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L E S S O N S. RETROSPECTIVE MISCELLANY. Containing FEVER; containing an Exposition of its Phenomena,

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profess not to give my friend's exact words, yielded to the fashionable agricultural system,

only the substance of his argument,) ' and they and to the ruinous and demoralising operations The Crantry Curale. By the Author of the have always been such. But the hare which is of the poor laws. Simon was the son of a man ** Sabaltern." 2 vols. 12mo. London, 1830. found on Sir Harry's grounds to-day, may be who had inherited a farm of some thirty or Cölburn and Bentley.

found on Squire Deeds's to-morrow, and may- forty acres from a long line of ancestors ; who Wo bare most cordial approval to bestow on hap Sir Edward Knatchbull's the day after ; loved his landlord, as the clansmen of the these rolames.—first on moral, and then on now, to which of these three gentlemen can the Highlands were accustomed to love their chief; Berzy grounds. We commend them for the hare be said to belong? No, sir! God made and who prided himself in bringing up his kedy feeling and the excellent principle deve- the wild beasts of the field and the fowls of the children so as that they should earn their hed in every page ; and also for their graceful air for the poor man as well as for the rich. I bread in an honest way, and be beholden to no style and interesting subjects. The Miser, will never so far forget myself as to plunder human being. Simon, being the eldest of the the Parish Apprentice, the Smugglers, though any man's hen-roost, or take away his cattle ; family, succeeded, on the death of his father, in a different manner to what has hitherto occu- but as long as these old arms can wield a gun, to the farm. But he had hardly taken pospied our author's pen, only serve to shew the and these old hands can set a snare, I will never session, when the rage for large farms began variety of his talents; he is as much at home be without a hare or a pleasant, if I happen to to shew itself; and in a few years after, he was by cur English bearth as in foreign scenes of want it.' There was no arguing against a man sent adrift, in order that his fields might be varfare

. We select the following graphic por- who would talk thus ; so after combating the added to those of a wealthy tenant, who trait for our columns :

point with him for a time, I finally gave it up. undertook to cultivate them better, and pay * Simon was, or rather would have been, The worst of it was, however, that Simon not some two shillings per acre more to the landbut for his determined predilection in favour only poached himself, but he brought up his lord. Whether the new tenant kept his of the primitive employment of the chase, one son to the same occupation. The Lees were promise in the first of these stipulations, may of the best and most trustworthy labourers in notorious throughout the country. Tot a game- be doubted. In the last he was very punctual, the parish. Set him to what you would, he keeper round but knew them; nor was there and in a short time he rode as good a horse, seter sailed to do you justice. I have had him, one who did not in some degree stand in awe and kept as good a table, as his landlord himagain and again, to dig in my garden, and of them. It was suspected, too, that they had self. It was a severe wound to Simon's proud bare compared his diligence with that of other good friends somewhere behind the curtain ; heart, his expulsion from his paternal roof. men who bore a fairer character; and I must for though the patriarch had been convicted · In that house, sir,' said he to me one day do Simon the justice to say, that he has inva- several times, he always managed to pay the fine, when we talked of the circumstance, “in that riably worked harder for his day's pay than and, except once, had never suffered imprison- house I drew my first breath, and I hoped to any individpal among them. In the matter of ment. Ideem it no part of a country clergyman's draw my last. For two hundred and fifty honesty, again, you might trust him with duty to quarrel with one of his parishioners be- years have the Lees inhabited it; and I wiil ubtold gold. Much as he was disliked, and I cause he happens to set the game-laws at defiance. venture to say, that his honour has not upon nos no character in a country place more Perhaps, of all the laws that exist, they are in all his lands a family who pay their rent more miversally disliked than a poacher, not a themselves the least defensible; and they lead punctually than we did, or one more ready to beman being laid a theft or robbery to his to consequences often more serious than their serve him, either by day or night. Well, targe; indeed, he was so well thought of in warmest advocate would willingly anticipate. well, the landlord cares nothing for the tenant

