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and charity by which he is diftinguifhed." (p. 137.)

It fared with Mr. L. in his afcent up Plinlimmon as with thofe who afcend Snowdon before he got to the fummit the fky was overcaft, befides the want of a guide. "There appears about thefe parts a kind of incipient cultivation and induftry, which, if population were to increafe in any great degree, might be the fource of much advantage to the country. At prefent a fhepherd, who poffeffes 100 fheep, though really not poor, is truly wretched and miferable. His children want all the benefit of inftruction, and comforts of food and raiment. Thus forlorn and almoft hopeless, they are compelled to wander by neceffity, and become emigrants, in fpite of the force of domeftic attachment. (p. 150.)

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The bafis of the tower of AbeTyfwith church is confiderably larger than the upper part; which deviation from the ufual ftyle occurs alfo in the very old church of St. Peter at Oxford, founded fo early as the year 886" (p. 165), and, if we miflake not, in the tower of Oxford castle.

We can difcover no traces of Llanbadernvawr having been a cathedral (p. 161), or even a collegiate church, unless its being in the patronage of the Bishop of St. David has led to the mistake.

"The women throughout the Northeru part of Cardiganfhire were drefled in blue jackets,.with petticoats of the fame colour, and fometimes the addition of a blue rug over the fhoulders. About the middle of the county their appearance began to vary; the blue mantle gave place to white, and in a few inftances to red ones; and, as we approached nearer the town of Cardigan, the number of the former diminifhed, and the latter increafed. It is to this fingular appearance of the females of this country, thus adorned, that they afcribe the fudden panic with which the French invaders were ftruck when they had effected a landing in Fifhguard bay. M. Tate, who with a handful of men was bold enough to expofe himfelf and his feeble train to certain and merited deftruétion, and audacious enough to fuppofe himself capable of holding, or at leaft of affuming, a poft to which the difaffected might refort, and where they might make a fland until fresh affociates and additional fuccours could arrive from

France, having gained the fummit of a lofty eminence near Fifhguard, was aftonished at the military appearance of the oppofite hill, which he foon beheld covered, as he thought, with foldiers, but who were in fact only a boft of Welch women, prompted, fome by courage, fome by curiofity, and others by apprehenfion, to reconnoitre the enemy: but thefe Cambrian Amazons, having on their red mantles, ftruck a terror into the French, whofe general immediately waited on Lord Cawdor, commanding officer of the militia force ftationed neareft to the fpot, and furrendered himself a prifoner at difcretion." (pp. 168, 169.)

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Mr. L. with great juftice repeatedly complains of the taftelefs cullom of white-washing the roofs as well as fide walls of the houfes: it offends the eye by a glare highly unpleafant; deftroys the harmony of the picture; and, if I may be allowed the expreflion, impoverishes the profpect. Why it fhould fo happen I cannot fay; but all the inhabitants of the fea-coafts feem to entertain the fame tafle with respect to architecture and building; even at Plymouth, Stonechurch, and the neighbouring places on the coaft of Devonthire, all adopt the fame hideous mode of white-washing." (pp. 173, 174.)

At the inn at Cardigan a Welch maid was bufy in varnishing the doors with blood; the origin of which cuftom Mr. L. could not trace. May it not be that this varnish has fomething to recommend it for ftrength or durability, rather than any local fuperftition now loft? Calves are here brought to market fresh killed, and with their skins on. Sir Benjamin Hammet's iron works lye on the road between Cardigan and Newcaftle. Caermarthen church is large; but all the folemnity of its appearance has been deftroyed by the introduction of falhes among other decorations equally abfurd and inconfiftent. The cuftom of intermixing their coal with clay, which prevails throughout the country, renders the houfes almoft intolerable to thofe who have not been ufed to it. (p. 186.) This mode has been lately adopted in London. In the church of Llandilovawr are epitaphs to the right hon. George Rice, treasurer of his majefty's chamber, lord-lieutenant and cuftos rotulorum, colonel of the militia, and reprefentative of the county of Carmarthen in four parlia ments, who married Cecilia, only


