« AnteriorContinuar »
of Elizabeth and James's days seem to have successfully improved than any other, the art ceive any material difference between the mode borne a perfect resemblance to our own. They of theatrical decoration should have alone stood of representation at the time of Massinger and had their pit, where the inferior class of spec- still. It is not improbable that their scenes at present: in his day the female parts were tators, the groundlings, vented their clamorous were few; and that they were varied, as occa- performed by boys. This custom, which must censure or approbation; they had their boxes sion might require, by the introduction of dif. in many cases have materially injured the illu. -rooms, as they were called to which the ferent pieces of stage furniture. Mr. Gifford, sion of the scene, was in others of considerable right of exclusive admission was engaged by who adheres to the opinions of Malone, says, advantage : it furnished the stage with a sucthe night, for the more affluent portion of the A table with a pen and ink thrust in, signi- cession of youths, regularly educated for the audience; and there were, again, the galleries, fied that the stage was a counting-house; if art, to fill, in every department of the drama, or scaffoldings above the boxes, for those who these were withdrawn, and two stools put in the characters suited to their age. When the were content to purchase less commodious their place, it was then a tavern.' And this lad had become too tall for Juliet, he had situations at a cheaper rate. On the stage, in might be perfectly satisfactory as long as the acquired the skill, and was most admirably the same manner, the appointments appear to business of the play was supposed to be passing fitted, both in age and appearance, for per. have been nearly of the same description as at within doors; but when it was removed to the forming the part which Garrick considered the present. The curtain divided the audience open air, such meagre devices would no longer most difficult on the stage, because it needed from the actors, which, at the third sounding, be sufficient to guide the imagination of the an old head upon young shoulders,' the ardent not, indeed, of the bell, but of the trumpet, audience, and some new method must have and arduous character of Romeo. When the was drawn for the commencement of the per- been adopted to indicate the place of action. voice had the mannish crack,' that rendered formance. Malone, in his account of the an- After giving the subject very considerable at the youth unfit to appear as the representative cient theatre, supposes that there were no tention, cannot help thinking that Steevens of the gentle Imogen, the stage possessed in movable scenes ; that a permanent elevation was right in rejecting Malone's theory, and him the very person that was wanting to do of about nine feet was raised at the back of concluding that the spectators were, as at the justice to the princely sentiments of Arviragus the stage, from which, in many of the old present day, assisted in following the progress or Guiderius.* Such was the state of the plays, part of the dialogue was spoken ; and of the story by means of painted movable stage when Massinger arrived in the metrothat there was a private box on each side this scenery. This opinion is confirmed by the polis, and dedicated his talents to its service. platform. Such an arrangement would have ancient stage directions. In the folio Shake. He joined a splendid fraternity; for Shake. destroyed all theatrical illusion ; and it seems speare, 1623, we read, “Enter Brutus in his speare, Jonson, Beaumont, Fletcher, Shirley, extraordinary that any spectators should desire orchard; Enter Timon in the woods; Enter were then flourishing at the height of their to fix themselves in a station where they could Timon from the cave.' In Coriolanus, Mar- reputation, and the full vigour of their genius. have seen nothing but the backs and trains of cius follows them to the gates and is shut in. Massinger came among them no unworthy the performers; but as Malone himself ac- Innumerable instances of the same kind might competitor for such honours and emoluments knowledges the spot to have been incon- be cited to prove that the ancient stage was as the theatre could afford. Of the honours, venient, and that it is not very easy to ascer- not so defective in the necessary decorations as indeed, he seems to have reaped a very fair tain the precise situation where these boxes some antiquaries of great authority would re- and equitable portion; of the emoluments, the really were, it may very reasonably be pre- present. * It may be added,' says Steevens, harvest was less abundant.” sumed that they were not placed in the po that the dialogue of our old dramatists has It is almost unnecessary for us to add, that șition that the historian of the English stage such perpetual reference to objects supposed the engraved heads, &c. in this volume are has supposed. As to the permanent floor, or visible to the audience, that the want of scenery equally good as those in the former Numbers. upper stage, of which he speaks, he may or could not have failed to render many of the Massinger will be completed by Mr. Harness may not be correct in his statement. All that descriptions absurd. Banquo examines the out- in another volume; and all that can be given his quotations upon the subject really establish side of Inverness castle with such minuteness, of Ford will follow, it seems, in a third, under is, that in the old, as in the modern theatre, that he distinguishes even the nests which the the care of Mr. Mitchell, the elegant transwhen the actor was to speak from a window, martens had built under the projecting part of lator of Aristophanes,-who, indeed, is underor balcony, or the walls of a fortress, the re- its roof. Romeo, standing in a garden, points stood to have a general superintendence of this quisite ingenuity was not wanting to contrive to the tops of fruit-trees, gilded by the moon. very important series of the Family Library. a representation of the place. But with re- The prologue speaker to the second part of In due time, Beaumont and Fletcher, Ben Jongard to the use of painted movable scenery, Henry the Fourth, expressly shews the spec- son, &c. are to follow, and we hope Shakespeare it is not possible, from the very circumstances tators • This worm-eaten hold of ragged stone,' ipse ; for there can be no doubt that an edi. of the case, to believe him correct in his theory, in which Northumberland was lodged. Iachi- tion of the prince of dramatists, presenting pot Such a contrivance could not have escaped our mo takes the most exact inventory of every only a purified text, but a series of compact ancestors. All the materials were ready to article in Imogen's bed-chamber, from the notes, on the plan of this Massinger, is a great their hands. They had not to invent for silk and silver of which her tapestry was desideratum among many classes of society. themselves_but merely to adapt an old inven- wrought, down to the Cupids that support tion to that peculiar purpose ; and at a time her andirons. Had not the inside of the apart
Temple's Travels in Peru. when every better-furnished apartment was ment, with its proper furniture, been repre.
