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sion; but I saw all those that were pomp and magnificence. Miners from most worthy of being seen, viz. those every part of Saxony, from the Capwhich contain the celebrated paint- tain-General to the common workings, and the Venus of Canova, be- man, assembled on this melancholy longing to this palace. This statue occasion. They were joined by all has a room appropriated to itself, and the talent and rank of Saxony. The appears to me a very beautiful speci- whole of this immense assemblage acmen of sculpture. " I saw there, a- companied the remains of Werner to mong a vast number of other fine pic- the grand cathedral of Freyberg. tures, the famous Madonna of Ra- They moved by torch-light, accomphael, besides other paintings by that panied with bands of exquisite instrugreat artist. Several Titians, Guidos, mental music, choirs of singers, and and Vandykes, and a most beautiful all the clergy of the province. This little head by Correggio. The group magnificent and striking procession of the Fatal Sisters, painted by Mi- reached the cathedral at twelve at chael Angelo, is a truly Shakespearian midnight; they entered, and filled composition—it breathes poetical hor- the whole of that immense and gorror! There is there an admirable geous edifice. An awful and imprespainting of Judith with the head of sive silence succeeded to the soft Holofernes in her hand, from which breathings of the most affecting muthe head of Judith has been engraved sic; every countenance bore marks of in France. You have seen that en- deep regret; and many, very many, graving; but, alas ! how miserable is who knew the virtues of this admiit, compared with the original! În rable man were melted in tears, or this, the face of Judith is beautiful absorbed in deep contemplation. This indeed-in the engraving, it is harsh- silence was interrupted by Böttiger, featured and masculine.

who delivered an oration over the As to my visiting Rome or Naples body of the illustrious deceased beat present, it is out of the question, fore it was consigned to the vault. since the roads to both these places The orator remarked, that the merits are infested with the most desperate of Werner were known in the most and atrocious banditti, especially be- remote regions of the earth; from tween Rome and Naples. Of late, the mines of Siberia to those of Peru, assassinations of plundered travellers from the wild and secluded counhave been very frequent; and five or tries near the North Cape, to the six of these murderous scoundrels smiling fields of Italy, and the luxu. have been hanged every day. The riant shores of the Black Sea. His sides of these roads are ornamented pupils were in every country of Euwith a rich display of legs and arms, rope, and even in the most distant dangling in the air in terrorem. The regions of the other quarters of the Pope is very active in destroying these globe, spreading his views and diswretches; but there are so many of coveries, and by their practical skill them, that he has hard work. Nea- developing the structure and compolitan and other troops are ordered position of the crust of the earth, to scour the country in all directions. improving mine-works, and discovere Thinking it very inglorious to die by ing such minerals as are useful to the hands of Italian freebooters, I re- His name was enrolled in all main quietly where I am, and hope the principal philosophical associations for better times.

in Europe, and in Britain, a society had been established under his name,

which had eminently distinguished WERNER,

itself by the activity and talents of And the Wernerian Society. its members, and by the correct and In the preceding Number we com- extensive views of mineralogy, it cirmunicated to our readers a short bio- culated throughout that great country. graphical sketch of Werner, whose The information Werner received & death excited so great a sensation on short time before his death of the gethe Continent. We have now to add neral study of mineralogy in Great sone interesting particulars to the ac- Britain, and of the flourishing state count then given.

of the Wernerian Society, afforded The funeral of Werner was public, him, Böttiger remarked, the greatest and conducted with extraordinary and most heartfelt satisfaction, and

man.

NATURAL HISTORY.

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even contributed to sooth the pains stone the particular study of the ma-
of his disease, and to smooth his pas- rine inhabitants of the coasts and seas
sage from a world of suffering to one of the Shetland Islands. No part of
of peace and happiness.

the British empire in Europe offers
greater variety of fishes, and of mol-
luscous and radiated animals and zoo-

phytes, than the native country of Dr
1. Ornithologia Zetlandica.

