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STATE OF

DELAWARE.

SITUATION, EXTENT, &c. THIS State is fituated between 38° 30', and 400 north latitude, and oo and 1° 45' weft longitude. It is ninety-two miles ing, and twenty-four miles broad. It is bounded on the east, by the river and 'bay of the same name, and the Atlantic ocean; on the souh, by a line from Fenwick’s-island, in latitude 38° 20' 30", drawn west till it intersects what is commonly called the tangent line, dividing it from the State of Maryland ; on the west, by the said tangent line, pasfing northward up the peninsula, till it touches the weitern part of the territorial circle; and thence on the north, by the said circle, described with a radius of twelve miles about the town of Newcastle.

This State appears to have derived its name from Lord Delawar, who completed the settlement of Virginia.

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FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SOIL AND PRODUCTIONS,

The State of Delaware, the upper parts of the county of Newcastle excepted, is, to speak generally, extremely low and level. Large quantities of ftagnant water, at particular caions of the year, overspreading a great proportion of the land, render it equally unfit for the purposes of agriculture, and injurious to the health of the inhabitants. The spine, or highest ridge of the peniofula, runs through the State of Delaware, inclined to the eatern or Delaware fide. It is designated in Suffex, Kent, and part of Newcastle county, by a remarkable chain of swamps, from which the waters descend on each side, passing on the east to the Delaware, and on the west to the Chesapeak. Many of the shrubs and plants growing in these swamps are similar to those found on the highest mountains.

Delaware is chiefly an agricultural State. It includes a very fertile tract of country; and scarcely any part of the Union can be selected more adapted to the different purposes of agriculture, or in which a

greater

greater variety of the most useful productions can be so conveniently and plentifully reared. The soil along the Delaware river, and from eight to ten miles into the interior country, is generally a rich clay, producing large timber, and well adapted to the various purpoles of agriculture. From thence to the swamps above mentioned the soil is light, fandy, and of an inferior quality..

The general afpect of the country is very favourable for cultiva. tior. Excepting some of the upper parts of the county of Newcastle, the fursace of the State is very little broken or irregular. The le ghts of Christiana are lofty and commanding; some of the hills of Brandywine are rough and stony ; but defcending from there, and a few others, the lower country is fo little diver Gified as alınost to form one txiended plain. In the county of Newcastle, the soil consists of a 1trong clay ; in Kent, there is a confiderable mixture of sand; and in Suflex, the quantity of fand altogether predominates. Wheat is the staple of this State: it grows here in such perfection as not only to be particularly fought by the manufacturers of four throughout the Union, but also to be distinguillied and preferred, for its sus perior qualities, in foreign markets. This wheat poífelles an uncommon softness and whiteness, very favourable to the manufacture of superfine flour, and in other respects far exceeds the hard and flinty grains raised in general on the high lands. Besides wheat, this State generally produces plentiful crops of Indian corn, barley, rye, oats, flax, buck-wheat, and potatoes. It likewise abounds in natural and artificial meadows, containing a large variety of grasses. Hemp, cotton, and filk, if properly attended to, doubtless would fourish

very well.

The eastern fide of the State is indented with a large number of crecks, or small rivers, which generally have a short course, numerous shoals and soft banks, kirted with very extensive marthes, and empty into the river and bay of Delaware. In the southern and western parts of this State spring the head waters of Pocomoke, Wicomico, Nanticoke, Choptank, Chester, Sassafras, and Bohemia sivers, all falling into Chesapeak bay, and foine of them navigable twenty or thirty miles into the country, for vefsels of filty or fixty tons.

The county of Sussex, besides producing a considerable quantity of grain, particularly of Indian corn, poffefses excellent grazing lands. This county also exports very large quantities of lumber, obtained chiefly from an extensive swamp, called the Indian River or

Cypress

Cypress Swamp, lying partly within this State, and partly in the State of Maryland. This morals extends fix miles from east to weit, and nearly twelve from north to south, including an area of nearly fifty thousand acres of land. The whole of this swamp is a high and level bafon, very wet, thougli undoubtedly the highest land between the sea and the bay, whence the Pocomoke dcscends on one side, and Indian river and St. Martin's on the other. This swamp contains a great variety of plants, trees, wild beasts, birds, and reptiles.

