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AVERAGE PRICES of CORN, from the Returns ending Oct. 20, 1804.
632 6 Suffex
338 7 1
923 10 38
835 10 Cambrid. 63
026 8 33
224 637 6 Norfolk 63
833 133 322
724 236 7 York
8 26 442
Derby 72 oloo
628 245 Northum. 60
429 722 9/00
429 1022 4/00 27 624 600
039 28 200
Glouceft. 66 1000 039 625 545
AVERAGE PRICES, by which Exportation and Bounty are to be regulated.
036 819 1100 036 220
700 040 029
923765000 oomo c o o ooooo +0.0 0 0 0 0
THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE,
LETTER XI. ON PRISONS.
Sambrook Court, MR. URBAN, Sept. 19. ***HE following correfpondence, which defcribes the ftate of the Prifons and places of confinement in the county of Cambridge, prefents more to approve than to cenfure; and, although it affords matter worthy of remark, any reflections thereon fhall be poftponed, in order to fulfil the engagement propofed in p 608 of your Mifcellany, of noticing the letters under the fignatures of W. p. 496. and S. A. P. 518, with which I fhall include thofe of Eufebia, p. 709, and Confervator, p. 710, as illuftrative of each other.
From the two first letters, figned by initials, we are affured, that in fome of the workhoufes in the metropolis, divine fervice has been regularly performed, and, confequently, that general cenfure of neglect in this neceffary duty is not uniformly applicable. Well-authenticated fa&s of paftoral attention over the rifing generation muft convey pleasure to every feeling mind; and that pleasure would be augmented were the fruits of virtuous conduct found to correfpond with this pious care; but, in Confervator's apology for the vicious state of the manufacturing children placed out from the metropolis, the lamentable inftances of depravity are in fome meafure deduced from, and afcribed to, the introduction of the children from the workhoufes in London, as he ftates, that "the gleanings of workhoufes from the capital, from many parts of the
country, have been thrown into thefe great towns;" and hence it may be inferred, that the attention to morals in many of them is inadequate and ineffectual to the due correction of vicious habits, and that the requifite care to this important object cannot be too earneftly impreffed upon the public mind.
It never was my defign, however, to point out the Clergy as the ob jects of cenfure, but rather the miftaken economy of the directors of Prifons, Bridewells, and Workhoufes, in neglecting the advantages to be derived from employing their useful fervices; and I fhall hence avoid any animadverfion on the charges introduced by Eufebia. As an individual, I am under numerous obligations to the Clergy for the pleasure and inftruction I have derived from their fociety and friendship; whom I have long confidered as a diftinguished ornament of the community; and without whole exertions virtue, which happily animates this country to a degree hitherto unknown, would become lukewarm; and beneficence, with all thofe moral affections which dignify human nature, might degenerate into torpor, and fympa thy be congealed into apathy.
In noticing Confervator's letter, I with to avoid controverfy; his fentiments, however, do not appear to me calculated to preferve infantile morality, upon which the future happiness of the community fo materially depends. "If," fays he, "the visit of the benevolent Mr. Neild was only to wreft from his mill articles of crimination for an expofure before the publick Mr. Bott has acted very wifely by the interdiction
interdiction of curiofity and intrufive enquiry."
Enquiry and intrufion may refult from very different fources. My friend Neild is well known as holding the king's commiffion of the peace in more counties than one; and the fource from whence his curiofity is derived, neither requires my explanation nor apology; but to admit, like Confervator, an IF, I might add-" IF children of various denominations are apprenticed to manufactories, and enquiry into their fituation and treatment be interdicted, morality and health muft in many inftances be ruined; and hence equally humane would it be at once to introduce flavery, and tolerate all its baneful effects.' A fecond Mrs. Brownrigg, and another manufacturer of Bow near Stratford, might ufe the fame argument to preclude intrufive enquiry, and the exercise of that juftice which the poorest object is yet entitled to. Not fo reafoned that great manufacturer Sir Robert Peel, bart. whofe humane exertions, however unjustifiably eluded, to protect and meliorate the miferable condition of infantile outcafts and apprentices, will ever claim the bleffings of the poor and the gratitude of the nation, and not only of Dale of Lanark, but likewife of every other liberal manufacturer who wishes to raise his fortunes only on the conjoint happiness of his labourers.
Indeed, were this inquifitive en quiry more univerfally extended, the mott interefting benefits might refult. Every poor perfon, apprenticed out by any parish whatever, ought to be vifited at the least twice a year by the overfeers or churchwardens, or rather by one or two independent indiyiduals of the parifh, in order to enquire into their treatment and health,-to encourage virtue and induftry fometimes by little rewards, and difcourage vice by remonftrance and advice. It would be honourable to the female fex, were fimilar appointments adopted to vifit and fuperintend
thofe of their own fex who may also placed out to fervice. By these attentions the poor would feel the pride of being owned by their fuperiors; and gratitude would excite a ftrong impulfe to perfeverance in good conduct.