(Second Notice: Conclusion.) adorned with tapestry; when even the rooms sented, how ridiculous must the action of Having paid our earliest respects to these of the commonest taverns were hung with Iachimo have appeared! He must have stood lively and entertaining Travels, we must plead painted cloths; while all the materials were looking out of the room for the particulars the superabundance of the novelties under constantly before their eyes, we can hardly supposed to be visible within it.' The works which we now groan, for making our second believe our forefathers to have been so de- of Massinger would afford innumerable in- notice far more brief than their merits would ficient in ingenuity as to have missed the stances of a similar kind to vindicate the opinion have called for under other circumstances. simple contrivance of converting the common which Steevens has asserted on the testimony From Potosi the author rode (200 miles) to ornaments of their walls into the decorations of Shakespeare alone. But on this subject Oruro, long famous for its tin mines; and on of their theatres. But, in fact, the use of there is one passage which appears to me the road he saysscenery was almost co-existent with the intro- quite conclusive. Must not all the humour “ I observed, for the first time, flocks of duction of dramatic representations in this of the mock play in the Midsummer Night's alpacos, another species of the lama, but somecountry. In the Chester Mysteries (1268), the Dream have been entirely lost, unless the audi. what smaller, and with longer and infinitely most ancient and complete collection of the ence before whom it was performed were ac- finer wool; they are of various colours, bus kind which we possess, is found the following customed to all the embellishments requisite to chiefly jet black.” stage direction :- Then Noe shall go into the give effect to a dramatic representation, and
We do not remember to have seen this ani. arke with all his familye, his wife excepte. The could consequently estimate the absurdity of mal in Europe, though it must be both a beauarke must be boarded round about ; and upon those shallow contrivances and mean substi. tiful and useful creature. At Oruro our an. the boardes all the beastes and fowles, hereafter tutes for scenery devised by the ignorance of thor is eloquent upon a nursing affair, where rehearsed, must be painted, that their wordes the clowns ?* În only one respect do I per. a fine woman calls her son from his play to may agree with their pictures. In this pas.
be suckled ; but we dare not meddle with such sage we have a clear reference to a painted the following sexcerace upon the Book of Trevens, the bides subjects : and we proceed on our journey, no
It is not likely that, in the lapse of that exists, in the office of the auditors of the imprest: - matter where. three centuries, while all other arts were in a « Mrs. Dane, the lynnen dealer, for antise to pynte for state of rapid improvement, and the art of houses for the players, and other properties, as monsters, • The first woman who appeared in a regular drama, dramatic writir "haps, more rapidly and I-See Boswell's Shakespeare, vol. iii. p. 364, et seq.
great hollow trees, and such other, twenty dozen ells, 121.” on a public stage, played Desdemona, about the year 1a.
Her name is unknown.
" I found,” says our pleasant guide, “ the much greater number availed themselves of this even in a green old age. Here they flourish, village of Caracolla crowded with Indians and hospitality than it was ever contemplated, in fade, and die, within the space of a few short others; the inhabitants, old and young of both the construction of the house, should one day years, and a vestige of them is seldom to be sexes, from the neighbouring and the distant be entertained within its walls. The frequent seen in an elderly woman.” villages, who had assembled in their gayest stepping over me and on me, and the whisper Two days after this night-scene (which is attire, to celebrate the great holyday of the ings and bustling of the retiring parties, roused described at greater length, and with more of Elevation of the Cross,' which, according to me from my comfortable sleep, and occasioned, incident, than we care to follow), the traveller the Roman calendar, this day proves to be. for a moment, that sort of fretful ill-humour reached the ruined village of Calamarca : his Mass was performed in all the dignity of village which usually occurs on being unexpectedly departure from which affords us an opportupomp; processions followed, in which were or unnecessarily disturbed. It was, however, nity of contrasting his graver with his gay groups fantastically dressed in masquerade; only for a moment; for upon raising my head style. sorne carrying banners, some playing wild and looking round me, a feeling of a very oppo By being on my journey a full hour before music upon Aageolets, horns, drums, and trum- site kind was excited by the curious scene in the morning dawned, I had an opportunity of pets, with the vocal accompaniment of shouts which I found myself the centre. A large beholding at sunrise a scene of magnificence and screams. Their appearance before the church taper-a perquisite, I presume, of his scarcely to be surpassed in the world. Its house of the curate can scarcely be more accu- reverence's—was supported on the floor, in the imposing effects upon my mind, when day rately described than by the following lines : middle of the apartment; I thought of the pil. first developed the object to my view, it is
The men with the kettle-drums enter'd the gate, | lar of light and the Israelites, but for the life of utterly impossible for me to describe ; but the Dub-rub-a-dub, dub; the trumpeters follow'd, me I cannot tell why. By the glare of this scene was this:-High in the blue crystal vanlt, Tantara, tantara ; then all the boys holla’d.' Swift.