In the county of Suflex, among the branches of the Nanticoke river, large quantities of bog iron ore are to be found. Before the revolution, this ore was worked to a considerable extent; it was thought to be of a good quality, and peculiarly adapted to the purposes of cattings. These works have chiefly fallen into decay.

CIVIL DIVISIONS. This State is divided into three counties, viz. Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex, which are subdivided into hundreds.

Before the revolution this district of country was denominated, 64 The three lower Counties."

CHIEF TOWNS.

DOVER.

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Dover, in the county of Kent, is the seat of government. It stands on Jones's creek, a few miles from the Delaware river, and confits of about one hundred houses, principally of brick. Four streets interfcet each other at right angles, whose incidencies form a spacious parade, on the east side of which is an elegant state-house of brick. The town has a lively appearance, and drives on a considerable trade with Philadelphia. Wheat is the principal article of export. The landing is five or six miles from the town of Dover.

NEWCASTLE.

This town is thirty-five miles below Philadelphia, on the west bank of Delaware river. It was first settled by the Swedes, about the year 1627, and called Stockholm ; it was afterwards taken by the Dutch, and called New Amsterdam. When it fell into the hands of the Engliga it was called by its present name. It contains about fixty hours which have the aspect of decay; it was formerly the seat of government, and was the first town settled on Delaware river.

WILMING

WILMINGTON. Wilmington is fituated a mile and a half west of Delaware riter; on Christiana creek, twenty-eight miles southward of Philadelphia. It is much the largest and pleasanteft town in the State, containing upwards of four hundred houses, which are handsomely built upon the gentle ascent of an eminence, and show to great advantage as you fail up the Delaware; it contains about two thousand four hunded inhabi. tants. In this town are two Presbyterian churches, a Swedish Episcopal church, a Baptist, and a Quaker meeting, and a few Methodists. There is also a flourishing academy of about forty or fifty scholars, who are taught the languages, and some of the sciences. This academy, in proper time, is intended to be erected into a college. There is another academy at Newark in this county, which was incorporated in 1969. These academies were interrupted during the war, and their funds ruined by the depreciation of continental paper money. Since the peace learning seems to revive and flourish.

MILFORD.

Milford is situated at the source of a small river, fifteen miles from Delaware bay, and one hundred and fifty fouthward of Philadelphia. This town, which contains about eighty houses, has been built, except one house, fince the revolution; it is laid out with much good taste, and is by no means disagreeable. The inhabitants are Epifcopalians, Quakers, and Methodists.

DUCK CREEK CROSS ROADS

Is twelve miles north-west from Dover, and has eighty or ninety houses, which stand on one street. It carries on a confiderable trade with Philadelphia, and is one of the largest wheat markets in the State. Kent is also a place of considerable trade.

LEWES

Is situated a few miles above the light-house on Cape Henlopen; it contains about one hundred and fifty houses, built chiefly on a street, which is more than three miles in length, and extending along a creek which separates the town from the pitch of the cape. The situation is high, and commands a fu'l prospect of the light-house and the fa. The court-house and gaol are commodious buildings, and give an air of importance to the town. The lignation of this

place

blace 'mut at some future time render it considerably important. Placed at the entrance of a bay, which is crowded with vessels from all parts of the world, and which is frequently closed with ice a part of the winter season, neceflity seems to require, and nature seems to fuggeft, the forming this port into a harbour for shipping. Nothing bas prevented this heretofore but the deficiency of water in the creek. This want can be cheaply and easily supplied by a small canal, lo as to afford a passage for the waters of Rehoboth into Lewes creek, which would ensure an adequate supply. The circumjacent country is beautifully diversified with hills, wood, streams, and lakes, forming an agreeable contrast to the naked fandy beach, which ter, minatęs in the cape ; but it is greatly infested with musketoes and fand flies.

POPULATION. The population of Delaware, in the summer of 1787, was reckoned at thirty-seven thousand, which is about twenty-fix for every square mile, according to the census of 1990 it was as follows:

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If the population of this State has increased fince 1790, in a like proportion, its present population must be upwards. of one hundred thoufarid.

RELIGION. In this state there is a variety of religious denominations. Of the Presbyterian fect, there are twenty-four churches; of the Episcopal, fourteen ; of the Baptift, fevén; of the Metrodist, a confiderable number, especially in the two lower counties of Kent and Suflex, the number of their churches is not exaftly ascertained. Besides there, there is a Swedifh church at Wilmington, which is one of the oldest Vol. II.

churches

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