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eastern division of the United States, and in part account for its
Rheumatism, These disorders, of which the pulmonary consumption is much the most destructive, are commonly the effect of imprudent exposures to cold and rainy weather, evening air, and the wearing of damp linen; or from frequent excelles in the use of frong liquors, especially of fresh distilled rum, which in too many instances prove the bane of morals, and the ruin of families.
The small pox, which is a specific, infectious disease, is not allowed at present to be communicated by inoculation, except in hospitals erected for that purpose in bye places, and in cases where there is a probabilky of a general spread of the infection in a town. Nor is this disease permitted to be communicated generally by inoculation, in any of the United States, except New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and South-Carolina.
In populous towns, the prevalent diseases are more numerous and complicated, owing to want of fresh air and exercise, and to luxurious and fashionable living.
Dr. Foulke * has observed, that " in other countries, men are divided according to their wealth or indigence, into three claffes; the OPULENT, the MIDDLING, and the poor ; the idleness, luxuries, and debaucheries of the first, and the misery and too frequent in: temperance of the last, destroy the greater proportion of these two. The intermediate class is below those indulgencies which prove fatal
In a discourse which he lately read tefore the American Philofophical Society.
to the rich, and above those sufferings to which the unfortunate poor fall victims: this is therefore the happiest division of the three. Of the rich and poor, the American States furnish a much smaller proportion than any other district of the known world. In Connecticut particularly, the distribution of wealth and its concomitants is more equal than clsewhere, and, therefore, as far as excess or want of wealth may prove destructive or falutary to life, the inhabitants of this State may plead exemption from diseases." What this writer says of. Connecticut in particular, will, with very few exceptions, apply to New-England at large.
FACE OF THE COUNTRY, MOUNTAINS, &c. New-England is a high, hilly, and in some parts a mountainous country, formed by nature to be inhabited by a hardy race of free independent republicans. The mountains are comparatively small, running nearly north and south in ridges parallel to each other. Between these ridges flow the great rivers in majestic meanders, receiving the innumerable rivulets and larger streams which proceed from the mountains on each side. To a spectator on the top of a neighbouring mountain, the vales between the ridges, while in a state of nature, exhibit a romantic appearance. They seem an ocean of woods, swelled and depressed in its surface like that of the great ocean itself. A richer though less romantic view is presented, when the valleys, by industrious husbandmen, have been cleared of their natural growth; and the fruit of their labour appears in loaded orchards, extensive meadows, covered with large herds of sheep and neat cattle, and rich fields of flax, corn, and the various kinds of grain. These valleys, which have received the expressive name of intervale lands, are of various breadths, from two to twenty miles; and by the annual inundations of the rivers which Aow through them, there is frequently an accumulation of rich, fat foil, left upon their surface when the waters retire.
There are four principal ranges of mountains, passing nearly from north-east to south-west through New-England. These consist of a multitude of parallel ridges, each having many spurs, deviating from the course of the general range; which spurs are again broken into irregular hilly land. The main ridges terminate, sometimes in high blutf heads, near the sea coast, and sometimes by a gradual defcent in the interior part of the country. One of the main ranges runs bersveen Connecticut and Hudson sivers. This range branches and
bounds the vales through which flows the Houfatonick river. The moft eastern ridge of this range terminates in a bluff head at Meriden; a second ends in like manner at Willingford, and a third at New-Haven. In Lyme, on the east side of Connecticut river, another range of mountains commences, forming the eastern boundary of Connecticut vale. This range tends northerly, at the diftance, generally, of about ten or twelve miles east from the river, and passes through Massachusetts, where the range takes the name of Chickabee Mountain; thence crossing into New-Hampshire, at the distance of about twenty miles from the Massachusetts line, it runs up into a very high peak, called Monadnick, which terminates this ridge of the range. A western ridge continues, and in about latitude 43° 20 runs up into Sunipee mountains. About fifty miles further, in the same ridge, is Mooscoog mountain. A third range begins near Stonington in Connecticut. It takes its course north-easterly, and is fometimes broken and discontinued; it then rises again, and ranges in the fame direction into New-Hampfhire, where, in latitude 43° 25', it runs up into a high peak called Cowsawvalkog. The fourth range has a humble beginning about Hopkinton in Massachusetts. The eastern ridge of this range runs north by Watertown and Concord, and croffes Merrimack river at Pantucket-Falls. in New Hampshire, it rises into several high peaks, of which the White mountains are the principal. From these White mountains a range continues northeast, crossing the east boundary of New Hampshire, in latitude 44° 30', and forms the height of land between Kennebeck and Chaudiere rivers. These ranges of mountains are full of lakes, ponds, and springs of water, that give rise to numberless streams of various fizes, which, interlocking each other in every direction, and falling over the rocks in romantic cafcades, flow meandering into the rivers below. No country on the globe is better watered than NewEngland.
On the sea-coast the land is low, and in many parts level and sandy. In the valleys, between the forementioned ranges of mountains, the land is generally broken, and in many piaces rocky, but of a strong rich foil, capable of being cultivated to good advantage, which also is the case with many spots even on the tops of the mountains.