respect, that it was no uncommon circum- But with the justice or injustice, the policy or now, nor the tenant for the landlord: it was face for the persons who blamed him most impolicy of these laws, I have no concern ; not so when I was a boy.' I have been told Gerely, to hire bim, when occasion required, there they are upon the statute-book, and, by those who remember his dismissal, that 12 ratch their orchards or hop-poles ; for Si- like all other laws, they ought to be observed. Simon seemed for a time, after leaving his he was well known to fear neither man nor Still I repeat, that a clergyman has no business little farm, like one who had lost every thing deyil. He really and truly was one of the few to quarrel with a poor man who transgresses that was dear to him. To hire another was pes, among the lower orders, whom chance in this point, and in none besides. For my impossible, for small farms were not to be had; is thrown in my way, whose propensity for own share, though I never told Simon as and had the contrary been the case, it was peaking I should be disposed to pronounce much, I could not but feel a kind of respect more than questioned whether he could have sate, or a thing of principle. As a proof of for him, such as I never felt for any other of brought himself to bestow the labour of a good , I need only mention that Simon and I the fraternity, because he not only deemed it tenant upon any besides the fields which he base discussed the subject repeatedly, and that unnecessary to deny his poaching, but defended persisted in calling his own. Under these cir. be has argued in favour of his occupation as it. I love to see men act upon principle, even cumstances he took the cottage on the moor,

orally and openly as if there had been no law when the rectitude of the proceedings may be as much, it was said, because it stood far from in existence against it. Why, you know it is questionable

. I have said that Simon Lee was neighbours, as on any other account; and al' I would say; - and you must likewise no favourite among his neighbours, and the there he remained in a state of perfect idleness ber that it is little better than stealing. only cause which I have as yet assigned for the till his little stock of money was expended, What night have you to take the hares or fact is, that he was a poacher. Doubtless this and he felt that he must either work or starve. partridges which belong to another man?' had its weight. But the love of poaching was, Simon had married before the inheritance *Lad bless you, sir!' was Simon's invariable unfortunately for himself, not the only dis- came to him; his eldest boy was able to run

' if you will only tell me to whom they agreeable humour with which he was afflicted. about when he left it. His fifth was weaned, berg, I promise you never to kill another There exists not within the compass of the when at length, the proceeds of the sale being

bellireThey belong,' said I, “ to those four seas, a prouder spirit than that which exhausted, and all the little capital swallowed ape those lands they feed. Would you con- animated the form of Simon Lee. He never up, he found himself under the necessity of side a right to take one of Sir Harry Oxen- would accept a favour from any man; he looking out for a master. I have always been dan's se lire turkeys ? Why, then, will you would not crouch or bend to the highest lord at a loss to conceive why he should have take bis heres or his pheasants ?' * As to the in the land. Yet Simon was no jacobin; quite applied to the very man who displaced him, in batter of that,' replied Simon, there is a the reverse. His was the genuine stubborn- preference to any of the other parishioners ; Eighty dšerence between sheep and hares. ness, the hardy independence, which once but so it was. He requested and obtained Estep are bought for money, they remain al- rendered an English peasant more truly noble permission to cultivate as a hind, at daily ways upon one spot, they bear the owner's than the titled slave of France or Germany, wages, those very fallows which he and his mich, ihey are articles of barter and sale,” (I but which, unfortunately, has of late years) ancestors had so long tilled for their own