Howard told me, that, when he was in Vienna, after having been highly diftinguifhed by the Em peror, he was vifited by several perfons of rank, and among others the newly-appointed governor of Upper. Auftria and his countefs. The former, with no little pomp, enquired into the ftate of the prifons under his government to which the Vifitor of Prifons replied, that "they were in the worst state of any in the Imperial dominions he had feen, and particularly the fituation in which the women were placed;" adding, that "it would be doing a noble action were his lady to pay attention to this miferable clafs of her own fex." This great lady appeared highly indignant on the recommendation of fuch a degradation of her rank, and was retiring fafter down the flairs of his apartments than fhe had afcended them. "Remember," faid the Philanthropist, "that you, Madam, are alfo a woman, and will fome time poffefs no more room than the pooreft of your fex."
I cannot close this letter without adverting to Confervator's note on the fuppofed religious profeffion of Dale of Lanark. If he meant no cenfure on him or Howard as Diffenters, there was certainly no occafion for his apology; nor does there appear any great neceflity for admitting the charge of "party." The object we have endeavoured to promote is not bounden by the narrow prejudices of any religious body, nor circumfcribed. by any partial diftinétions whatever; for it is that benevolence which defcends from heaven to earth, and extends from pole to pole.
Yours, &c. J. C. LETTSOM. P. 799, col. 2, 115, for partial tracts, . practical tracts.
Cambridge Cafle. William Gre gory, gaoler (falary gol. out of which he pays 181. 10s. to the turnkey) for Gaol and Bridewell. Debtors' fees and garnish are very laudably abolished, but the under-fheriff demands 8s. for his liberate, and for the payment of which the debtor may be detained. Felons fees, 18s. 4d. paid by the county. Tranfports, 61. 6s. each; he paying the clerk of affize 11. Is. for each. Chap lain, Rev. Mr. Homes. There being no chapel, divine fervice, when performed, is in the keeper's house across the caftle-yard. Salary, 251. and occafional donations from the Earl of Hardwicke. Surgeon, Mr. Okes; falary, 201. Allowance to felons and Houfe of Co
rection prifoners; Monday and Thurfday, 16 ounces of bread; Wednesday and Saturday, 12 ounces; Tuefday and Friday, 12 ounces of bread with pota toes, or peafe, onions, or other vege tables ftewed; and on Sunday oxcheek or leg of beef made into trong foup. Debtors have no allowance whatever except they are very poor, then, upon folicitation of the gaoler, the juftices order them the fame allowance as the felons. Number of prifoners, Aug. 20, 1800, debtors 8, felons 13; January 28, 1802, debtors 13, felons 9; Auguft 7, 1802, debtors 6, felon 1. The prifon is the gate of the old cafle. On the ground-floor, called the Low Gaol, are four ftrong rooms, about 12 feet by 9 each, one of which is called the Condemned Room. To thefe the county furnishes ftraw. There is an afcent of 22 tone fteps to the debtors' apartments, called the High Gaol. On the first-floor is a room for the turnkey, a kitchen, a privy, and three other rooms. Above them are fix other fizeable rooms; four of them hold two and three beds each, for which the prifoner pays 1s. 6d. per week if he has no bed of his own, and if two fleep together, Is each. They have a day-room on the first floor, and a fmall court-vard, in which they grow vegetables, 27 yards by 14, with a pump in it. The felons court is 104 yards by 9. No infirmary, but a room appropriated to fick women. No ployment furnished by the county. The act for the prefervation of health and claufes against fpirituous liquors both hung up. Whitewashed once a year. Vifited once a quarter; but I faw no books in which the reports were en tered. The Cafle-yard is fpacious but
not fecure, and no prifoners have the ufe of it but thofe who are confined for finall fums, and in whom the keeper can place confidence. In it is the gallows.
Debtors have fome relief from legacies and donations paid by feveral colleges: from Sidney college 41. to buy a fhirt each, and to expend the remainder in coals and bread; from St. John's fixteen peunyworth of bread every Saturday morning. A collection is made in the Univertities and the town at Christmas, which amounted in 1801 to twelve guineas, being one guinea to each debtor. 20s. per annum (deducting land-tax 4s.) is paid from an estate at Croxton, in this county. No memorial in the gaol. This payment, the keeper informed me when I was there, was two years in arrear. I wrote to Mr. Lantaff, who occupies the estate, about it, and received from him a very uncivil anfwer. On my vifit in Augull 1802, the prifoners made grievous complaint that divine fervice had never been performed during the luft four months, or any religious attention whatever paid to them. The reafon which I heard afterwards affigned was, that a felon had made his efcape in going across the Caftle yard. The Rules and Orders for the government of this gaol are twenty in number; the breach of them is punished by confinement for a limited time. I transcribed them; but, as they would make my packet too bulky, I omit them at prefent.
