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the Plymouth Council, and whose views were to enrich themselves, by the fishing trade at sea, and the beaver trade on shore. Religion had little concern in the settlements; but it had some in the planta. tion of Exeter, on the river Pascataqua, which was began by Mr. Wheelwright, a minister banished from the Massachusetts, on account of the antinomian dissensions with which the colony was con• vulsed, and by a number of his adherents. They formed themselves into a body politic. Three other distinct governments were also established on the branches of the said river. These governments being altogether voluntary, had no fecurity as to their continuance; and the several settlers were too divided in opinion to form any good general plan of permanent administration. Therefore the more considerate among them treated with the Massachusetts about taking them under its protection, which fully suited the wishes of that colony, as it afforded the heads of it the opportunity of realizing the construction they had put upon a claufe of their charter, by which they extended their line fo as to comprehend both New Hampshire and the Maine. The business terminated in the incorporation of the two colonies, on condition that the inhabitants of each should enjoy equal privileges : they continued long united, and were of one heart and mind in civil and religious affairs. * When separated by the king's commission for the government of New-Hampshire, the new affembly at their first meeting, in a letter of March 25, 1680, to the governor of the Massachusetts, to be communicated to the general court, expreffed their full satisfaction in the past connection, a grateful sense of the care that had been exercised over them, and of their having been well governed, and an unfeigned desire that a mutual correspondence between them might be settled. +

The towns in the province of Maine, after a time, fell into a state of confusion. The Mafsachusetts took that opportunity for encouraging the disposition which prevailed in many of the inhabitants to submit to their jurisdiction; and to forward their compliance, granted the people larger privileges than were enjoyed by their own, for they were all freemen upon taking the oath, whereas every where else no one could be made free, unless he was a church member. The province was made a county by the name of Yorkshire; and the towns , fent representatives to the general court at Boston. Though the major part of the inhabitants were brought to consent to this regulation,

* Hutchinson's Hiftory, vol. I. p. 268.

+ Ibid. p. 328.


great opposition was made by some principal persons, who severely reproached the Massachusetts, for using force in order to reduce the province; but the people experienced the benefit of it, and were contented. They continued in union with the Massachusetts until 1665, when a short separation commenced ; after which they were again united.

Having thus given a sketch of the settlement of New-England, and the remainder of its history being connected with that of the general confederacy, we shall proceed to give a concise view of its different States as they now stand, attaching to each a narration of such particulars as are not interwoven in the general history of the union. *

* If the reader wishes to obtain a more extensive knowledge of the history of New England, he is referred to Hutchinson’s History of Massachusetts-Hazard's Historical Collections, 400. 2 vols.--Belknap’s History of New Hampshire-The letter in Dr. Gordon's History of the American Revolution-Governor Winthrop's Journal Chalmer's Political Annals--and Gookins' Historical Collections of the Indians in New-England, published in Boston by the Historical Society, in the American Apollo, 1792.



V Ε R Μ Ο Ν Τ.

SITUATION, EXTENT, &c. T his State is situated between 42° 44' and 45° N. latitude, and te

, 35' and 3° 30' E. Icngitude from Philadelphia; its length is about one hundred and fifty miles, and its breadth about seventy: it is bounded on the north by Lower-Canada, east by Connecticut river, which divides it from New-Hampfire, south by Maffachusetts, and west by New-York; the Green Mountain runs from south by north through it, and divides the State nearly in the middle.

This tract of country, called Vermont, before the late war, was claimed both by New-York and New Hampshire; and these interfering claims have been the occasion of much warm altercation, the particulars of which it would be neither entertaining nor ufeful to detail. These claims were not finally adjusted till since the peace. On the commencement of hoftilities between Great Britain and her colonies, the inhabitants of this district, confidering themselves as in a state of nature, and not within the jurisdiction either of New-York or New Hampshire, affociated and formed for themselves a conftitution, under which they have continued to exercise all the powers of an independent state, and have prospered. On the 4th of March, 1791, agrecably to act of Congress of December 6th, 1790, this State became one of the United States, and constitutes the fourteenth, and not the leaft respectable pillar in the American Union.