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profit; and from every account, no man could good deal struck and affected by this story; so eundo. Three volumes have now appeared, be more faithfully served than his employer, I took the first opportunity that offered of dis. selected from very different departments—apnor any lands more skilfully managed than cussing the subject of it with Simon himself. parently with a view to furnish to the public, those which he ploughed. Was this the af- . It is all quite true, sir,' said he ; "the within as short a period as possible after the fection of a rude mind to inanimate objects ? overseer was harsh, and I was proud, --so we commencement of the Cyclopædia, specimens or what was it? Time passed, and Simon's parted.' ' And how have you done since ?' by which they may form an estimate of the family increased upon him, year after year. asked I. Why, bad enough sometimes,' was whole. The first embraced history, from a Still he laboured on; and though his wages the reply; but poor folks, you know, sir, most distinguished pen; the second, science were not, perhaps, competent to support a wife cannot be nice. And I will tell you. It never and discovery, lucidly and admirably treated, and eight children in comfort, (for there were entered into my head till I was on my way though by an anonymous hand; while the originally eight of them,) still they made their home from the committee, that to be in want third, now before us, belongs to the departwants square with their means, and so kept of food whilst the hares were eating my cab-ment of useful arts, and is the first of two above the world. But there is no struggling bages every night, and the partridges feed- volumes entitled Domestic Economy. The against sickness. It pleased God to visit him ing not a rood from my door, was no very subjects are the native qualities and varieties with a malignant fever, of which every indi-wise act. I poached, as you call it, to feed of human aliment, food and drink, including vidual, from the father and mother, down to my children. I have never killed game for the methods of raising them from the natural the infant at the breast, partook, and from any other purpose ; and whilst there is a head raw state, and adapting them for use. The most which three out of the number never reco- of it left, and I am able to catch it, they shall obvious order to bave adopted, would have vered. Alas! the rich man knows not what not be beholden to the parish for a meal.' I been, to devote the first volume to the most nethe poor man suffers when disease takes up its cannot help thinking that the history of Simon cessary articles of food, and to have passed in abode in his dwelling. It is bad enough if his Lee, as far as it has yet been detailed, contains the second to the consideration of luxuries. A children be attacked; bad, very bad, because a lesson well worth the attention both of different arrangement has, however, been made. even then there is the doctor's bill to pay, and country gentlemen and farmers. Whilst the The present volume treats of those articles of the little comforts to procure which the doctor oid system of land-letting continued, and every food and drink, the production of which demay recommend as necessary to their re-thirty or forty acres of ground supported an pends upon the chemical process of fermentacovery: but when he himself falls a victim to honest family, it is very probable that the tion. The subjects included are, therefore, malt the infection, when the arm upon which all landlord received a less sum in the shape of liquors, such as beer, ale, porter ; spirituous depend is unnerved by sickness, and the limbs gross yearly rent, and that the yeomanry rode liquors, such as brandy, rum, whisky, geneva; which ought to provide food for half-a-dozen poorer horses, and kept poorer tables, than wines of every kind, foreign and domestic; hungry mouths are chained down to a they do at present: but it is equally certain and the important article bread. From these wretched pallet--God forgive the rich man that the paupers to be relieved by their parishes materials, the author, Mr. Donovan, a wellwho knows of this, and leaves a family so then, came not up to one-fiftieth part of those known chemist, has formed a very useful and situated to its fate! Such, however, was the which are continually seeking and obtaining interesting volume. The style is strong and case with Simon Lee and his household. For parochial relief now; and if the increased perspicuous; occasionally, but not often, marked a full fortnight he was himself confined to bed. burden thereby imposed upon the land be taken by provincialisms. The author appears to be His wife caught the infection from him, and into account, it will probably be found that not only a man of science, but a scholar; communicated it to the children. The little agriculturists are not such decided gainers by and his work exhibits curious and exten. money which they had in the house was soon the change as most of them imagine. Besides sive reading. But its most valuable parts are exhausted; they lived for a while on the all which, it must be manifest to all who have the result of immediate observation and exproduce of their garden; but at length nature eyes to look round them, and minds to com- periment. It is impossible not to perceive rebelled, and Simon, after many a struggle, prehend what they see, that with the race of that the processes are described, not from had recourse to the parish. I shall give the petty farmers has expired one of the finest written accounts, but from actual inspection. particulars of this application as they were and most virtuous classes of society. Their By the following extracts the reader will form communicated to me by one of the committee. houses were the nurseries of good and faithful a pretty correct notion of this volume, of which * We were sitting,' said my informant, ' as servants : they were themselves hospitable to mere utility is far from being the only attracusual, on a Thursday evening, in the room the utmost extent of their means, and almost tion. As an example of the industry and reallotted to us in the workhouse. We had had always honest. They were really, I say not search contained in it, we quote the remarks a good many applications for the typhus was upon principle, but certainly upon honourable on the origin of the word beer. prevalent at the time--and we had relieved prejudice, attached to the constitution in " It is a singular circumstance that the word several, when, on ringing the bell to see church and state. If, then, the country have beer seems to be of Hebrew origin, as well as whether any more were waiting, to the asto suffered in its moral character by their an- the name of the other fermented liquor, wine ; nishment of all present, in walked Simon Lee. nihilation, he must be a very short-sighted and that the invention of both should be thus At first we hardly knew him, he was so wasted politician indeed who imagines that the injury traceable to the family of Noah. If we read and so altered. But he looked at us with the thereby inflicted upon society can be at all the word 72 corn without the vowel point, same keen glance with which he used to recompensated by any improvement in the art merely supplying a short enunciating vowel, it gard us when he was one of our number, and of agriculture, or increase of the amount of will sound like bre in sabre, or ber. The He. stood leaning upon his stick in silence. Our produce raised from the soil."