Edmonstone. This fact, indeed, is provDe EDMONSTONE of Lerwick, au, ed by the Doctor's former work, and by thor of the History of the Shetland the contributions to the British Fauna Islands, proposes to publish an Ornie in the Wernerian Memoirs. The study thologia Zetlandica, or Natural His- of the internal structure and functions tory of the birds of the Shetland Is- of these animals, with their various lands.

wonderful forms, motions, colours, Such a work, well executed, in the and lustres, does not fail to excite our style, for example, of the Fauna Græn- highest curiosity and admiration ; and landica of Fabricius, would prove a when we trace their physical distribuvaluable addition to the Zoology of tion on the coasts of the ocean-over the British Islands. Dr Ednionstone, sand banks—or in the deep gulfs we know, has devoted many years to and valleys of the submarine land, the study of the habits and manners and connect these with the depth and of the feathered tribes of his native temperature of the water, the set of country; and he has observed, with currents, and the progress of tides, we care and attention, the various changes are rewarded by the discovery of nuin their plumage, which are often so merous interesting circumstances in striking and characteristic, and par- their natural history. Even indeticularly in the water fowl of the pendent of all other considerations, ocean. His opportunities for investi- the mere collecting of these animated gating the natural history of these in beings in their natural haunts, is of teresting beings of this lower world itself most interesting. Sometimes, are great,-they are such, indeed, as

in pursuit of them, we row along the fall to the lot of but few, and there- magnificent rocks and coasts of the fore we rejoice to find that he makes islands, or sail to the fishing grounds, ample use of them. This work, we where we may witness the labours of expect, will present us with clearly the fishermen in the great deep, or defined specific characters; complete occasionally experience those awful and well arranged descriptions of the and impressive feelings that arise when adult male and female bird ; accurate overtaken by a storm. On other ocenumerations of the various changes casions, our researches lead us amongst in the colours of the feathers, from the rocky precipices and promontories, or young bird to the fixed state of the into caves and caverns of striking and plumage ; and interesting details of often of fearful magnitude. When their various habits, manners, uses, &c. the atmosphere is stormy, and the bilall stated in a regular and systematic lows of the ocean advance in awful order, and not in the usual vague and majesty, and break on these ironrambling manner followed by many bound coasts with the tumult of the ornithologists. We trust the zoolo- tempest and the roar of thunder, all gist of the Shetland Isles will not al. earthly feelings are forgotten, and the low this opportunity to pass without mind is absorbed in contemplation of tracing out and explaining to his the mighty power of the eternal Goreaders the grand features of the fea- vernor of the world. But when the thered world in this region of the heaven is calm, and the wind has earth, and of shewing how these are ceased, when the sea is still, or its connected with the climate and situa- faint murmur only disturbs the sition of the country, with the vegeta- lence of nature, then the cliffs and bles that cover its surface, and the rocky promontories and caves,—the ocean with which it is surrounded.

immeasurable ocean in apparent con

tact with the skies, form a harmonious 2. Stuly of the Marine Animals of and sublime picture, the aspect of

Shetland recommended. which lulls the soul into a heavenly Wewould recommend to Dr Edmon- state of calm and repose.

3. Hot Spring rising through the Sea in which he put a fish about three or the Mediterranean.

four inches long, and covered it up.

In six minutes I uncovered it, and Hot springs make their appearance found it perfectly well boiled, and at the surface of the earth at various prepared for eating, heights ; sometimes high up on moun- “In the interior of this island I found tains; or at the level of the sea, or rising large beds of native sulphur, perfectly through the rocks and sands left by the pure, and of a fine pale yellow colour; ebb tide; but it rarely happens that they and upon some parts of its coasts I are observed to rise from the bottom found a black sand, which, upon exaof the sea at a distance from the shore. mination, proved to be crystallized In Olaffsen and Povelson's account iron.” of Iceland, we read accounts of hot springs that rise through the waters of the sea; and the following fact 4. Vapour rising from the Sea in Wine communicated to us by a naturalist ter, called in Halifax

« The Barwho visited the Greek Islands many

ber.years ago, shows that phenomena of the same kind occur in the Mediterra- The temperature of the air at which nean.

this singular appearance takes place “ The Island of Milo, in the Archi- varies with the period of the winter. pelago, abounds with Hot Springs, and Its presence seems to depend chiefly some of those are even seen to rise on the relative temperature of the air upon its coasts, in the sea, at some

and water, though it may be affected distance from the shore. One day, by other circumstances. Early in the sitting upon a rock by the side of the winter, when the temperature of the harbour, where I was preparing to water is higher, it would appear, from bathe, 1 perceived, about 40 or 50 the following table, that a less degree yards from me, a very uncommon of cold in the atmosphere will produce looking circular agitation in the sea, it than afterwards, when the water is which had the appearance of water

colder. when it first gets into a boiling state. Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1814. In swimming I directed my course towards the agitated point; on my approach to it I felt the temperature of the water very much altered, and

A copious vapour. Jan. 10,

Slight vapour. when I came in contact with the part Feb. 9, in agitation, I felt it most disagree

15,9 A.M. 9

Slight app. of vap. 15,8 A.M. 6

Va. pretty copious. ably hot.