taper I counted seventeen persons, male and and immediately before me, as I rode thoughtInfinite, indeed, was the mirth of all, which female, some of them most fantastically dressed, lessly along, I perceived a brilliant streak reFas kept up by dancing, singing, and drink- reposing, and preparing for repose. The men sembling burnished gold, dazzling to look on, ing chicha to excess. This latter part of laid themselves down just as they came in and and wonderfully contrasted with the shades of the ceremony is never omitted upon the feasts chanced to find a vacant space upon the floor. night, which still lingered upon the world and holydays of these people, which are very The females all said an Ave Maria, told their beneath ; for to us the sun had not yet risen, seldom known to terminate in those riotous beads, crossed themselves, and undressed; then, though the sombre profiles of the Cordilleras eutrages that so frequently occur at popular placing their thickly-quilted petticoats for a bed, might be distinctly traced through the de. meetings, in countries where pretensions to they also lay down, sans cérémonie, as they best parting gloom. Imperceptibly the golden ef. erilisation are carried to a greater pitch. could, covering themselves with their shawls. fulgence blended with a field of white, glisten. Chicha is the favourite beverage of the South • There they were, the girls and boys, ing in vestal purity, and, expanding down. American Indians, and also of many who con.
As thick as hasty-pudding.'
wards, gradually assumed the form of a pyramid sider it an insult to be called Indians. The Two young Cholas, fifteen or sixteen years of silver, of immeasurable base. I stopped in banner in which it is made, as I have fre- of age, were close at the foot of where I had mute amazement, doubtful of what I beheld. quently witnessed at Potosi, is as follows:- extended myself for the night; but had they Day gently broke, and the tops of distant A quantity of Indian corn is pounded into a been in the remotest corner of our sty-like dor- mountains glittered in the early beams; the fine powder, and placed in a heap, round mitory, they must have attracted the particular sun then
rather rushed upon which as many old women (I always observed attention of a stranger. They had, no doubt, the silent world, in a full blazing flood of they were old women) as can form a conve- been acting some principal characters in the morning splendour, and at the same moment nient circle sit down upon the ground, and, processions of the day, for they represented the stupendous Ylimani, the giant of the An. filling their mouths with the powder, chew precisely those figures which we so often see in des, in all the pomp of mountain majesty, it into a paste ;-perhaps mumble would be the rather gaudy colours, as emblems of America, burst upon my view. My first feeling was a appropriate term--for to chew, I presume there and which, with the other quarters of the sense of delight, with an expansion of soul must be teeth ; but in this operation the per- world, are favourite ornaments in cottages and producing positive rapture. Never before did formers are toothless. When the paste, then, villages, among the humble amateurs of the fine I feel myself endowed with equal energy, or is mumbled to a sufficient consistency, it is arts. The Cholas having performed their devo- experience such an elevation of sentiment. taken out of the mouth and rolled between the tions, and partly divested themselves of their Never did I feel myself less, so quickly did palins of the hands into a ball, generally about dresses, mutually assisted in arranging and that sentiment subside into devout humility. the size of a grape-shot, but varying, of course, plaiting their long, shining tresses, literally Admiration, reverence, and awe, with a con. stwording to the capacity of the mouth from glistening with jet, which partly hung down sciousness of human inferiority, were the min. which the substance is taken. The balls are their finely-formed bronze-coloured shoulders,gled feelings of my heart in contemplating this piled in a pyramid, until the flour of the mais and partly concealed in front charms of which terrestrial manifestation of the glory of God. is finished, they are then placed upon a fire to they themselves, simple village maids ! seemed Here! I exclaimed with fervour and delightbake. After this, they are put into a given unconscious, but of which an eastern empress here do I behold the sublime and beautiful, quantity of water, where they ferment; I might have been justly proud.
spontaneously produced in the great page of 221 not aware that any other ingredient is used. * The Chola girls generally, from the age of Nature by the omnipotence and providence of The fermentation forms the beverage called fourteen to eighteen, have remarkably fine Nature's God. Chicha, which is the nectar of the Indians; and busts, good teeth, well-turned limbs, plump “ Chimborazo,” (he tells us afterwards), a though inebriating, it is by no means inju- cheeks, &c. and sometimes countenances full of " has long passed for the highest of the Cora rims to health. In hot weather, I must ac- animation, and much pleasing feminine ex- dilleras ; and, until the discovery of the Himaknowledge, notwithstanding the process, which pression. Their raven locks are of most laya, was supposed to be the highest mountain is a most unsightly scene to witness, a draught luxuriant growth, and generally descend half- in the world. M. Humboldt, as he himself chicha is extremely grateful; though I know way down the person
observes, “ had the pleasure of seeing a greater 00: how to describe the taste, nearer than what
• Increasing beauties they invade;'
extent of mountains than any other geognost,' may be imagined would be obtained by a mix. but, although they bestow much pains on the but he did not pursue his travels to this part of tare of small beer and indifferent cider; yet is hair, they do not in all cases succeed in keep the Andes, where subsequent travellers have it considered as nutritious among the labouring ing it perfectly clean : the neatness, however, ascertained the height of the Ylimani to be classes as porter is in England.
