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The inhabitants generally manufacture their own clothing, in the family way, Grain has been raised in such plenty within a few years past, that they have been induced to attempt the manufacture of corn spirits : for this purpose fix or seven stills have already been erected, which yield a sufficient supply for the people, and a profit to the owners. Vait quantities of pot and pearl ashes are made in every part of the State; but one of the most important manufactures in this State is that of maple sugar; it has been estimated by a competent judge, that the average quantity made by every family fituated on the back of Conneciicut river is two hundred pounds a year: one man, with but ordinary advantages, in one month, made five hundred and fifty pounds, of a quality equal to imported brown sugar. In two towns, in Orange county, containing no more than forty families, tnirteen thousand pounds of sugar were made in the year 1791. The probability is, that in a few years maple sugar will become an article of export. In some part of the State the inhabitants are beginning to line the roads with maple trees; and it would certainly be a wile measure if this practice should become general throughout the States ; orchards of these trees, planted on floping hills, so as to render it easy to collect the juice, might be attended with peculiar advantages to the owners.
LITERATURE AND IMPROVEMENTS.
Much cannot be faid in favour of the present state of literature in this State ; but their prospects in this regard are good. In every charter of a town, as we have mentioned, provision is made for fchools, by reserving a certain quantity of land solely for their sup, port. The assembly of this State, in their O&tober seffion in 1791, passed an act for the establitlument of a college in the town of Bur. lington, on Jake Champlain, on the south fide of Onion river, and appointed ten trustees. General Ira Allen, one of the trustees, on certain conditions, has offered lands, &c. to the amount of four thou, fand pounds towards this establishment.
The expediency of opening a communication between the waters of lake Champlain and Hudson's river ; and of rendering the navi. gation of Conne&ticut river more easy and advantageous, has been discuffed by the legislature of this state; and measures have been adopted to effect the latter, by incorporating a company for the purpose of locking Bellow's falls, who are to complete the work within four years from the passing of the act, and to receive a toll for all
boats that pass; the toll to be a subject of regulation. The works are already begun, and when completed will be of great advantage to the State, by facilitating the exportation of their produce. The other proposed canal between take Champlain and Hudson's river would also be important, but it is doubtful whether it will, at prefent, be accomplished.
Having thus given a concise account of this State, and nothing material occurring in its history to entitle it to a separate discussion, we thall close it with a view of its constitution and government.
The inhabitants of Vermont, by their representatives in convention, at Windsor, on the 25th of December, 1777, declared that the territory called Vermont was, and of right ought to be, a free and independent State ; and for the purpose of maintaining regular goveroment in the saine, they made a solemn declaration of their rights, and ratified a constitution, of which the following is an abftract;
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.
The declaration, which makes a part of their constitution, afferts that all men are born equally free-with equal rights, and ought to enjoy liberty of conscience-freedom of the press-trial by jurypower to form new states in vacant countries, and to regulate their own internal police that all elections ought to be free that all power is originally in the people--that government ought to be instituted for the common benefit of the community--and that the community have a right to reform or abolish government-that every member of society bath a right to protection of life, liberty, and property. and in return is bound to contribute his proportion of the expence of that protection, and yield his personal service when necessary that he shall not be obliged to give evidence against himself
that the people have a right to bear arms—but no standing armies shall be maintained in time of peace--that the people have a right to hold themselves, their houfes, papers, and possessions, free from search or feizure-and therefore warrants without oaths first made, affording fufficient foundation for them, are contrary to that right, and ought not to be granted that no person shall be liable to be transported out of this ftate for trial for any offence committed within this State, &c.
FRAME OF GOVERNMENT. By the frame of government, the supreme legislative power is vested in the House of Representatives of the freemen of the State of Vermont, to be chosen annually by the freemen on the first Tuesday in September, and to meet the second Thursday of the succeeding O&tober.—This body is veited with all the powers necessary for the legislature of a free state.-Two thirds of the whole number of representatives elected make a quorum.
Each inhabited town throughout the State has a right to send one representative to the assembly.
The supreme executive power is vested in a governor, lieutenant-governor, and twelve counsellors, to be chosen annually in the same manner, and vested with the same powers as in Con. necticut.
Every person of the age of twenty-one years, who has refided in the State one whole year next before the election of representatives, and is of a quiet, peaceable behaviour, and will bind himself by his oath, to do what he shall in conscience judge to be mof conducive to the best good of the State, shall be entitled to all the privileges of a freeman of this State.
Each member of the House of Representatives, before he takes his seat, must declare his belief in one God, in future rewards and punishments, and in the divinity of the scriptures of the Old and New Testament, and must profess the protestant religion.
Courts of justice are to be established in every county throughout the State.
The supreme court, and the several courts of common pleas of this State, besides the powers usually exercised by such courts, have the powers of a court of chancery, so far as relates to perpetuating testimony, obtaining evidence from places not within the State, and the care of the persons and estates of those who are non compotes mentis, &c. All prosecutions are to be commenced in the name and by the authority of the freemren of the State of Vermont. The legislature are to regulate entails fo as to prevent perpetuities.
All field and staff officers, and commiifioned officers of the army, and all general officers of the militia, shall be chosen by the general assembly, and be commissioned by the governor.
Every seventh year, beginning with the year 1785, thirteen pere fons, none of whom are to be of the council or assembly, fhall be chosen by the freemen, and be called “ the council of censors," 3
whose duty it shall be to inquire whether the constitution has been preferved inviolate in every part--whether the legislative and executive powers have been properly exercised taxes juftly laid and collected—the public monies rightly difpofed of-and the laws duly executed. For these purposes they shall have power to send for persons, papers, &c.--to pass public censures-to order impeachments, and to recommend the repeal of all laws enacted contrary to the principles of the constitution. They are to be vested with these powers for one year only, after the day of their election.
The council of censors, when necessary, may call a convention, to meet two years after their fitting-to alter the constitution the proposed alterations to be published at least fix months before the election of delegates to such convention.
SITUATION, E.XTENT, AND BOUNDARIES. Tuns State is fituated between 420 41 and 4;o uro N. latitude; and 4° 30' and 6' 17' E. longitude from Philadelphia. Its length from the northern to the southern extremity is one hundred and fixty-eight miles ; its greatest breadth, measured from the entrance of Pafcataqua harbour, to the mouth of West river, which falls into Connecticut river, opposite the town of Chesterfield, is ninety miles. This line crosses the 43d degree of latitude. From this line northerly, New Hampshire decreases in breadth. On the 44th degree of latitude, it is fifty-five miles, and on the 45th degree, nineteen miles wide.
It is bounded on the south by the State of Massachusetts, from which it is divided by a line, beginning on the sea shore, at a point three miles northward of the mouth of the river Merrimack, purfuing a course fimilar to the curvature of that river, at the same diftance, and ending at a point, three miles north of Patucket fall, in the town of Dracut. From this point, the line extends on a supposed due west course, till it crosses Connecticut river, and ends on its western bank, the distance being fifty-five miles.
From the point where this line strikes Connecticut river, up to the forty-fifth degree of latitude, the western bank of that river is the western boundary of New-Hampshire, and the eastern boundary of Vermont,
On its eastern side, New-Hampshire is bounded by the Atlantic ocean, from the aforementioned point, three miles northward of the mouth of Merrimack river, along the shore, to the middle of the min entrance of Pascataqua harbour, which distance is computed to be about eighteen miles. Thence the boundary line runs up the Vol. II.