SOIL, PRODUCTIONS, &c. The foil, as may be collected from what has been said, must be very various. Each tract of different foil is distinguished by its peculiar
vegetation, and is pronounced good, middling, or bad, from the species of trees which it produces; and from one species generally predominating in each foil, has originated the descriptive names of oak land, birch, beech, and chesnut lands, pine, barren, maple, ash, and cedar swamps, as each species happens to predominate. Intermingled with those predominating species are walnut, firs, elin, hemlock, magnolia, moofe wood, fafiafras, &c. &c. The best lands produce walnut and chesnut; the next, beech and oak; lands of the third quality produce fir and pitch pine; the next, whortleberry and barberry bushes; and the poorest produce nothing but marslıy imperfect shrubs. Among the flowering trees and shrubs in the forests are the red-flowering maple, the fafrafras, the locuft-tree, the tulip-tree, honeysuckle, wild rose, dogwood, elm, leather-tree, laurel, hawthorn, &c. which in the spring of the year give the woods a most beautiful appearance, and fill them with a delicious fragrance. Among the fruits which grow wild, are the several kinds of grapes ; which are small, four, and thick skinned. The vines on which they grow are very luxuriant, often overspreading the highest trees in the forests; and, without doubt, might be greatly meliorated by proper cultivation. Besides these, are the wild cherries, white and red mulberries, cranberries, walnuts, hazelnuts, chesnuts, butter-nuts, beech-nuts, wild plumbs and pears, whortle-berries, bilberries, gooler berries, strawberries, &c.
The foil in the interior country is calculated for the culture of Indian corn, rye, oats, barley, flax, and hemp (for which the soil and climate are peculiarly proper) buck-wheat, beans, peas, &c. In many of the inland parts wheat is raised in large quantities; but on the sea-coast it has never been cultivated with success, being subject to blasts. The fruits which the country yields from culture, are, apples in the greatest plenty; of these cyder is made, which con. Ititutes the principal drink of the inhabitants ; also pears of various forts, quinces, peaches, plus, cherries, apricots, &c.
Dr. Cutler has furnified the following catalogue of flowering fhrubs and plants in New England, which, from the attention he has paid to natural hisory, we have reason to rely upon as accurate,
Blue flag, Iris virginica,-Globe Flower, Cephalanthus occidentalis, ---Pigeonberry, Cifus fi yoides ---Cornel, Cornus Canadensis,-American Honeysuckle, Azalea vifcofa,--American Tea, Ceanothus Americanus,--Cherry Honeyfuckle, Lonicera diervilla,-Great Convolvulus, Convolvulus arvenfis, -Stag's horn Sumach, Rhus typhinum,
Mealtree, Viburnum lantana,- White Howered Elder, S.ambucus nigra, Red berried Elder, Sambucus Canadenfis, -Meadow Blue-belis, Gentiana ciliata,-Lilies, several species, Lilium,--Bethlem Star, Ornithogulum luteum,-American Senna, Rhoz'ora Canadensis,--Great Laurel, Kalmia latifolia, Dwarf Laurel, Kalmia angustifoliaWhite Pepper Bush, Andromeda arborea,-Bog Evergreen, Indromeda calyculata, -Sweet Pepper Bush, Clethra alnifolia, -Mountain Laurel, or Sorbus-tree, Sorbus arcupora __ Meadow Sweet, Spiræa salicifolia, -Queen of the Meadows, Spirea tormentosa, --Service Tree, Mefe pilus Canadensis,---Wild Rose, Rosa Carolira --Superb Raspberry, Rubus odoratus,--Baneberry, Altea spicata,-Side-saddle Flower, Sara racena purpurea, --Red Columbine, Aquilegia Canadensis,—Anemone, several species, Anemone bepatica, sylvestris et nemorofa,--Traveller's Joy, Clematis Virginica, Dragon's Head, Dracocephalum Virginicum, --Snap Dragon, Antirrhinum Canadenfis, --American Cardamine, Cardamine Virginica --Lupin, Lupinus angustifolis,-Locust, Robinia pseud-acacia, - Beach Pea, Pisum maritimum,--Pied Pea, Pisuin ochrus, -Wood Pea, Orobus sylvaticus,–Variegated Pea, Lathyrus heterophyllus --Meadow Sunflower, Agerarum ciliare,-American Amaranthus, Gnaphalium 'belian themifolium, -New-England Alter, After Nova Anglicum,--Sinooth-leaved Golden-rod, Solidago altilima,-New-England Sunflower, Helianthus dicaricatus,-- American Pride, Lobelia cardinalis,-Ladies Plume, Orchis prodes,-Ladies Slipper, Cypripedium calceolus--Blue Eye, Sisyrinchium Bermudiauna,.--Swamp Willow, or Dog-wood, Salix cinerca,--Red-flowered Maple, Acerubrun..
New England is a fine grazing country; the valleys between the hills are generally interfected with brooks of water, the banks of which are lined with :?tract of rich meadow or intervale land. The high and rocky ground is, in many parts, covered with clover, and generally affords the finest of pasture. It will not be a matter of wonder, therefore, that New-England boasts of railing some of the finest cattle in the world; nor will the be envied, when the labour of raising them is taken into view. Two months of the hottest scafon in the year, the fariners are employed in procuring food for their cattle, and the cold winter is spent in dealing it out to them. The pleasure and profit of doing this is, however, a fatisfying compensation to honest and industrious farmer, B ter and cheese are made for exportation ; and confiderable attention las lately been paid to the raining of theep.