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AVERAGE PRICES of CORN, from the Returns ending Nov. 17, 1804.

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MARITIME COUNTIES,

Middlef. 96 343 054 632 632 4 Effex

Wheat. Rye Barley Oats Beans

96 044 52

3.

5. d. s.

d. s. ds. d.

031 946 6

Surrey 112. 8 54 05

Hertford 79 235

45

Bedford 8: 749

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045

342

833 4:48 Kent
427 435 3 Suffex
626 942 8 Suffolk
022 040 9 Cambrid.
8 25 644 Norfolk
625 047 o Lincoln
227 037 8 York

94 041

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75 1049

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550 11 39 525 145 10 038 925

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437

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245

033 1126 300 0

148 8 32 6:26 1042

Rutland 89 000
Leicefter 75 10 58
Notting. 93 451 045 829 846 o Durham 80
Derby 86 400 041 431 446 4 Northum. 76
Stafford 79 200 043 530 1150
Salop 77 648 1046

Cumberl. 73 227 800 o Weftmo. 82 Hereford 76 941 6 8 44 11 27 246 6 Lancaft. 78 ooo 044 130 349 Worcest. 79 500 045 1032 851 5Chefter 80 1000 50 729 249 0 Warwick 80 500 Wilts 83 400 Berks 103 1100

Oxford

049

048 939 751 7 Flint ༡༠ 80034 400 000 • 6/30 263 4 Denbigh 79 1000 043 928 1051 3 052 630 352 6 Anglefea 56 000 032 022 000 0 042 6 12.7 744 3 Carnary 71 400 036 021 9 ca o 200 045 1128 443 10 Merioneth77 1050 036 823 4000 Brecon 76 9 48 042 11 24 000 o Cardigan 70 200 03F 219 400 0 Montgo. 77 600 036 923 800 o Pembroke 69 200 0138 8/23 300 Radnor 67 900

84 600 Bucks 80

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037 025 000 0 89 1100 047 331 400 0 Hants 95 056 049 8/31 647 • AVERAGE PRICES, by which Exportation and Bounty are to be regulated

66 3134 2133 10/23 0137 10 Dorfet

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AVERAGE PRICES, by which Exportation and Bounty are to be regulated in Scotland.

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34 234 8- | 22 8 138 5

AVERAGE PRICES, by which Importation and Duty are to be regulated in Scotland. 62 II 1 34 8 326 | 23 2 | 37 4

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THE

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE,

For NOVEMBER,

Mr. URBAN,

T

LETTER XH. ON PRISONS. Sambrook Court, Nov. 14. HE firft letter on Prifons might have remained a folitary monument of the complicated wretchedness of those confined within their cells, had not the correfpondence of a NEILD furnished information too impreffive to be forgotten, and too important to remain unknown; and given rife to a fucceflion of effays, which have been longer continued in confequence of the beneficial effects produced on the public mind; for, honourably to the British character be it recorded, that a laudable difpofition has been excited to investigate grievances, and an active beneficence to remove or relieve them; and hence a gratifying profpect in the future amelioration of the condition of Prisoners is happily prefented.

Impreffed with the importance of thefe effects, I have, perhaps, longer intruded upon the valuable pages of your Mifcellany than is juft to you, or acceptable to fome of your readers; and hence, although poffefling, by the indefatigable exertions of the Philanthropift with whofe correfpondence I am favoured, more ample materials towards the completion of a Prifon Hiftory of thefe kingdoms, than has been published or known fince the days of the benevolent HOWARD, fhall nevertheless be induced foon to relieve your readers from the perufal of continual fcenes of woe, which might be unpalatable to many; for, as Fenelon fays, "the their eyes profperous turn away

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1804.

from the miferable, not through infenfibility, but because the fight is an interruption of their gaiety;" but which, however, genuine huwith 'manity would ruminate upon active fenfibility, and beneficence would not difdain to fuccour with the interpofition' of appropriate aid.