with which they plait it into tresses, cannot be 21,800 feet above the level of the sea, ex. ** After partaking of a very good supper, exceeded by the first-rate artists in the proceeding that of Chimborazo by 350 feet—no spread Dy horse-sheets in the middle of the fession of ornamental hair-dressing. I have very great difference, it may perhaps be said, floor, and, wrapped in my poncho, with my more than once offered two ounces f gold to in subjects of such vast dimensions; but still, saddle under my head, in spite of the uproarious Peruvian girls in humble life for their head of quite sufficient to take from the latter the palm zinh of the villagers without, I soon ceased to hair; and although that sum (between six and of superlative magnitude and grandeur in the itink of the manners, customs, fancies, anti- seven pounds) would have been wealth to great chain of the Andes. Mr. Pentland, who pathies, whims, and oddities of the world, them, it was not sufficient to tempt them, measured the Ylimani in 1826, gave me his which vary every day we live, and every mile even for a lover's sake, to apply the scissors calculations with the remark, that they reve g. As the night advanced, the merriment The charms and attractions to which I have quired revision ;' consequently they were not of ite village festival subsided, and wearied alluded desert the native females, in this coun. intended to go forth as accurate. "At a subparties gradually filled the house of the curate, try, at an age in which they may frequently be sequent period, I was informed by our chief u whom, as to me, the roof for a covering, and seen in full bloom in England, where they commissioner, who took a warm interest in ise floor for a bed, were freely bestowed ; and a continue in some cases to attract admiration | these subjects, that the height of the Ylimani
had been given to him as 21,800 feet, which theories to be carefully examined and their ceeded far beyond what we might have reason. agrees with that given to me by Mr. Pentland, claims adjusted, and the light of science and ably anticipated. Besides the first and grand and this appears to be corroborated by the experiment brought, with its clearest and principle, which respects the law of the material observations of Doctor Redhead. The Ylimani, steadiest rays, to illumine various operations of force of attraction and repulsion, a second is and the neighbouring mountains, ' are com- Nature, which she seems studiously to conceal, added, which respects the quantum of the force posed of transition slate chiefly, traversed by before we can say hereis a New Theory of Physics, and magnitude of the sphere of repulsion, numerous veins of quartz, containing aurife- founded on a simple principle, which, though in These principles are contained in the two rous pyrites, and gold in small quantities.' a great measure inexplicable in itself, is by this following postulates. That such an immense mountain should be author successfully applied to explain many of the Postulate 1. “ Let it be granted, that an composed of transition slate, instead of granite, general properties of matter. If our philosopher atom of matter consists of an indefinitely small has struck some persons as a matter of sur-succeed in all that he has promised, we shall be sphere of repulsion, which is the central part prise; it appears, however, that the Andes among the foremost to return him his motto, of an indefinitely extended concentric sphere are chiefly composed of porphyry, and not of and hail him as the happy man who has dis- of attraction ; and that its force on the centres granite.'
covered the hitherto latent causes of so many of other atoms, every where within the comWe conclude with the following remarkable things so very necessary to a proper under pass of its action, varies inversely as the square particulars of an enormous condor shot by the standing of the subjects on which he treats ; of its distance from the centre; being at. author.
and which on being much better known, will tractive at all points beyond the sphere of “In the course of the day I had an oppor- undoubtedly become more subservient to the repulsion, and repulsive at all points within tunity of shooting a condor; it was so satiated general purposes of life, and the benefit of that sphere.”—(This postulate we wish our with its repast on the carcass of a horse, as society. But we must confess, that professions readers to collate with the author's note A on to suffer me to approach within pistol-shot of this kind have often disappointed the ex- p. 473.) before it extended its enormous wings to take pectations built on them; and the hope of Pos. 2. “ Let it be granted, that atoms may flight, which was to me the signal to fire; and, something solid and useful, as well as new, has differ from each other in the radii of their spheres having loaded with an ample charge of pellets, been puzzled by the vanishing tenuity of the of repulsion, and in their forces at a given my aim proved effectual and fatal. What a thread of reasoning which has been drawn out distance from their centres."—And we may formidable monster did I behold in the ravine beyond the staple of the argument, till ap- add the following definitions: beneath me, screaming and fapping in the last parent axioms have sunk into postulates, and Definition 22. " The sphere of the repulsion convulsive struggles of life! It may be difficult these have dwindled away into hypotheses, of an atom is called its spherule.-23. The to believe, that the most gigantic animal which rather darkened by variously interlaced in- sphere of attraction of an atom is called its inhabits the earth or the ocean can be equalled ductive reasonings : and in the end, Ixion-like, crpanse.-24. Absolute force of an atom is in size by a tenant of the air; and those per. we embraced a cloud, or, like the sage of old, its force at a given distance from the centre; sons who have never seen a larger bird than terminated our labour with the no-feigned cry and this is called its mass, or quantity of our mountain cagle, will probably read with of, “ All this is vanity and vexation of spirit !" matter.” astonishment of a species of that same bird, in In respect to novelty, Mr. Exley's work is