daughter of William earl Talbot, by whom he left theee fons and two daughters, and died Aug. 4, 1779, aged 54; and Cecilia counters Dynevor, his widow, who died March 14, 1793, aged 57. The church-yard is interfected by a road, which divides it into two nearly equal parts; and there is a pleafant row of houfes along the upper fide of it. (pp. 202-204.) The name lefs fream which accompanied our traveller from Llandovery made fuch an impreffion on his mind, that he repeatedly exclaims, “ Farewell, thou limpid current," Flow on, thou fweet ftream," Flow on, thou rural river," &c. &c. &c. (p. 211.) "The neat little church of Llannfpddyd is fur rounded by very large and venerable yew-trees, expanding in all the luxuriance of unreliained nature, in which ftate I really think them poffeffed of great majefly and elegance. The church near Brain is almoft hidden by a rich plantation, which owes its darkest and moft folemn fhades to the yew, fill preferved among the more modern and more fahionable plants." (p. 212.)

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"The abbey or collegiate church of Brecon, now inclofed with a high wall, difgraced by the filth of a farm-yard immediately contiguous, and crumbling into a dreadful flate of ruinous dilapidation, excites only the fentiments of pity and regret." (p. 216.) Many of the graves are decorated with flips of yew or bay, which are fuck in the green turf and the afhes of their relations by the pious hand of friend hip and affection-a pretty remnant of a very antient cuftom" common all over Wales.


The ftone bridges of Glafsbury and Hay were deftroyed by the inundations of 1795, and both fell up the ftream, an evident proof that their demolition was occafioned by the weight of the water undermining the piers on which they flood (p. 22!.)

Clifford, a fmall village on the bank of the Wye, with a ruined caftle, is faid to have been the birth-place of the renowned Rolamond, daughter of an earl of Clifford (p. 225.)

Fording the W, ye, our traveller difcovered a most remarkable echo, the moft complete in its anfwers of any he ever niet with, and not much inferior to that which has been celebrated in Dr. Plott's Hiftory of Oxfordshire. (p. 224.) Here is introduced an anecdote of Mrs. B-v-n, of Ll~

hiding herfelf under a table, to make it believed the was not at home; though the benighted travellers faw her by the light of her old maid's candle, and were obliged to find their way as well as they could to Kington in the dark.. They refied a few nights under the hofpitable roof of Mr. B- -s at Pref leign.

Of the well at Richard's Cafile, after repeated cleanings found full of the bones of frogs, Mr. L. only observes, that its water has not the property of killing thofe animals, however it may of diffolving their flesh. (p. 233.)

Of Ludlow he remarks, that, though the fireets are in general fpacious, and fome of them handfome, there is an air of quietnefs which the fize of the town rendered unexpected; the grafs literally grows in feveral parts of it. Dulnels feems indeed to have fo coinpletely established her reign here, that we had been a whole day at Ludlow before we faw a fingle carriage of any defcription pafs through the streets. Mr. L. after joking with the monuments in the cruciform church, has offered another folution of the origin of the cuftom of placing animals at the feet of figures on monuments; that it was" fymbolical of the contempt which the true Chriftian entertains for the good things of the prefent world, and as an indication that he afpires to the bleflings of immortality, trampling on the highest honours and diftinctions of this earthly ftate" (p. 240); and therefore treading on lions, bears, dragons, eagles, as well as deer, goats, and dogs. The Ten Commandments are here painted in the old letter, much abridged, and exhibiting a curious fpecimen of antient orthography. On the liberality of the corporation, in ornamenting the town with a bridge, almshoufe, and town-hall, he defcants with approbation, as contrary to the prin ciples of corporations.

On the court of Marches the following reflexions are offered.