The following letter, written in 1802, was deftined for a much earlier appearance*; but, in confequenceof havingbeenmiflaidamongst many other papers, it has been unavoidably poftponed. It contains, however, fo much important matter-points out the fource of fuch numerous evils-and, with that impreffive difcrimination which experience affords, lays down fuch means of preventing them, as must render its communication highly interefting to the Publick at large, and to the Magiftracy individually: at the fame time the fympathy of every reader muft be excited, on the mere recital of the impolitic government of the Prifon and Houfe of Correction of Kingfion, in the vicinity of a great and enlightened Metropolis; to learn that an unfortunate and induftrious father of ten children, is doomed to confinement and wretchedness, without any allowance of bread; and to whom even water is inacceffible-his progeny, with the companion of his induftry, once the folace of his la bours, are hence fated to a workhoufe, where the fpirit of exertion is extinguished, and the fqualid look of idleness and mifery is generated.

Whilft Religion, morals, and induftry, are equally neglected, it is

* It should have preceded Letter V. tor April laft, p. 291, prior to the vifit to

Scotland.

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lefs aftonishing to read of a hall of juice formed out of the public butchery, and decency and propriety violated, in a place where the Bailiff and Corporation ought to have entertained the fentiments of the great Poet:

"Far be the thoughts of this from Henry's heart,

To make a shambles of the Seffions-houfe*." In performing the public duties of Religion, although "the Moft High dwelleth not in temples made with hands" (Acts, vii. 48; xvii. 24), being omniprefent; yet, in every age, ftructures appropriated to the fublimity of the object have engaged the attention and animated the piety of mankind; fo, in the exercife of Legal duties, equally interefting to the fecurity and happinefs of the community, an high degree of decent accommodation is demanded; and the neglect of them infers a want of common decorum, and implies apathy and infenfibility refpecting the important adminiftration of the laws, and the juft rights of the people.

The fubfequent letter is too full and difcriminating to require any elucidation. It conveys its own comment and deduction, and contains an excellent outline of Prifon didactics; and, whilft it calls upon and encourages Magiftrates to exercife their functions and duties, it interefts the heart, and appeals to the judgment of every individual, as well as of

JOHN COAKLEY LETTSOM.

To Dr. LETTSOM.
Chelfca, July 18, 1802,
Dear Sir, Sunday Night.

I believe my last letter informed you, that I had been honoured with the company of Sir Henry Mildmay, and Mr. Sturgefs, M, P. for Haftings, in my vifits to the feveral prifons in and about the Metropolis; fince which I have been at King fton. In the Town gaol I found one Richard Holt confined for a debt of 61 Gs.; cofis, 31, 3s 99. This poor man told me he had brought up a wife and ten children without pa

Parliament-houfe in the original.

rochial affiftance; but, having been in confinement eleven weeks, his wife and three youngest children were in the workhoufe. Is it not to be regretted that, where our laws ordain a lofs of liberty, there fhould be no refpect to merit in the conduct of a debtor? This victim to misfortune has an abundant claim to pity and attention; there being no allowance whatever, not even water acceflible to the prifoner There is a narrow flip, of 14 feet long by 3 feet wide, with an iron-grated window to wards the ftreet. In this place the pri foner frauds to beg; and, but for the cafual interference of humane indivis duals, can no longer exift than humannature can do without food. The late keeper informed me he had frequently made application to the bailiffs of the borough for a daily allowance, but was always told there was none for them.

The gaoler, William Walter, is a Sheriff's officer; he has no falary, but keeps a tap in lieu; thus is a Hcenfed alehoufe become a necellary part of the prifon eftablishment, by being made a means of its finance, Fees, Ss. 4d. No chaplain, or any religious atten tions. Surgeon, Mr. Taylor; falary, none; makes a bill. This prifon belongs to the Bailiff and Corporation; and debtors are committed by procels The court is held every Saturday; but fluing out of the Court of Record. application for the fi-pences, or a Superfedeas, can only be made at a court in term-time upon fourteen days notice. The prifoner, on application, obtains a rule for the plaintiff to appear at the next court, who may then object to the prifoner's fchedule, and will have till the next court to make his objections; which if not fatisfactory, the prifoner will be ordered his fix pences, or fuperfeded. For poor debtors there is one room 18 feet by 14, and 6 feet 6 inches high, on the ground-floor, and adjoining to the lip allows neither bed nor bedding, the abovementioned. As the Corporation keeper had humanely furnished the poor inoffenfive man with a bedflead, mattrefs, blanket, and rug in return for which, the prifoner did any liule jobs which the nature of his confinement would allow.