The term “ spherule” is of frequent octhe southern hemisphere, being so large and what it professes to be; for we are not aware currence in our author's work; but why the strong as to seize an ox with its talons, and that the same views of the essential nature of “ sphere of attraction” is called the “ expanse to lift it into the air, whence it lets it fall to matter have been taken by any ancient or of an atom" we cannot tell; since the term the ground, in order to kill it and to prey upon modern philosopher. It is true that the ce- scarcely occurs in any other part of the whole the caroass. But this astonishment must in lebrated theory of Boscovich resembles that of treatise. a great degree subside, when the dimensions of Mr. Exley more than any other; but in several It is a well-known fact, that bodies are the bird are taken into consideration, and respects it is widely different; and though it has universally endowed with the properties de. which, incredible as they may appear, I now been frequently suggested, that the attraction of nominated extension, solidity, vis inertiæ, mo. insert verbatim from a note taken down with gravitation may be the same as that which bility, and divisibility; these properties are, my own hand. When the wings are spread, produces the cohesion of the parts of bodies, by experiment and observation, clearly ascerthey measure sixteen paces (forty feet) in ex- and as that by which different bodies combine, tained to exist in all bodies, as far as experiment tent, from point to point; the feathers are generally denominated chemical affinity; yet in has been, or probably can be, conducted: but eight paces (twenty feet) in length, and the the whole range of literary productions we do we are not aware that they have ever been quill part two palms (eight inches) in circum- not recollect tbat there has been any attempt deduced as the necessary result of any general ference. It is said to have powers sufficient to to solve the phenomena of chemistry, and the principles, before the appearance of the present carry off a live rhinoceros.' *
various cases of contiguous attraction, on the work, in which they are all shewn to be the These extracts shew, as well as ten times as principles of our author. Buffon, and, after necessary consequences of the principles asmany, the various and able ways in which the him, Haüy and La Place, have given it as sumed in the two postulates already produced. author treats his subjects; though we might their opinion, that the forces of cohesion and This we consider as a very curious and im. indeed extensively enrich our columns by amu. chemical affinity are identical with the at- portant fact. sing quotations. But we have, we trust, done traction of gravitation. Bergman, equally The following phenomenon respects the im. enough to give them, as they well deserve, a eminent, contends for the same views: he penetrability of matter : passport to general circulation.
says, that, “ considering the vast distance of Phenomenon 4. “ Matter is impenetrable
the heavenly bodies, we may neglect the dia- by the definite force of other matter."--Er. Principles of Natural Philosophy; or, a New meters, and look upon them in most cases as planation. “ This must result, on the sup
Theory of Physics, founded on Gravitation, gravitating points; but contiguous bodies are position that the matter which composes bodies and applied in explaining the general Pro- to be regarded in a very different light: for is such as is pointed out in the theory; because perties of Matter, the Phenomena of Che- the figure and situation, not of the whole the force of the atoms at their centres is in. mistry, Electricity, Galvanism, Magnetism, only, but of the parts, produce a great variation definitely great ; and hence the centres, by a and Electro-magnetism. By Thomas Exley, in the effects."
finite force, cannot be made to coincide." A.M., Associate of the Bristol Philosophical M. Libes, in his Nouveau Dictionnaire de The nature of force is certainly unknown ; and Literary Society. 8vo. pp. 512. Lon- Physique, has attempted to demonstrate the but whatever it may be, we are sensible of its don, 1829. Longman and Co.
identity of these forces ; but the demonstration presence whenever we see an action opposed A New Theory of Physics ! this title filled us is conducted in a train of geometrical reason- by another action ; and we are satisfied that with uncomfortable apprehensions ; but we ings, which do not appear to be founded on equal and opposite forces and actions anni. were relieved a little by finding that the new sufficient physical data. Mr. Exley has pro- hilate the effects of each other, and produce an theory did not profess to be founded on ceeded by a very different method :-having equilibrium; and it is seen in the first postulate, new principles, but on one universally ac- assumed the identity of gravitation and at that our author considers each atom of matter knowledged, viz. gravitation ; and applied here traction at minute distances as a very pro- as consisting of a system of equal forces, acting by the author, after a new manner, to explain bable hypothesis, he lays it down as a pos- from all parts equally at the same distance the general properties of matter, the phenomena tulate, and then attempts to explain the phe- from the centre point, but with increasing of chemistry, and the various sciences men. nomena of contiguous attractions on this energy, in proportion as the square of the tioned in the title. In reference to these, assumed principle. Success in the investigation distance is diminished. After mature delibenotwithstanding our recent, and comparatively is the only circumstance which can establish ration, it does appear to us exceedingly prorecent, discoveries, there is still much to be the assumed principle; and we are ready to bable, that all the known properties of bodies done ; many clouds to be dissipated, contending acknowledge, that the author has already sac-may arise from this source. Thus, since the
still, to eight
force is indefinably greater at the centres of prise, and of very difficult explanation, that a brought to a stand and shot three deer, of atorns than it is at any assignable distance, system of conducting bodies, such as dissimilar which two lay on the spot, and the third at a and repulsive, such atoms of matter composing metals and water, should produce an accumula- short distance. Three peasants, with hatchets bodies must necessarily be impenetrable at those tion of the electric fluid at one end of the appa- to fell trees thereabout, came in a friendly centres. The bodies thus composed will ne- ratus; and that when the ends are connected by manner and saluted me. They knew me well; cessarily have extension, since the centres a conductor, there should exist a constant cur- but when they began to consider whether it cannot coincide: such bodies will be indivisible rent of electricity throughout the series. was not their land on which the deer lay, I was # an incalculable degree of tenuity, because The celebrated Volta supposed that the mere necessitated to let them understand that I was the atoms are held