"The difpofition of Henry VIII. arbitrary, infolent, and defpotic, aided by the fuccefs of all his enterprises under the adminiftration of Cardinal Wolfey, and the increase of power and wealth gained by the fuppreffion of monafteries, encouraged him to lay the foundation of this court, as a step the moft probably conducive to a complete and abfolute eftablifhment of uncontrouled authority. This court extended


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its influence over the unhappy country of Wales, with a degree of capricious defpotifim, on which, in thefe enlightened days of liberty and of juftice, we cannot reflect without terror and aftonishinent. The pomp and magnificence of this eltablishment, fo well calculated to attract public reverence and refpect, feen not to much intended to maintain the dignity of thole who were appointed to execute the laws, as to place them at a vaíi diftance from the people who reforted to their tribunal, and to dazzle the eyes of the inferior orders. The court of Marches was a powerful inftrument in the hands of a politic prince, for fubjugating the independence of the nobles, as well as for checking the growth of the first feeds of freedom, and fuppreffing the dawn of liberty among the people. Henry, whofe artifices were equal to any emergency, well knew how necellary it would be to commit the management of this new eftablishment to a man of acknowledged probity, and one who could not be fufpected of a defign to abridge the influence of the peers, or extend the royal prerogative. The benefit which he expected to derive from it was moreover to be effected gradually; and it was referved to the king himself to remove the lord prefident, as well as the reft of the officers, at his pleasure; fo that, by conferring that honour at firft on a man not blindly and implicitly attached to his own principles, he had at once an opportunity of proving the fidelity of that man, and of drawing his subjects into a belief that the court of Marches was defigned for their fecurity and advantage." (p. 253-255.) It was diffolved by act of parliament at the Revolution as a great grievance and oppreffion to the fubject, an intolerable burden to the principality, and a means of fupporting arbitrary power." (p. 258.) Downton caftle, erected by Richard Payne Knight, efq. at an expence of 60,0001. and praifed by the late Mr. Shaw, in his Western Tour, as "relembling the habitations of antient barons, in which he fucceeded fo as to be the admiration of all vifitors," is next criticifed with furprize, as a modernantique manfion, unworthy of the dig nified title of a caftle." (p. 271.) We have not yet feen the complete modern

*Rowland Lee, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield.

imitation of antient architecture, which is not made a mafs of incongruities.

"In the quarries of lime ftone near the fite of Dudley-cafle many curiofities have been found. The figures of fhells and of infects are very common and fome of the bodies of locufts have been difcovered. Thele have been indifcriminately called the Dudley foffil: but the locuft is the most rare and curious." (p. 288.)

Before we entered Birmingham [from Dudley], the artificial ruin of a monaftic edifice called Hockley-abbey, built with cinders and vitrifications, at no great diftance from the road, but half hidden by the encircling ivy, evinced a degree of tafte in thofe who defigned it," who, from the panegyrical lines following this account, and hailing them "gentle partners," are probably fome gentleman and lady of the town. Of all mock ruins we think as of all modern Gothic; nor can we fubfcribe to our traveller's obfervation, when he does not think there would be more religion if there were fewer fectaries; but, ou the other hand, he believes there would be lefs." (p. 293.)

The Leafowcs are defcribed in their prefent neglected ftate; and in a few years little of the delightful fcenes, which once characterized the retreat of the plaintive Shenftone, will remain to be traced. They feem now to be open to every vifitor, "unmolefted by intrufive gardeners, and undisturbed by impertinent guides."

Mr. L. reflects on Warwick as "uncommonly dull, almost to a proverb;" and quotes fome lines, which he reprefents as more true than poetic, ftigmatizing it as a drowsy place, occupied by the feeble race of ludolence; but the

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pavements dread the turf's encroaching green" is neither true nor poetic, Warwick, though a county and a market town, being out of a high road, and no thoroughfare, is only enlivened by Affizes and Races: but it fhould be remembered Mr. L. fpeaks not more favourably of Ludlow. He ftigmatizes Warwick with the abufe of their corporation; from which, we were given to underftand, he once undertook to rescue it. We wish him, however, to find on the tomb of Richard Beauchamp earl of Warwick two fta

* If Indolence overawes the inhabitants, they have lefs reafon to regret the demolition of their houses. (p. 344.)