brew language modified itself into the Pheni. overseer at that time was Farmer Scratch-a We have quoted the above on account of the cian, and that again into the Saxon. We acman, as you know, sir, not remarkable for his admirable practical lesson it conveys: but we cordingly find the Saxon word be re, barley, to kindness of heart or liberality of disposition. must say, for the benefit of those who do not have a singular resemblance to its parent 12.

What want you, Simon ?" said he surely like utility the worse for its being blent with The colouring given by the ancient Saxon to you cannot be in need of relief ?' 'I am in amusement, that many of the narratives are of the languages of Europe is perceptible in many need, though,' said Simon ; ' I would not most exciting interest : and while we recom- words: hence we have the English beer, the have come here, were not my family starving.' mend these volumes most cordially to the ma- French bière, and the Italian birra. Some "We have no relief to give you,' answered the jority of our readers as containing the useful derive the word beer from the Latin verb overseer; you ought to have taken better knowledge observation alone acquires, we no bibere, to drink-a sufficiently remote analogy, care of your money when you had it. I less recommend them to another class as con- If the derivation be from the Latin at all, I wonder you are not ashamed to come here taining all the attraction of entertainment. think it more probable that it is from bevere, like a common pauper ; -- you that used to Two or three of the stories have already ap- the word made use of in place of bibere towards grant relief, and not to ask it.' Simon's blood peared in Blackwood's Magazine, and one, we the end of the sixth century, when the Latin rushed to his cheeks as the overseer spoke. believe, in an Annual ; but the novelty of the ceased to be a living language. Bevere was He raised himself erect upon his staff, and collection is sufficient to attract great popu- no doubt pronounced at that time as it would looking proudly at us, he turned upon his larity.

have been by the earlier Romans, be-we-re: it heel and walked away. This is the first

was afterwards contracted into bere. But the time I have asked alms,' cried he, as he Dr. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopædia, Vol. III. Saxon bere has been retained in English up to opened the door, and it shall be the last.' Domestic Economy, Vol. I. 12mo. London, the present time, for there is a kind of barley Simon has had sickness in his family re 1830. Longman and Co.

called bere or bigge. The English word beet peatedly since that time. I have known him Tuis excellent work continues to increase in was, a few centuries since, spelt bere ; and beer to be a full fortnight without work ; yet he public favour, and to receive fresh accessions of has at all times been made from barley. We has never come to the parish since. I was a ) force to its corps of contributors rires acquirit may therefore incline to believe, that the ety

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mology of the word not only proves the remote new revolution, and nothing but a full, sound, wort soaked in the previous mash. These two antiquity of the beverage, but traces the inven- fresh, dark-coloured porter will be relished. liquors, when boiled down with the hops, fer. tion to the family of Noah, provided that the In no respect have the public suffered more mented, and finished, ought to produce eight grandson of the patriarch was really monarch severely by the whimsicality of taste than in barrels of ale at 100 pounds' gravity on Dicas's of Egypt.