together by finite forces. contact of dissimilar metals produced the elec- acquainted with the Lady of the Wood. I had Again, bodies thus composed will be inactive; tric motion. Dr. Wollaston attributed these my horses at a hut a short way off, whence I because the component atoms consist of forces phenomena to the oxidation of one of these was obliged to fetch them, in order to carry in perfect equilibrium on all sides ; hence they metals; but the motion of the fluid was not in away the deer as fast as possible. In the mean cannot change their own state. They must this case accounted for. Sir H. Davy proposed time, I requested one of the peasants to remain, also possess a ris inertiæ, or power of resist- to combine the two theories : but Mr. Exley after I had with much ceremony, in the sight ance against any force acting on them ; be- explains this curious fact thus:--Suppose that of all, plucked a tuft of hair from the largest cause, on whatsoever side the force acts, it the combinations are copper, zinc, and some deer and laid it on the gun-case, gone three meets an opposing force from the contrary side. diluted acid ; the surface of the zinc in contact times round each deer, and laid a cross on them The weight of bodies is a necessary conse- with the liquid is oxidised, the newly formed of wooden pegs, which were split in three places quence of the same principle ; because every particle of oxide requires an additional quantity at one end. I then directed him who staid atom will, by its action, tend towards every of electric fluid on its surface as its atmosphe. behind to seat himself on the deer until I reother; and hence all bodies will be pressed rule in its natural state ; this it will receive turned, that no harm should happen to him; towards the earth. The vis inertiæ will be more readily from the zinc than from the liquid, which advice he took and followed, and I carproportional to the weight, because the weight both because the metal is a better conductor, ried off my deer without opposition.” and ris inertie arise precisely from the same and also because it is in closer contact with the As bears' grease is an article of great profit to forces.
oxide : hence the interior of the zinc is rendered our perfumers and hair-dressers, and as there That many phenomena, not before explained negative, as is also the copper with which it is are many substitutes for that high-priced comen general principles, have, in our opinion, been connected ; and as the coat of oxide formed is a modity, we extract the account of its estimaplaced in a clear light in this New Theory, it nonconductor of electricity, of very low inten- tion in the land where bears are. The author will be sufficient to notice the uniform mixture sity, the electricity cannot return to the copper is describing the finale of some of these animals of different gases ; the absorption of caloric in through the zinc, but may proceed in the con- which had been shot. the conversion of solids to liquids, and of liquids trary direction, if a good conductor be inter “ The bears now underwent the process of to papours, and the converse; the phenomena posed ; and, in the case of many combinations, skinning and cutting up; and as the weather of the freezing of water, its expansion, its crys- a certain difference of electrical power will be was unfavourable, the operation took place calline form in ice, its cooling, when perfectly maintained between every succeeding pair of within-doors. The animals were laid on their
or ten degrees below the freezing metals, and hence there will be produced and backs on a table, and, when divested of their point, its sudden transformation into ice when supported a uniform gradation of electric power skins, they much resembled, in many respects, the surface is slightly agitated even at a single from the first cell to the last ; and if the extre- their breasts and arms in particular, so many point, and its immediate rise of temperature mities be connected with a good conductor, a human beings. The sight, in consequence, when thus frozen.
current of electric fluid will be produced, and was a rather shocking one, and forcibly reThe author seems to bave adduced sufficient will be continued by the process of the oxida- minded me of a disgusting exhibition I had reasons to shew that a particle of water is com- tion of the metals.
witnessed a few years before, at a celebrated posed of two atoms of hydrogen and one of The decomposition of compound bodies, and anatomist's in London. The horrors of this, oxyged, though this is at variance with the the transfer of the disunited elements, are ex- indeed—the macerating tub with its attendant received opinion, which considers the combina- plained by the same principles, in a natural and vulture—will never, I think, be effaced from tion to consist of one atom of each : we con- rational manner ; but we must not unravel all my imagination. The fore-legs of the old bear cerre, however, that there is no reason for this the mysteries of so philosophical and interest- were uncommonly muscular ; and indeed, after prevailing opinion, except that of a fancied ing a work. The little we have done will seeing them, a person might readily have be. simplicity; and he also contends, that his prove that it is a very valuable acquisition to lieved in the amazing prowess ascribed to bears. view of this combination corresponds more the scientific world.
The state of the intestines of the animals was Exctly with the phenomena of steam, water,
as I have described in the beginning of this and ice, and with the several phenomena of Lloyd's Field Sports of the North of Europe. work. The galls we carefully preserved ; those che peroxide of hydrogen. That bodies should
(Second and concluding Notice.)
being considered in Scandinavia a specific combine in definite proportions, and gases in Having gone at considerable length into this against a variety of disorders ; the like was the sazze simple ratio of their volumes, appears to work last week, we shall now only, in justice to case with the fat, which is as highly esteemed be an easy deduction from the theory before us. the author and our readers, wind up our review in Sweden as with us. This
, some one says, Want of room prevents us from following with a few short and entertaining particulars is possessed of such extraordinary virtue, that the treatise into the cause of electrical and from the second volume.
if a deal-box be rubbed with it overnight, on magnetical attractions and repulsions : these of the popular superstitions in Sweden, the the following morning it will be converted into have generally been considered as distinct spe- following are curious specimens.
