all sides, from the Black Sea in which wastes at the rate of from one to six toms of lakes and the mouths of rivers. After the east, to Gibraltar in the west, of Europe. yards annually. It bears away the strata of shewing the powerful agency of mountain tor- Mr. Lyell pertinently asks :
London clay on the coast of Essex and Sheppy, rents in excavating valleys through the soft, “ What then becomes of the excess of salt ? consumes the chalk with its flints for many calcareous, and volcanic deposits of Italy and for this is an inquiry of the highest geologi- miles continuously on the shores of Kent and other parts of Europe, the author observes : cal interest. The Rhone, the Po, and many Sussex, commits annual ravages on the fresh
“ The falls of Niagara afford a magnificent hundred minor streams, pour annually into the water beds covered by chalk, and continually example of the progressiva excavation of a deep Mediterranean large quantities of carbonate of saps the foundation of the Portland limestone. valley in solid rock. That river flows from lime, together with 'iron, magnesia, silica, li receives, besides, during the rainy months, Lake Erie to Lake Ontario, the former being alumina, sulphur, and other ingredients, in large supplies of pebbles, sand, and mud, which 330 feet above the latter, and the distance be- solution. To explain why the influx of this the Grampians, Cheviots, and other chains, send tween them being thirty-two miles. On flow- matter does not alter the composition of this down to the sea. To what regions then is all ing out of the upper lake, the river is almost on sea, has never been thought to present a great this matter consigned ? It is not retained in
mechanical suspension by the waters of the of Messrs. Daubeny and Scrope. But in spite winter (1828), I found the crevices in the sea, nor does it mix with them in a state of of the great interest which attaches to the sub- interior encrusted with thick ice, and in some chemical solution. It is deposited somewhere,ject, our limits warn us to give only another cases hot vapours were streaming out beyet certainly not in the immediate neighbour- extract from Mr. Lyell's present volume, and tween masses of ice and the rugged and steep hood of our shores ; for in that case there we select one descriptive of a phenomenon of walls of the crater. After the discovery of would soon be a cessation of the encroachments the most extraordinary kind, to which the au- Signor Gemmelaro, it would not be surprising of the sea, and large - tracts of low land, like thor bimself bore witness within the last two to find in the cones of the Icelandic volcanoes Romney Marsh, would every where encircle years i
repeated alternations of lava streams and our island. As there is now a depth of water " A remarkable discovery has lately been glaciers." exceeding thirty feet in some spots where made on Etna, of a mass of ice, preserved for This fact affords a decisive proof of the cities flourished but a few centuries ago, it is many ages, perhaps for centuries, from melting, slow conducting power of the igneous class clear that the current not only carries far away by the singular event of a current of red hot of rocks, whether in the mass, or broken into the materials of the wasted cliffs, but tears up, lava having flowed over it. The following are scoria by volcanic action; while it serves to besides, many of the regular strata at the the facts in attestation of a phenomenon which confirm the commonly received opinion among bottom of the sea. The German Ocean is must at first sight appear of so paradoxical a geologists of the present day, that the surface deepest on the Norwegian side, where the character. The extraordinary heat experienced of the earth, including the basin of the ocean, soundings give one hundred and ninety fath- in the south of Europe during the summer and is nothing more than a crust or shell enclosing oms; but the mean depth of the whole basin autumn of 1828, caused the supplies of snow vast masses of mineral matter in a state of may be stated at only thirty-one fathoms. and ice, which had been preserved in the spring incandescence or partial fusion. Yet to what The bed of this sea is encumbered in an ex. of that year, for the use of Catania and the limits these fiery vaults may extend, it is imtraordinary degree with accumulations of debris, adjoining parts of Sicily and the neighbouring possible to form any estimate. Volcanic erup. especially in the middle. One of the great island of Malta, to fail entirely. Considerable tions and earthquakes may be distinctly traced central banks trends from the Firth of Forth distress was felt for the want of a commodity throughout three-fourths of the continents and north-east to a distance of one hundred and regarded in these countries as one of the neces- nine-tenths of the islands which constitute the ten miles; others run from Denmark and Gut-saries of life rather than an article of luxury, habitable globe. But we have no data whereland upwards of one hundred miles to the and on the abundance of which, in some large on to form any adequate conception of the north-west ; while the great Dogger bank ex- cities, the salubrity of the water and the gene amount of volcanic agency constantly going on tends to three hundred and fifty-four miles ral health of the people may be said to depend. in the sub-marine regions of the Atlantic and from north to south."
The magistrates of Catania applied to Signor Pacific ! Could we look into the womb of futurity a M. Gemmelaro, in the hope that his local We cannot dismiss the work before us with. few thousand years, we should, in all pro- knowledge of Etna might enable him to point out thanking the author for the vast mass of bability, witness the whole of these sand-banks out some crevice or grotto in the mountain evidence he has condensed into a small compass, united into one mass, and become the habita- where drift snow was still preserved. Nor on one of the most interesting inquiries which tion of man and the inferior animal creation ! were they disappointed: for he had long sus. can occupy the attention of mankind.