Admitting, then, that the instance of porter. It is absolutely fright- saccharometer. But in the one mash the malt the invention of barley-wine originated in ful to contemplate the list of poisons and drugs was by no means exhausted of its saccharine Egypt, not because they had no vines, but with which this beverage has been (as it is matter, although what remains is not of so fine because a stimulating liquor, cheaper than technically and descriptively called) doctored. a quality as what had been dissolved away. grape wine, was required for the use of the Opium, henbane, cocculus indicus, and Bohe- The same malt and hops will, however, answer cottimon people, we can trace the use of it ex- mian rosemary, which is said to produce a quick extremely well for making table beer; and with tending throughout Europe.

and raving intoxication, supplied the place this intent a second mashing may be made with With regard to the quality of the corn of alcohol. Aloes, quassia, gentian, sweet- water of 185°, and even a third with water of vines of antiquity," the writer says, we scented flag, wormwood, horehound, and bitter 190°; the quantities being such, that after know nothing of the mode of preparation. oranges, fulfilled the duties of hops. Liquorice, boiling on the same hops, fermenting, and Were we acquainted with the process, the treacle, and mucilage of fax-seed, stood for finishing, there will be twelve barrels of beer case would be otherwise ; and the chief fact unattenuated malt sugar. Capsicum, ginger, at thirty pounds' gravity. An inferior, but yet of shich we are ignorant, is, whether or and cinnamon, or rather cassia buds, afforded a good ale may be made from forty bushels of not any ferment was made use of. With- to the exhausted drink the pungency of car- prime pale malt, and thirty pounds of good out yeast, the slight fermentation which takes bonic acid. Burnt flour, sugar, or treacle, hops. The mashing heat may be as before, place spontaneously in corn liquors, would af. communicated a peculiar taste which many and it may be calculated, as before, to produce fad a poor, vapid, acidulous drink, with very persons fancy. Preparations of fish, assisted both ale and beer. In this case, twelve barlittle exhilarating power ; and to the taste of in cases of obstinacy with oil of vitriol, procured rels of ale at seventy pounds' gravity, and ten u moderns it would prove not a little disgust- transparency. Beside these, the brewer had | barrels of beer at thirty pounds, will be proing. Yeast was certainly known to the an- occasionally to supply himself with potash, lime, duced. Or, if the object is merely to obtain eests

: Pliny says, the frothy head of all salt, and a variety of other substances, which ale at seventy pounds' gravity, the quantity these liquors is used by ladies for beautifying are of no other harm than in serving the office producible will be fourteen barrels. If tablethe skin of their faces ;' but he does not say of more valuable materials, and defrauding the beer of a good quality, without any ale, is re. that it was used in brewing."

After the continuance of these quired, the quantity of materials to produce These extracts are from a very amusing abuses for a length of time, the legislature in- thirty barrels of finished beer should be, malt history of intoxicating liquors with which the terposed, and at present the brewer is bound forty bushels, good hops twenty-five pounds, molume commences. The following are from by an oath against the use of any thing but as much water as will produce about thirty-five the body of the work:

malt and hops. The qualities which consti- barrels of hopped wort; and this will finish ** Portet.— This liquor was first brought tute good porter in the present day are perfect about thirty barrels of beer. In calculating into extensive use by the success of the London transparency, a light brown colour, fulness on the quantity of water necessary to produce à berters

, who for a length of time had the the palate, pure and moderate bitterness, with given quantity of a first mash, it will be of use abus exclusive manufacture of it. Indeed it a mixture of sweetness, a certain sharpness or to know that an imperial bushel of ground was then universally believed that no other acerbity without sourness or burnt flavour, malt absorbs and retains about six four-fifths water but that of the Thames could produce it and a close creamy head, instantly closing in imperial gallons of water.” in perfection ; a delusion since removed by its when blown aside. The following formula being thade equally well in all parts of the will afford excellent porter :--For every hogs- The Waverley Novels, Vol. IX. The Black United Kingdom, if the brewer will use proper head of keeping drink, or a hogshead and a Dwarf, and Old Mortality. Tales of my ingredients and in sufficient quantity. About third of drink for speedy consumption, the in Landlord, Vol. I. Edinburgh, 1830, Cadell the beginning of the eighteenth century a malt gredients, when the thermometer stands at and Co.: London, Simpkin and Marshall. Liguor called entire butt was much in use; and 155o, may be used in these relative quantities : Our Gazette, with regard to this publication, terwards a variety called brown stout: these -the grist, in all twelve stone, should consist is something like the great bell of a capital, Tere beary, strong drinks ; and about the middle of a stone and a half of amber malt, a pound which is rung whenever a new and illustrious the eighteenth century they began to give and a half of patent malt, (that is, malt re- scion is added to the reigning family: - a place to a liquor the brewing of which was solved into mere colouring matter by charring,) volume issues from the press, and we sound