Above-flairs are four rooms, one of which is well furnished, for thofe who can pay 7s. 6d. per week, Another room, furnished in an inferior manner, at 2s. 6d. a week. The two other

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rooms have no hedsteads or beds in them, but are appropriated to felons at the allize; and the keeper informed me that 24 felons have been crowded (like theep in a pen) for two or three days into a room 19 feet by 9. They are faflened down to ftaples fixed in the floor by a ponderous iron chain run through the main link of their fetters. One blanket is allowed to each prifoner. No court-yard; no water acceffible to the prifoners. Rooms dirty, and not whitewashed. Claufes against fpirituous liquors are hung up; but not the act for prefervation of health. In the Townhall is a very curious and antient table of fees, &c. dated December 10, 1603, and confirmed by Charles Lord Howard, Sir Edward Coke, &c. They are now fcarcely legible; and it was with dith culty I copied thein for my next publication. I cannot help digreffing here a little, to remark on the inconvenience of the upper court, which is confined and ill ventilated; but the lower court on the Crown-fide is really ridiculous, and to a firanger mult appear more like a booth in Bartholomew-fair than a court of justice. The butchers fhambles are under the upper court; and thefe are inclofed for the occafion by patched-up boards, temporary windows, doors, &c. No wonder then it has been noticed by the Judges. The Lent affizes are held here.

King fton upon Thames Houfe of Correction, purchased by the county 1761, as appears by an infcription in the front on the building. Keeper, William Matthews: falary, 451.; fees, 4s. 2d. by order of the magiftrates. Chaplain, none. Garnish abolished. Surgeon, Mr. Hemming; falary, 101. 10s. and 61. 6s. for travelling charges, to report at the quarter-fellions the fate of the prifoners. County allowance, one pound of bread per day each, which is fent in from the baker's in loaves of that weight. This allowance is too fcanty where no nutritious liquor is allowed, only water.

There is a houfe for the keeper, and feparate wards for men and women, with feparate courts, work-fheds, and pumps. Each ward has two lower rooms three fteps above the ground, and two rooms above. The men's rooms are 16 feet by 14, and 9 feet high; the women's about 15 feet fquare; every room planked round; a chimney in cach, and two windows with Shutters and iron bars; no glafs

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except in two, which are appropriated to the fick. The men's court is 59 feet by 50; the women's 46 by 36. There' is alfo a room quite feparate for faulty apprentices, about 8 feet by 11, and 8 feet high; it has a fire-place. There is a bathing-tub in each court. The county allows nothing but straw to lie upon. Prifoners, June 19, 1802, 18 men, 4 women.

In the Poftfcript of my laft publication, I have mentioned the Bridewells and Houfes of Correction as the nurferies for our gaols; and every vifit that I make confirms the truth of my remarks; yet even in thefe places, abandoned as the inhabitants are, a thorough reformation may be effected by the cordial co-operation of an active Magiftracy.

The reform must be begun there. and the county-gaol will foon feel the effect. Of the above 22 prifoners, 11 were committed to hard labour, and for which there is in cach court a conve nient work-fhed; yet not one of them was employed, or any attention paid to the means of industry. Thus, as Sir, George Paul very jutily obferves," the operation of the law feems rather to reJent the injury, than correct the offender. There is little hope of amendment where there is no pollibility of induitry. The pennylefs offender, committed till he pays a fine, is denied the exercise of his art and induftry to enable him to regain his liberty. Of this clafs are thofe for the falleft offences against the Crown, Excife, Ecclefiaftical, or Game Jaws." I have met with it even for angling in a river. By the 14th Eliz. cap. 5, and 12 Geo. II. "Prifoners fhall be provided by the countyrate," &c. By the 19th Charles II. and 12 Geo. II. cap. 29, "Juftices in their feffions may provide a flock of materials for letting the poor to work." The vagrant act, 17th Geo. II. re'quires, that two juftices vifit the houses of correction "twice, or oftener if need be, in every year; and to examine into the eftate and management thereof, and to report," &c.; and that the justices at quarter-fellions impofe fines and pe nalties on the governors or mafters whe do not keep their prifoners to hard labour, and punish and correct them according to the directions of the warrants, &c. It is evident then where the inattention lies. I will venture to affirm, that the beft, if not the only expedient to effect a thorough reform, is, FIRST, by the appointment