“I afterwards visited this place in a In very cold days, this vapour rose boat, and found the sea water to be many feet above the surface of the wahere 18 feet deep, and the column of ter, perhaps twenty or twenty-five feet, hot water which rose through it to be and resembled a thick fog. As the about a foot and a half in diameter. temperature rose in the forenoon, it This column rose with unequal force ; generally disappeared, but in very cold sometimes it was only seen to disturb weather it continued the whole day. in a small degree the surface of the I think it was greatest during a good water, and at other times it rose con- breeze of wind,-probably from the siderably above it, so as to permit one agitation of the water exposing a greatto judge of its size. Upon a sandy er surface. beach in the same harbour I found a The range of the temperature of the great number of small hot springs water in January and February was bubbling up through the sand. These very little. in some places had communicated so In January from 34° to 29o. great a degree of heat to the sand, In February from 33° to 27 that I was obliged to withdraw my This last was the lowest to which hand from it immediately upon im- the water fell. It was on February 1st mersion. Here a Greek brought me when the thermometer in the air some small fish, which, he told me, I stood at 2o. On the following day the might very soon boil in that place. air was 41°, water 32°. He dug a hole about a foot deep, in This vapour is observed only in.

VOL. II.

Thermometer

Dec. 22,

In Air. In Sea Wat.

8° 34°
10 30
8 28

No vapour.
28
28

с

.

very cold weather, and perhaps did ON THE POLITICAL STATE OF Alnot make its appearance upwards of GIERS, THE EFFECTS OF THE REtwelve times in the whole winter of

CENT ENGLISH EXPEDITION, AND 1814,

THE BEST LINE OF POLICY IN REL
GARD TO THE BARBARY STATES ;

WITH OBSERVATIONS BY AN ITA-
3. Gulf Stream.

LIAN GENTLEMAN, RECENTLY REThe Gulf Stream is that remarkable TURNED FROM CAPTIVITY IN THAT branch of the great equinoctial current COUNTRY. which flows into the Gulf of Mexico by the Straits of Yucataw. The wa- (Continued from page 412 last Voter accumulates in the great Mexican

) Gulf, and flows from thence outward In the narrative of a traveller, the between the island of Cuba and the part which most strongly attaches us main,-along the coast of the United is always that which places himself on States, as far north as the Banks of the stage. We then become partners Newfoundland,--and from thence a- in his adventures, his emotions, in all cross the North Atlantic to the coast that makes us live and travel along of Africa. During a great part of its with him. We may doubt the sound course it is distinguished from the vess of his judgment, the accuracy of ocean it traverses by its deeper blue his impressions; we may often becolour, rapidity of its motion, greater lieve him prejudiced or ill-informed ; saltness, and particularly by its higher but, by writing his own story, he at temperature. The following facts re- least succeeds in painting himself. garding this current, communicated We thus make some progress in the to us by the surgeon of one of his Mac knowledge of man; and, even supjesty's ships, are worthy of being pre- posing him to express his sentiments served :

in an affected manner, this affectation His Majesty's ship Maidstone sailed is one of the modes of being which from Halifax for Bermuda on 13th we should learn to know ; and, inJune 1815. On the 18th, at noon, deed, it behoves us to observe it, in in N. lat. 39° 38', W. long. 65°, 54', order to rectify the judgment which (about 216 miles south, and a little we are to adopt as to the narrator. west of Cape Sable, Nova Scotia,) the But, if ever the curiosity of the temperature of the surface water of reader is excited by a traveller's perthe sea was 76°, whereas on the pre- sonal adventures, it is when they are oeding evening it had been only 56°; of a nature so extraordinary and so on the 19th it was 78°; on the morné dismal as those to which M. Pananti ing of the 20th it was 78°, at noon was exposed ;-when a man of liberal same day, 77o, and at 2 P. M. only education, who had known all the en72°, the medium temperature of the joyments of life and society, is sudocean beyond the southern limit of denly plunged into the most frightful the Gulf Stream at that season. The of all misfortunes ; when he becomes latitude this day (20th) at noon was the slave of a barbarous master, is ex35°, 21' N. long., 66° 46' W. On posed to every severity which avarice the morning of the 18th, a streak of ean instigate to draw profit from his foam was observed tending eastward, strength, orfanaticism to hụmble which probably pointed out the northó him; when he sees no probable end ern limit of the Gulf Stream ; and its to his misery, and, judging by his fel, southern limit seems very distinctly low-sufferers, has room to fear lest his marked by the thermometrical obser- soul itself should be degraded by sorvations of the 20th. It therefore ap, row, and lest, according to the beaupears, that its breadth in West longi- tiful expression of Homer, Jupiter tude 66° (or rather 65°) is about 850 should really take from man half his miles. As there was no chronometer worth on the day that he is reduced to on board, nor any lunar observations slavery. Then our curiosity redoubles taken, the longitude was calculated to know the whole detail of such admerely by dead reckoning, and, ow- ventures. They form an awful specing to the drift of the stream east- tacle, on which we cannot fix our ward, this reckoning was found, up- eyes, yet from which we cannot turn on making Bermuda, to be 60 miles them; they excite the most powerful too far to the westward.