en nuch improved, and which happened to and all the rest is to be pale malt. "The quan- the peal, for which, unlike our brother bello ht , a Malone informs us, in great request tity of water for the different mashings, if the men, we have neither mutton nor trimmings. ongst the street porters of London : hence porter is for immediate use, and a hogshead of the present birth we need say little: Old nattained the name of porter. In some years and a third is to be produced, should be such Mortality contests the palm, in many opiter it became one of the necessaries of life, that the gravity of the worts on Dicas's sac- nions, with the best of the author's other and has continued so ever since. The manu- charometer will be 55 pounds per barrel, when works,--and is unquestionably one of his most arteare of porter has been subject to all the all the worts are mixed. In summer, three successful productions. In its new form it Sanges which the capricious taste of the pounds of best Kent hops will be required; will not be relished the less for an admiralle rahe could devise. At first it was requisite but in winter a quarter or half pound less will frontispiece, by Wilkie, of the Milnwood family

it should have a heavy taste, and a blackish answer sufficiently well for preservation. If at dinner, interrupted by Bothwell and the metur ; but this kind being reported to be the drink is to be brewed for keeping, the dragoons ;-the more delightful, from there arbolesome, and apt to occasion dyspeptic quantity of malt and hops must be increased in being a cast of the artist himself in the face strptaunas, it was conceived that to give it age proportion to the time. From the foregoing of Cuddie Headrigg, a very humorously ex*** the remedy: but the liquor being not estimate of the quantity of porter producible pressive illustration of the text. The vignette sus, age was sure to produce sourness in a from certain weights of malt and hops must be by J. Burnet is also a characteristic embellishligt degree, or hardness, as this is technically deducted a loss which occurs during the several ment. Bied. The secret of inducing sudden old age stages of the process, amounting, the whole year With regard to literary novelty, the intro- a infant brewing of porter was soon found round, to about five or five and a half per cent, duction to the Black Dwarf sayset; and the method of making best old Lon- on drink sent out as soon as finished.

“ The ideal being who is bere presented as da porter in a fortnighet, was to mix porter Ale.—Ale in the present day does not residing in solitude, and haunted by a conto become sour, in a certain quantity, differ from porter so much as it formerly did. sciousness of his own deformity, and a sus

At length the publicans Ale is of a lighter colour ; it is stronger, picion of his being generally subjected to the were let into the secret, and they were far- sweeter, and is less hopped than porter. In order scorn of his fellow-men, is not altogether imapushed by the brewer with two separate hogs- to make a strong keeping ale of an excellent ginary. An individual existed many years reads, ce of sour, the other of fresh drink. quality, the following should be the proportion since, under the author's observation, which Finally, so notorious was this practice, and so of the ingredients :-Forty bushels

of best pale suggested such a character. This poor unfor. beses hydraulic engines were fitted up, through mash, ten barrels of water at 172o may be let native of Tweeddale. He was the son of a

pipes a which, by the combination of two on and raked for half an hour, and then al- labourer in the slate-quarries of Stobo, and

aree pumps, drink of any age required lowed to stand for an hour. Water at 180° must have been born in the mis-shapen form er det be brought out of the cellar ready made. may then be leaked or let on so as to run which he exhibited, though he sometimes imdi present the public taste has undergone through the malt, and to wash away all the puted it to ill usage when in infancy. He


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