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tues of burnished brafs as large as life, and an innumerable hoft of angels, of the fame metal, ftanding in niches round the tomb. Had he bought or confulted the printed account of the Beauchamp monuments fold by the clerk, he would have feen there was but one fiatue of the earl, and that his relations round the tomb were at leaft as numerous as the angels. We for bear to criticife his cenfure of the ornaments of the chapel, but cannot help noticing his idea, that "the piety of our forefathers fuggefted to the vows to depofit their arms in the churches and monafteries, a cuftom derived from the remoteft antiquity, and noticed by all the old hiftorians and romance-writers, but first by the prophet Ezekiel *.' (p. 320.) This idea is repeated at p; 396. Are not the banners, arms, and armour, heraldic atchievements placed over the refpective monuments after death, confounded with others dedicated by the parties while living. We know not whence he got his authority that feveral Roman inferiptions have been difcovered at Warwick at different times," in proof that there is no doubt that this town was a flation of the Romans called Præfidium. He had better have proved it from the name Ward, or Guard vic, fynonymous with Prafidium. The defcent into the hor rifying dungeon under the great tower furnishes a moft capital foliloquy of near three pages. He tells us, indeed (p. 341), that the chimney-piece of a finall bed-chamber in one of the turrets is compofed of marbles (inferibed with the names of Roman foldiers), which have been dug up at Warwick, whofe antiquity has entitled them to fuch a diftinction;" but we rather incline to fufpect he took this on the authority of fome Cicerone of the cafle, and that the marbles, perhaps of the fepulchral kind, were brought from fome other part of "the world. We confefs ourfelves unable to find out Henry duke of Warwick, whofe arms are defcribed in the windows of the armoury. (p. 392.) Quere, if the "Dutch burgomafter and Lady Vandyke" do not mean a "Dutch burgomafter by Rembrandt, and the wife of

*We have not been able to find this authority; but as to the citing Suetonius, "fpeaking of vineyards as very common in Britain" (p. 323), we fufpe& Mr. L. read or cited Dr. Pegge's Differtation on the Vine in Britain, in Archæol. I. too haftily.

Sneyders by Vandyke," or a Dutch burgomafier and his lady by Vandyke? Mr. L. has miftaken ij (two) for 11 (eleven), as the falary of the keeper of Guy's fword. (p. 347.) The antique vafe engraved in our vol. LXX. p. 1144, is duly noticed. (p. 349.),

The church at Banbury is truly characterized as rather a heavy than an elegant pile. (p. 355.)

The new church at Buckingham, though a plain and very neat firucture, has no great degree of beauty or elegance; and the cumbrous head of a fwan, the arms of Buckinghamihire, elevated on the roof of the county hall, is a very difgufling and prepofterous ornament." (p. 356.)

Our traveller returned from Buckinghamfhire, by Claydon, the overrown feat of the late Earl Verney, which has been reduced fince his deceafe, Hillefdon, and Grendon Underwood, in which latter church he gathers epitaphs of the Dartons, and other families.

Mr. L's conjectures refpecting the pofition of the rood-loft at the Weft end of the church, inftead of at the end of the chancel, is peculiar to himfelf. (p. 373.) Time and Death never made part of the rood-loft, which was appropriated to figures of the Crucifixion. The other figures, it is be lieved, were introduced fince the Reformation. Mr. L. was as good an antiquary in his conjectures about the grotefque figures on the fteeple at Quainton. (p. 376.) The Lyche gate. of the church-yard is literally the corpfe gate, from the Saxon lic, corpus; and probably the adjoining elm, under which they reft the corpfe, is of no little antiquity. Several of the epitaphs are very incorrectly copied or printed. That under the brafs prieft, at Quainton should be:

Duisquis eris qui tranfieris sta p’lego Sum quod ecis fuera' quod es

plora pro me precor ora. That (p. 387) is 2 Tim. iv. 7 8. Τον αγώνα τον καλον ηγώνισμαι, τον δρόμον τελελεκα, την πισιν τελήρηκα. λοιπον αποκείται της μοι δικαιοσυνης σέφανος, ον αποδώσει μοι ὁ Κύριος εν εκείνη τη ήμερα, ὁ δικαιος κρίλης.