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appointment of a chaplain, to whom fhould be given (as is the cafe at Hereford) fuch a fhare of teinporal authofity as to make his fpiritual advice refpected; one who will difcharge his duty with the zeal of an Apoftle. Such minilters I found in Mr. Under wood and Mr. Morgan, the exemplary and excellent chaplains to the gaols of Hereford and Chelmsford; and fuch, I believe, are Mr. Jamefon and Mr. Hodkinfon, the worthy chaplains to the gaols of Horfham and Reading, and many others who fill this ufeful office. SECOND. Precife rules for the conduct of the gaoler, as well as rules and reguJations for the prifoners, and both to be ftuck up in various parts of the prifon. THIRD. A vifiting committee of thofe magiftrates who are willing to furrender a portion of their time and talents in fuperintending its concerns, 'who should meet twice a week in the fummer months, and once a week in the winter months. This is done at the excellently-well-regulated county gaol in Horfemonger-lane.. Every prifoner, without diftinction (except thofe under fentence of death), fhould be employed in fome ufeful labour; and none, upon any account whatever (faye that of fickness), fuffered to remain idle: thus will the mind be improved by giving moderate employment to the body. By a fhare in his earnings, the pitoner would be urged by motives of intereft; and by finall rewards, beflowed difcretionally on extraordinary induftry, idleness would eventually be come as irkfome as heretofore palatable to him; and thus would the prifoner be reftored to fociety as a ufeful men

mem

ber. And, LASTLY, that a journal of the daily occurrences of the prifoner be entered in a book kept for that purpofe, for the infpection of the vifiting committee, or of any magifirate of the county.

I have witneffed the beneficial effects of this laft article in fo great a degree, that I will venture to affirm no gaol can be well governed without it.. Before I difmits this Houfe of Correction at Kinghton, let me obferve, that the door which opened from the men's court into that of the women's is now faliened up; but the women's roous overlook the men's court. The keeper promifed this fould be altered. No firing allowed in the winter.

I found the prifon very clean; and infide the gate was painted, "No ad

mittance in church-time. No garnish to be taken. If any prifoner ftrike another, complain to the keeper. If any prifoner fhall be guilty of profane cur fing or fwearing, or any indecent behaviour, complain to the keeper. Whoever defaces this board will be profecuted. By order of the magifirates." The average number of prifoners in the laft feven years, fixteen; deaths, three.

I have procured plans of the best gaols in the kingdom. Now, as I propofe to make Berwick in my circuit, it will be but 60 miles farther to take a peep into the Tolbooth at Edinburgh, and carry the plans along with me; and as you, my good friend, have a correfpondence with every eminent profeffional man in Europe, a letter from you would not only facilitate my admiffion, but, in cafe of fickness, a greater attention than I could otherwife expect. I purpofe fetting out the 5th of Auguft (being the day after our Committee in Craven-ftreet), and hope to return in November or December; but, as I have much to lay to you, hope you will allow me the happiness of an hour or two's converfation with you previous to my departure.

It is now near two in the morning, and I am as tired of writing as, I fear, you will be in reading this long letter, fo fhall conclude with beti refpects to all your good family, and affurances that I fhall ever confider my felf, dear Sir, your much obliged and faithful humble fervant,

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Mr. URBAN,

EADING the

JAMES NEILD.

Nov. 10.

comunication extraord, a Rcommunication of D. L. M. 2007, brought to my recollection myfelf in Auguft laft. Returning an occurrence which happened to from an excurfion into Hereford

hire, where I had been with a friend in a one-horfe chaife, we were under the neceflity of paffing a night at Oxford, in order to avoid injuring a very faithful and excellent beaft, who had conveyed us feveral hundred miles in perfect fafety. Sated with the fplendour of the Univerfity, we were inclined to explore the native beauties of the furrounding country. After fome hesitation as to our route, I happened to recollect the interefting Saxon church at Ifley; and thither

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