a hair-trunk! Only the fat (ister), by the by cies, producing their actions at sensible and “ Some of the peasantry are so simple as to which is found about the intestines, is used in Tery onsiderable distances; but in this work go twenty or thirty miles to find out a spring Scandinavia medicinally, or for the hair; of they are sewn to be the effects of contiguous which runs to the north, in order to let the this there is usually but an inconsiderable quan. atraction and repulsion, and the immediate spring-water run through the gun-barrel, while tity. The fat (fát) itself, which, on a large efects are propagated to a distance through the they in the meanwhile say, “ Shoot west-bear, may weigh sixty or eighty pounds, is Dedium of intervening matter.
shoot east-shoot south-shoot north,' when merely used for culinary purposes. The bears? l'nquestionably this theory places electricity the cure is effected. It is also considered a grease we purchase in this country, if bears' estirely in a new light; and the curious and very good cure for a gun that does not kill, to put a grease it really be, is, I have reason to believe, interesting facts which it presents no longer serpent into the barrel, and shoot it out ; in concocted out of the whole of the fat found upon stand nicotinected as a separate class of pheno-doing which, it has also happened that many those animals. The hams (those at least that mena, baut are reduced to the general principles barrels have been burst. Several other such I took possession of) were destined to be smoked. of natural science. Till now these phenomena fooleries might be mentioned. The peasantry In that state they are considered great delicahave not been accounted for, but by the help of in general believe in witchcraft, and that a cies. The remainder of the carcass was either a bypothetical matter, endued with properties good and lucky sportsman can shoot as much salted, or reserved in its then state. When
a peculiar kind, and quite different from as he wishes, and call to him beast and bird, as fresh, I consider the flesh of the bear, which Erse of common matter and even by this soon as he has attained to that degree that he sometimes resembles beef, to be excellent. Ingratuitos aid they are very imperfectly ex. has become acquainted with the Lady of the deed, during this particular winter, it constipused in a great variety of instances. Wood. Once from necessity (says a Mr. Greiff, tuted a principal part of my food : the paws are
The operations and results of galvanic action who tells the story to the author) I had occa- thought to be a great dainty." bare proved still more perplexing to the experi-sion to shew my art of witchcraft. I had, by The observances of Christmas Eve in Sweden mental philosopher : it has been matter of sur-means of my good partridge-dog (Caresse), are thus related :-
and interesting paper by Mr. Crofton Croker, in the No. circunstances likewise occur, which remind own conduct, by describing the dreadful alter.
“ Great preparations were now made by all | ence and the mouldering grave! We have mortals that every thing is good which God has classes to celebrate the solemn festival of Christ. now before us a melancholy instance of the created. For example: it happened that a mas.
The floors of the rooms, belonging as uncertainty of human life. Å young man, in young sportsman of fifteen years old, whom I well to rich as poor, after undergoing a thorough the bloom of youth, in the full enjoyment of still know very well, had got a dreadful pain in purification, were littered with straw, in com- health and vgour, is in a few moments bereft his left knee, and, by a contraction of the memoration of the birth of our Saviour in a of existence--lifeless. What an example does sinews, was forced to use crutches; and the stable. One might also frequently see a num- that corpse exhibit to us! What does it say doctors had given their sentence that this her of young pine-trees, of thirty or forty feet to us, though dumb? What I have just said, would be his fate through life. Some one had in height, which, after having been stripped of. There is only one step between me and heard the officers who were in the Pomeranian their bark and leaves, with the exception of a death. He that has now taken this last war of 1757, relate, that soldiers who from bunch at the top, were placed in an upright earthly step, and whose remains we have this fatigue had got pains in the sinews, had used position, at stated intervals, around the dwell-day consigned to the grave, was Olof Carlsson, dog and calf-skins just taken off and warm, ings of the peasantry. This custom, for which from Bu-torp, eldest son of Carl Dicksson and which had given them ease; an idea was I could never obtain a satisfactory explanation, his wife Christina. He was born the 22d of therefore started, that the cat, which is of a is universal in many parts of Dalecarlia. Every October, 1810, and was drowned in the river still warmer nature, would be more serviceable, good thing that could pamper the appetite, as Uf, the thirtieth of last month, being then in especially if the whole cat was used. The hard far as their means went, was likewise put in the eighteenth year of his age. This unlooked. sentence and intolerable pain made him deterrequisition, as with us in England, at this sea for event is to be deeply lamented for many mine to make every possible attempt to obtain son. Though they thought of themselves, how. reasons. All participate in your sorrows, dis- a cure or alleviation. The patient therefore reever, many of the peasants did not forget the consolate parents ! You are advanced in moved out into a tent, had a cat's head cut off, inferior order of the creation. Indeed, it was years. Heavy will be the afflictions of your ripped open the body, and, with intestines and an almost universal custom among them to ex. old age, now that they can no longer be all, laid it round his knee, and fastened it with pose a sheaf of unthrashed corn on a pole in lightened by the hand of your child. You several handkerchiefs. When it had remained for the vicinity of their dwellings, for the poor had, without doubt, fondly anticipated that he twenty-four hours, the knee got more supple; sparrows and other birds, which, at this incle- would have been the prop of your declining the next day, the leg could be stretched out ment period of the year, must be in a state of years, when you were tottering on the brink altogether, and a hole broke out of itself, in the starvation. They alleged as their reason for of the grave, and have rendered you the last dreadful swelling, from which much matter ran performing this act of beneficence, that all crea- sad offices by closing your eyes. For many out. The third day the cat was removed. tures should be made to rejoice on the anniver- reasons, the departed has made himself worthy The patient dressed himself and went, without sary of Christ's coming among us mortals. I of our regrets. One of the sublimest and, stick or crutch, up to his parents and some wish I had not to record another circumstance alas ! unusual epitaphs of our days which we strangers, who with joy beheld the miracle. that is not quite so creditable to the peasantry; can inscribe to his memory as an example for All the pores on which the cat lay, appeared but, to tell the truth, during the few days the the present and future generation is, that he to have opened; and the cat had nearly turned festivities last, they usually make such frequent was never known to take the Lord's name in into putrefaction, so that others could with application to the brandy bottle, that they are vain. For this he deserves our unqualified difficulty approach the tent. The cure was far too commonly in a state of intoxication.” praise, that sin being unhappily so prevalent. effected'in 1772. The old patient is still alive,
The following is very interesting, and may According to the concurrent testimony of every and has, at seventy years of age, and after well be compared with the Irish custom of one, the life of the deceased, in other respects, terrible fatigues, both as a soldier and a sportskeening*_both, no doubt, of high Celtic an. was irreproachable. He was always to be man, never had the smallest pain in that tiquity.