AIR AND CLIMATE. The climate of this State is in a very considerable degree favoura: bié both to man and vegetation. The winter season commonly latts from the beginning of November to the middle of April, during which the inhabitants enjoy a serene sky and a keen cold air. Snow begins to fall, commonly, by the ist of November ; but the permanent snows do not fall till about the 10th of December, which pre

Fent the ground freezing to any considerable depth.-In April the {now is gradully dissolved by the warm influences of the fun, which moistens and enriches the earth, and vegetation advances with sur, prising rapidity.

FACE OF THE COUNTRY. This State, generally speaking, is hilly, but not rocky; northward to the Canada iine it is flat: the country at large is well watered, having Michiscoui, Lamoille, Onion, and Otter Creek rivers, which run across it from east to west into Lake Champlain ; West, Sexton's, Black, Waterquechee, White, Ompompanoofuck, Weld's, Wait's, Pafsumsick, and several smaller rivers, which run from west to east into Connecticut river. Over the river Lamoille is a natural fune bridge, seven or eight rods in length. Otter Creek is navigable for boats fifty miles ; the banks of this river are excellent land, being annually overflowed and enriched. White river takes its name from the peculiar whiteness of its water, caused by the clear white stones and gravel which constitute the bed of this river quite to its source. This peculiarity deceives people in regard to its depth. It rises in the center of the state, flows through a rich tract of country free from swamps, and empties into the Connecticut four miles below Dartmouth College, and is from one hundred to one hundred and fifty yards wide, some distance from its mouth. Ompompanoosuck is a shaort, furious river, not more than forty or fifty yards wide, emptying into the Connecticut at Norwich. Weld's is also a short and rapid river; forty yards across. Paffumfick is one hundred yards wide, and noted for the quantity and quality of the filmon it produces : on this river, which is settled twenty miles up, are some of the best townships in the State.

Lakes Memphremagog Willoughby and Bombazon, are also in this State. The former is the reservoir of three considerable streams, Black, Barton, and Clyde rivers. One of these rises in Willoughby lake, and forms a communication between that and lake St. Peter's, in the river St. Lawrence; issuing from Wila loughby's lake, it empties into Memphremagog, and thence, by the name of $t. Francis, empties into the St. Peter. This river is not all the way navigable, otherwise it would afford a communication of very great importance to the northern part of this State, as the settlers might transport their produce with great ease to MonVOL. II,


treal or Quebec. Willoughby's lake furnishes filli resembling bafty of an excellent flavour, weighing from tep to thirty pounds. They form a most delicious feaft for the new settlers : people travel twenty miles to this lake to procure a winter's stock of this filh. Lake Bombazon, in the county of Rutland, gives rise to a branch of Poultney River.

Besides these rivers and lakes there are several other springs, ponds, and other collections of water, which are, in general, remarkably clear, and afford abundance of trout, perch, and other fresh water fish.

The principal mountain in this State is the one we have already mentioned, which divides the State nearly in the center, between Connecticut river and lake Champlain. The ascent from the east to the top of this mountain is much easier than from the west, till you get to Onion river, where the mountain terminates. The height of land is generally from twenty to thirty miles from the river, and about the same distance from the New-York line. The natural growth upon this mountain is hemlock, pine, spruce, and other evergreens; hence it has always a green appearance, and on this account has obtained the descriptive name of Ver Mons, or Green Mountain. On some high parts of this mountain snow lies till May, and sometimes till June. This chain of mountains passes through Massachusetts and Connecticut, and terininates in New-Haven.

Another noted mountain in this state is Afchutney, bordering on Connecticut river, in the townships of Windsor and Weathersfield, and Upper Great Monadnock, quite in the north-east corner of the State.

It is remarkable, that the hills and mountains are generally covered on the east lides with what is called hard wood, such as birch, beech, maple, ash, elm, and butternut; and the welt fide is gene Fally covered with evergreens.

SOIL, PRODUCTIONS, &c. The soil of Vermont affords the best of pasturage; some of the finest beef cattle in the world are driven from this State ; horses also are raised for exportation. The natural growth upon the rivers is white pines of feveral kinds, intermingled with low intervales of beech, elm, and white cak. Back from the rivers the land is thickly timbered with birch, sugar maple, afh, butternut, and white oak of an excellent quality: a great part is well adapted for tillage, and the foil is natural for wheat, rye, barley, oats, fax, hemp, &c. ?


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