County Bridewell at Cambridge is in the Caftle yard, and joins to the gaoler's houfe. It confifts of two workrooms on the ground-floor, a courtyard with a privy in it for men. Upftairs are two rooms for women, with five cages, 6 feet by 41. Prifoners not committed to hard labour receive one-half the net profits of their earnings at their difcharge. The Rules and Orders (which I copied) are well calculated for its good government. Prifoners, August 7, 1802, 7 men, 2 wo
The county is now building a new gaol in the Cafle-yard, upon a plan fomewhat fimilar to that of Bury St. Edmund's, and by the fame ingenious architect.
Cambridge Town Gaol. There was formerly a room below for criminal, called the Hole, 21 feet by 7, and, above, a room called the Cage. No court-yard; no water; no allowance. On my vifit, Auguft 1800, I had the plafure
pleafure to find the Cage had fallen into the Hole, and both were a heap of ruins. The gaoler, Thomas Adams, is bellman to the town; falary, 101; fees and garuifh abolished. No chaplain, or divine fervice ever performed. A fmall court, about fix yards fquare, with a pump and neceffary in it, for all deferiptions of prifoners. There are five rooms below for criminals, abont 3 yards by 2, and 2 yards high, with boarded floors. Above, are three rooms for men and women debtors, and a-day-room 24 feet by 15, who pay 2s. per week for a fingle bed; and if two fleep together, Is. 8d. each. Allowance to criminals, 6d. a day in bread and cheese. Debtors receive relief (upon the gaoler's folicitation) from feveral of the colleges; and Trinity college fends yearly three facks of coals. for debtors and criminals, which are. ufed to cook their victuals in the house, and occafionally to warm themselves by, there being no common room with a fire-place.
The town allows firow and blankets. If the keeper furnishes a bed, each prifoner pays 1s per week. The cells are ventilated by an iron grating over each door, in which there is an aperture about 6 inches. There is one dark folitary cell with a double door, the inner door wood, the outer iron-grated, ventilated by an iron grating above it. Water is now acceffible to all the prifoners. Neither the act for the prefervation of health nor claufe against spirituous liquors were hung up. No employment furnished by the town, but prifoners are allowed to work on their own account, if they can procure it. The gaol was clean, though more than two years fince whitewashed. Prifon not fecure. A houfe-breaker had made his efcape by a breach in the brickwork about a month before my vifit. Prifoners, Auguft: 8, 1802 debtors, none; criminals, two.
Cambridge Town Bridewell, Samuel Barker keeper, is a fquare building furrounded by a boundary-wall of 15 feet high and about 5 feet from the prifon; was originally bought and endowed for the encouragement of woolcombers and fpinners of this town. The basis of the infiitution was a legacy of the famous carrier Thomas Hobfon, whe died in 1630. To aufwer the intention, the keeper is a wool-comber. He employs not only feveral hands
the foundation of the charity, but
many others; among them his prifoners. His falary is paid out of the charity, 301. and from the University 51. No fees. Allowance, town prifoners, 6d. a day. The vice-chancellor's prifoners have 4d. a day, and 6d. on Sunday; they are likewife allowed firing in the winter. Each cell has a maturefs, two blankets, and a rug. For nien there are three cells at the entrance, each 9 feet by 7, and near 8 feet high, with ftraw on the floor. A tub ferves the purpofe of a neceflary in these cells. They are ventilated by an iron grating over each door, which has an aperture about 6 inches fquare. For women there are ten cells, the fame fize as the men's, and four court-yards with a privy in each. There is only one pump in the prifon. Many of the cells are out of repair, and the whole prifon very dirty. Surgeon, for the University prifoners, Mr. Tinney; and for the town prifoners, Mr. Bond; falary, none; make a bill. Employment, fpinning. Prifoners have the whole of their earnings. Neither the act for the prefervation of health, nor claufes against fpirituous liquors hung up. Prifoner, Anguli 7, 1802, one.
Ely Gaol. John Leaford, gaoler, and fheriff's officer for the isle but not for the county; falary, 401. Debtors' fees, 16s. 8d. Felons pay no fees. Garnith abolished. Tranfports, 71. each. Allowance, five pounds of wheat bread every other day. This gaol the property of the Bishop, who is lord of the franchife of the Ifle of Ely, was in part re-built by Bp. Mawfon in 1768, upon complaint of the cruel method which, for want of a fafe gaol, the keeper took to fecure his prifoners*.
For debtors there are three goodfized rooms up-flairs, and another, called the Nursery-room, for the fick, with a fire-place in it. One iron bedstead, made a prefent of to the gaol by the bishop's lady, and one wood-plank bedflead for the nursery. Straw is provided by the county. If a debtor has a
*This was done by chaining them down on their backs upon a floor, across which were feveral iron-bars, with an iron collar with fpikes about their necks, and a heavy iron bar across their legs. An excellent
magiftrate, James Collyer, efq. prefented an account of the cafe, accompanied with a drawing, to the king; with which his majefty was much affected, and gave immediate order for a proper enquiry and redrefs. HowARD. bed