and most painful of interests. Be

sides, they come so close to us, that those in verse. In the former exwe cannot avoid making a constant tract, many of these passages which reference to ourselves. In fact, Moore appeared out of place have been supish slavery has this peculiarity, that, pressed ; the same will be done in the though it be a very rare misfortune, following, where we shall endeavour and very unlikely to happen to each to exhibit the personal adventures of of us, it is scarcely more unlikely to M. Pananti, and to shew, after him, one man than another. A man may what is to be feared from the people of be involved in this horrible calamity Barbary, and what, with more enere without being engaged in extraordi- getic measures, might be hoped from nary, adventures, without having Africa. sought dangers; he has as many M. Pananti is a Tuscan man of letchances of encountering it in the ters, who, during the Revolution, shortest sail as in the longest voyage. had gone over to England. After In one of those parties of pleasure having made a little fortune there, he which are almost necessary in the wished to return to his own country, education of men of the world ; in and he embarked at Portsmouth on the almost daily passage from Leg- board a Sicilian vessel bound for Pas horn to Genoa, from Antibes to Nice, lermo. From a singular negligence, from Cette to Marseilles, there may he does not mention the year of his be, and there more than once has return, though it appears to have been been found a barbarous vessel con- in 1812; and he gives neither date cealed behind a promontory of that por cause of any of the events which European coast which is still in he relates. The Sicilian captain rem sight; he may thus be carried off fused to join an English convoy, and from his family for ever. More than after wards to stop at the little isle of one traveller, nay, more than one St Pierre, near Sardinia, where he had peaceful inhabitant of the country, been warned of the appearance of an has been surprised, amid his amuse- Algerine squadron. He obstinately ments or his labours, by a landing of set sail at a time when all the passenCorsairs. Among the two or three gers expected to remain several days thousand Christian slaves whom M. in the road. Pananti found at Algiers, there were We spent a gloomy and agimany who, six months before their tated night. I was beginning to capture, believed themselves as secure shut my eyes for a moment, when from this danger as the reader now is. the Chevalier Rossi, who had risen

The adventures of M. Pananti are with the sun, came and told me that Well calculated to excite this interest; the same sails which we had formerly but we cannot conceal, that it is much seen were still to be discovered. I diminished by his mode of relating sprung from bed, got on deck, and them. He seems ambitious, above all found all the passengers in anguish things, of the reputation of a brilliant and confusion. The six sails appeare writer. He studies to enliven each of ed then only like imperceptible points his short chapters by a bon mot, an on the vast plain of the waves. These epigram, a little story, a happy quota- vessels made a threatening evolution, tion. He seeks, at the same time, to which manifested their hostile demake a parade of the most varied signs. A cry of terror and grief burst knowledge, and, in imitation of the from our sailors. They began, in illustrious traveller who has made us their trouble, to run, to fatigue theme 80 well acquainted with Spanish A- selves, to make a hundred useless efmerica, never speaks of a country with- forts for safety. Agitation is not acout comparing it to every other. But tivity, and operations without a plan much of this learning, foreign to the produce only delay and confusion. object of the work, which is furnished By a horrible fatality, the wind, which, to M. Humboldt from the stores of till then, had blown with violence, universal erudition and an inexhaust- suddenly fell ; and we found ourselves ible memory, appears in M. Pananti fixed down in the middle of the vast superficial or caught at the moment. element. The captain was mute and Many of his little stories have been stupified; he did nothing, which was long familiar in conversation, or even the very worst thing he could do. in collections of anas ; many of his Let us try, said we, with all our sails, quotations are incorrect, particularly and, if sails are insufficient, with oars,

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