We Mr. Lyell pursues the same course in the pected that a small mass of perennial ice at the observe a few repetitions, and some other minor investigation of volcanic phenomena as he foot of the highest cone was part of a larger blemishes in style and classification ; but we adopts in examining the effects of diluvial and continuous glacier covered by a lava cur- have no hesitation in stating, that Mr. Lyell's action on the earth's surface. Instead of la- rent. Having procured a large body of work- labours must have the effect of dispelling many bouring to establish some favourite hypothesis men, he quarried into this ice, and proved the of the mists which have hitherto concealed, and regarding the origin of volcanoes, as many super-position of the lava for several hundred removing much of the delta which has obpreceding geologists had done, the author pro-yards, so as completely to satisfy himself that structed, the current of geological knowledge. ceeds at once to the registry of facts and ob- nothing but the subsequent flowing of the lava servations derived either from the most un- over the ice could account for the position of Col. Welsh's Reminiscences of the East Indies. questionable authorities, or in many cases from the glacier. Unfortunately for the geologist, his own examination. The practical tone which the ice was so extremely hard, and the exca
(Third notice.) characterises this portion of his volume may be vation so expensive, that there is no probability While at the post up the country where ow judged of by the following remark connected of the operation being renewed. On the 1st of last quotation left Col. Welsh, he paid two with the production and decomposition of vol. December, 1828, I visited this spot, which is visits to Coorg, a place and government so recanic lavas.
on the south-east side of the cone, and not far markable, that we must afford as much space “ They who have visited the Phlegræan from the Casa Inglese ; but the fresh snow had as we can to his striking accounts of both. fields, and the volcanic region of Italy, and are already nearly filled up the new opening, so “ The kingdom of Coorg, situated to the aware of the many problematical appearances that it had only the appearance of the mouth westward of Mysore, is of small extent, being which igneous rocks of the most modern origin of a grotto. I do not, however, question the comprised within the twelfth degree of north assume during their decomposition, cannot but accuracy of the conclusion of Signor Gemmelaro, latitude, and the seventy-fifth and seventybe astonished at the confidence with which the who being well acquainted with all the appear. sixth degrees of east longitude. It is about contending Neptunists and Vulcanists in the ances of drift-snow in the fissures and cavities fifty miles in length, and thirty-five only in last century dogmatised on the igneous or of Etna, had recognised, even before the late ex- the broadest part. Surrounded by lofty moun. aqueous origin of certain rocks of the remotest cavations, the peculiar position of the ice in this tains, for the most part inaccessible, it contains antiquity. Instead of having laboured to ac- locality. We may suppose, that at the com- many others, scattered over the interior surface; quire an accurate acquaintance with the aspect mencement of the eruption a deep mass of drift forming a succession of wild rugged hills and of known volcanic rocks, and the transmuta- snow had been covered by volcanic sand, show- highly cultivated valleys ; and, as if this wer tions which they undergo subsequently to their ered down upon it before the descent of the not sufficient to confirm its title to the appella. first consolidation, the adherents of both parties lava. A dense stratum of this fine dust mixed tion of a strong country,' they have divided seem either to consider themselves born with with scoriæ is well known to be an excellent the whole interior into squares. Those where an intuitive knowledge of the effects of volcanic non-conductor of heat, and may thus have pre- no streams ar marshes are contained, being ge. operations, or to have assumed, that they re- served the snow from complete fusion when nerally about a mile in width, with an enor. quired no other analogies than those which a the burning flood poured over it. The shep-mous 'ditch and high mound or bank, formed laboratory and furnace might supply." herds in the higher regions of Etna are accus- by the original contents of the ditch, and co
These remarks appear to be as much levelled tomed to provide an annual store of snow to vered, inside and out, with deep jungle, in at the empirical system of geology taught in supply their flocks with water in the summer which are included many enormous forest our northern universities, as at the wild hypo- months, by simply strewing over the snow in trees. Some of thase enclosures have four aper. theses of Messrs. De Luc, Saussure, and other the spring a layer of volcanic sand a few tures for ingress and regress, one in each face, geologists of the last century.
inches thick, which effectually prevents the sun particularly those through which the principal Mr. Lyell is so disinclined to speculation, from penetrating. When lava had once con- roads pass, and wh'ch consequently present so that it is difficult to trace any thing like a solidated over a glacier at the height of ten many strong barries against an approaching theory throughout his voluine, explanatory of thousand feet above the level of the sea, we enemy. Every hill and mountain is also cothe origin of volcanic agency. In this respect may readily conceive that the ice would endure vered with jungle; the finest teak, jack, man. we think the author has shewn his good judg. as long as the snows of Mont Blanc, unless go, and other large tres, growing spontaneously ment; for the subject may be said to have been melted by volcanic heat from below. When I in a country watered by numerous streams, and previously exhausted by the very able researches visited the great crater in the beginning of continual fogs and oisty clouds, which, from iss