P. 391. Read "Chi iddio vuole io vuolo."

P. 395. The ufe of the French language in the epitaphs is, at least, as


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early as the beginning of the fourteenth century, and it continued throughout a century. (Sepulchral Monuments of Great Britain, vol. II. Introduction, cclxxiv.) In this church is an epitaph 1 on Mr. L.'s father, if we miftake not; for that this was his native county, he has made Mr. Gray acknowledge for him. (p. 375.) The line on John Croke, in Chilton church, (p. 404) fhould be read, "Sit maguus;" and the other," Adiutor." In other epitaphs the u and v is counterchanged. P. 418, 19 from bottom, read CROCI. Near Quainton is Denhum, an old feat of the Winwoods. We are next conducted, through Wotton Underwood, in a houfe built on the plan of the Queen's palace, St. James's park, but deferted by its noble owner for Stowe. Norton houfe belongs to Sir John Aubrey, bart. with a gallery 120 feet long. Chilton, the feat of the Crokers and Carters, now of Sir Aubrey. Long Crendon, Nutleigh ab ley, of which fmall remains. Winchendon, the dilapidated feat of the Duke of Wharton; the long avenues of lime-trees, which rectilinearly interfed the paftures, and a terrace walk,

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are almoft the only marks of its formier grandeur. It now belongs to the Duke of Marlborough. Eythorp, the feat

of the late Sir William Stanhope, K. B. now belongs to Lord Chesterfield. Dinton, the feat of Sir John Vauhattem, kt. Sir William Lee's, at Iarlwell, was paffed unnoticed, to the left, in the way to Aylesbury, juftly defignated a poor town, if it were not for the attendance at its markets. In Quarendun chapel, four miles from it, are fome old monuments of the Leighs, earls of Lichfield, who took from it the title of vifcount. The village of Afton Clinton is full of neat villas. Tring, a mean ill-built town.

In the yard of Northchurch is buried, Peter the Wild Boy, of whom there is an engraving, on a brafs plate, in the church, which has efcaped Mr. L. BerkhampЛlead has a fhabby, decayed market, but genteel inhabitants and neighbours, and fplendid affemblies. Hernel Hempfted, a neat market town. King's Langley, and ruins of a palace, afcribed to King John, who is faid "to have capricioully deprived the ladies here of their thirds, at the deccafe of their husbands, in confequence of fome perfonal indignities which they offered to his Majefty, as he rode through the

town." (p. 443.) Is this the prefent tenure of widows in this town or hundred ?

From Watford, our traveller trots on to London, and concludes with " apologizing for the deficiencies, the incon veniencies, and neglects, which the reader has been compelled to encounter; affuring him, that, feeling the neceflity of his indulgent candour, he fupplicates with the greatest earneftnefs and anxiety."

This tour, otherwife agreeable and entertaining, is too much interlarded with Poetry and Reflection, to which may apply the epithet of prettynees beflowed by its author on Mr. Knight's buildings at Downton.

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139. A Sermon preached in the Cathedral Church of St. Paul, before the Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor, the Aldermen, &c on Tuelday, June 1, 1802; being the Day appointed by bis Majefty to be obferved as a General Thanksgiving. By the Rev. John Futchs, M. A Chaplain to bis Lordship.

THE text, Luke xviii. 1, encourages the duty of prayer as a means of obtaining a continuance of the bleffings and benefits of peace.

149. 4 Sermon preached in the Cathedral Church of St. Pl, before the Lord Mayor, the Ald Tizen, &c. on Sunday, June 20, 18, being the first Sunday in Trinity Tem. By the Rev. John Hutchins, M.A. Chpt to bis Lordship.

FROM Matthew xxv. 4, he afferts the doctrine of eternal rewards and punifhinents, which are certainly held forth, with equal wisdom, in the New


141. A Sermon preached in Lambeth Church on Sunday, June 27, 1802, at the Confecration of the Right Rev. G. H. Hratingford, D. D. Lord Bishop of Gloucefter. By the Rev. William Hawley, M. A. Fellow of Winchester College. Published by Commul of the Archbishop.

THE text is Luke xxii. 25, 26; and furnishes a modeft defence of Church Government, the principals in which are repr. fented as intended to be fubfervient, in a truly chriftian manuer,to the wants and neceffities of thofe under their authority. Mr. H. gives this new explanation of the text: "The kings of the nations affume an arbitrary power, and the benefits derived to their fubjects from this exercife of authority are not confidered as flowing from any obligation of duty on the part of the


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