seen near his aged parents. The evening of knee.”. " The established religion in Sweden is, as the day may be different from the morning. Of the badger we are told : I have already said, the Lutheran, the forms Every one knows in what short space of time “ His fat is incomparable for rubbing into of which are too well known to need any ob- this unhappy occurrence took place. Thus leather ; it is also good in lamps. Its fesh is servations of mine. One custom, however, I hastily was the prop of your old age, and the very eatable, when parboiled in hay.seed water, noticed in the interior of Wermeland, which good example for youth, hurried into another or still better in salt water, and afterwards may perhaps be worth recording. Near to life. But you sigh heavily! Do you think roasted and left to cool, and used for luncheon: the conclusion of the service, and after some he is gone for ever? I will pour balsam into it has then been looked upon by judges as a observations apposite to the occasion, the your bleeding heart ; the departed live, and real delicacy; but it must be the flesh of young clergyman read from a paper entitled per- we become immortal through death. He is badgers. The skin is used for gun-cases, sonalia the names of those persons who had only gone a little while before you. When game-bags, and to cover trunks; and the best recently died within his parish. This con- you have finished your course on earth, you shaving-brushes are made from its hair.” tained also many particulars relating to the will find him in the blessed abodes of eternity. And now to conclude with wolves : we select birth, parentage, &c. of each of the deceased And time flies so fast, that perhaps in a few a couple of the many tales of their ferocity. individuals. He then expatiated on their good moments some of us will be reckoned among “ In Russia, some years ago, a woman, acor bad deeds upon earth, and concluded with the dead.' Collections were made during the companied by three of her children, were one some remarks on the uncertainty of life, or service for the poor. This was effected by the day in a sledge, when they were pursued by other reflections of a similarly impressive church warden or others handing round to a number of wolves. On this, she put the nature. I subjoin a personalia which hap- the several pews a rather handsome bag or horse into a gallop, and drove towards her pen to have in my possession, which to some purse, attached to a long wand, into which home, from which she was not far distant, may not be uninteresting. There is but a each individual dropped his mite. To this with all possible speed. All, however, would step between me and death,' said a man whose purse a little bell was affixed, the tinkling of not avail, for the ferocious animals gained life was at that time in imminent danger ; which I used to think a little interfered with upon her, and, at last, were on the point of and every-day experience shews the truth of the solemnity of the occasion. In the front of rushing on the sledge. For the preservation this saying. If we always thought and saw the church, also, a box was attached, the lid of her own life and that of the remaining chil. how near death was to us—how near he fol- of which was strongly secured by locks and dren, the poor frantic creature now took one of lows our steps—how soon he comes up with bars, into which the charitable might make her babes, and cast it a prey to her blood. us—then we should tread the uncertain path their donations. If the peasantry be standing thirsty pursuers. This stopped their career for of life with more caution, and count the pass- near to the church when the bells ring, they a moment; but after devouring the little innoing moments, and contemplate with awe his all take off their hats. This custom, which cent, they renewed the pursuit, and a second inevitable coming. Of what immense import- is common in Catholic countries, I little ex. time came up with the vehicle. The mother, ance is this step! We must all take it, and pected to see among people professing the re- driven to desperation, resorted to the same hor. how soon it is taken! In one moment we formed religion."
rible expedient, and threw her ferocious assail. are snatched from the theatre of life, on which Our next extract refers to a very strange ants another of her offspring. To cut short we appeared as passing shadows! What a and rather disgusting sort of plaster : we had no this melancholy story, her third child was difference between the light of day and the idea that the cat possessed healing equal to his sacrificed in a similar manner. Soon after darkness of night-the warmth of life and the scratching powers — but so, it seems, is the this, the wretched being, whose feelings nay chill of death-the animating feeling of exist. fact.
more easily be conceived than described, reach. upon this subject we would refer to a very original to cats, because they destroy much game; but had happened, and endeavoured to palliate her
“ In general, sportsmen entertain a dislike ed her home in safety. Here she related what of the present monthEd. L. G.