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tree to tree, and from rock to rock, over dens of rattle-snakes, to the summit, wh ch entirely commands the works of Ticonderoga, This circumit:nce must ever be considered as a full justification of General Sinc'air's sudden ritreat with the American army, and the observation which he made on his trial, in his own defence, that for though he had lost a post, he had saved a State," was afterwards verified.
Crown-Point is fifteen miles north of Ticonderoga on lake Champlain. The fort at this place, in which a Britisha garrison was always kept, from the reduction of Canada till the American Revolution, was the inost regular, and the most expensive of any ever constructed and supported by the British government in North-America. The walls are of wood and earth, about fixteen feet high, and twenty feet thick, and nearly one hundred and fifty yards Square, surrounded by a deep and broad ditch cut through a solid rock. It stands on a rising ground, perhaps two hundred yards from the lake, with which there was a covered way, by which the garrison could be supplied with water in time of a fiege. The only gate opens on the north towards the lake, where there was a draw-bridge. On the right and left, as you enter the fort, are a row of stone barracks, not inelegantly built, fufficient to contain fifteen hundred or two thousand troops ; the parade is between them, and is a flat smooth rock. There were leveral out-works, which are now in ruins, as is the principal fort, except the walls, and the walls of the barracks, which still remain.
The body of the fix nations inhabit the western parts of this state, The principal part of the Mohawk tribe refide on Grand river, in Upper Canada ; and there are two villages of Senecas on the Allegany river, near me north line of Pennsylvania, and a few Dela. wares and Skawaghkees, on Buffaloe creek. Including these, and the Stockbridge and Mohegan Indians, who have migrated and settled in the vicinity of Oneida, there are, in the fix nations, ac. cording to an accurate estimate lately made by the Rev. Mr. Kirkland, missionary among them, fix thousand three hundred and thirty souls. He adds, that among these there is comparatively but 'very few children.
The following extract of a letter from Mr. Kirkland, will give the reader an idea of the characters, which, according to Indian tradition, are excluded from the happy country: "The region
of Pure Spirits, the five nations call Eskanane. The only characters which, according to their traditions, cannot be admitted to participate of the pleasures and delights of this happy country, are reduced to three, viz. suicides; the disobedient to the counsels of the chiefs ; and such as put away their wives on account of pregnancy. According to their tradition, there is a gloomy, fathomless gulph, near the borders of the delightful mansions of Eskanane, over which all good and brave spirits pass with safety, under the conduct of a faithful and kilful guide appointed for that purpose; but when a suicide, or any of the above-mentioned characters, approach this gulph, the conductor, who possesses a most penetrating eye, instantly discovers their spiritual features and character, and denies them his aid, afugning his reasons. They will, however, attempt to cross upon a small pole, which, before they reach the middle, trembles and shakes, till presently down they fall with-horrid shrieks. In this dark and dreary gulph, they suppose resides a great dog, some say a dragon, infected with the itch, which makes him perpetually reste less and spiteful. The guilty inhabitants of this miferable region, all catch this disease of the great dog, and grope and roam from fide to side of their gloomy mansion in perpetual torments. Sometimes they approach fo near the happy fields of Eikanane, that they can hear the songs and dances of their former companions. This only serves to increase their torments, as they can discern no light, nor discover any passage by which they can gain access to them. They suppose ideots and dogs go into the fame gulph, but have a more comfortable apartment, where they enjoy some little light.” Mr. Kirkland adds, that several other nations of Indians with whom he has conversed on the subject, have nearly the same traditionary notions of a future state. They almost universally agree in this, that the departed spirit is ten days in its passage to their happy elyfium, after it leaves the body; some of them suppose its course is towards the south ; others that it ascends fran fome lofty mountain.
The Oneidas inhabit on Oneida creek, twenty one miles west of Fort Stansix.
The Tujcaroras migrated from North-Carolina and the frontiers of Virginia, and were adopted by the Oneidas, with whom they have ever since lived. They were originally of the same nation.
The Senecas inhabit the Chenefiee river, at the Chenessee castle. They have two towns of Exty or seventy fouls each, on French
creek, in Pennsylvania ; and another town on Buffaloe creek, áta tached to the British; two small towns on Allegany river, attached to the Americans. Obeil, or Cornplanter, one of the Seneca chiefs, refisied here.
The Alohatuks were acknowledged by the other tribes, to use their own expreffions, to be “the true old heads of the confederacy;" and were, formerly, a powerful tribe, inhabiting on the Mohawk river. As they were strongly attached to the Johnson family on account of Sir William Johnfon, they emigrated to Canada, with Sir John Johnson, about the year 1776. There is now only one family of them in the State, and they live about a mile from Fort Hunters The father of this ta inily was drowned in the winter of 1788.
All the confederated tribes, except the Oneidas and Tuscaroras, fided with the British in the late war, and fought against the Americans.
The Onondagas live near the Onondaga lake, about twenty-five miles from the Oneida lake. In the spring of 1779, a regiment of men were fent from Albany, by General J. Clinton, againft the Onondagas. This regiment surprised their town, took thirty-three prisoners, killed twelve or fourteen, and returned without the loss of
A party of the Indians were at this time ravaging the Ames rican frontiers.
There are very few of the Delaware tribe in this State.
The Five Confederated Nations were settled along the banks of the Susquehannah, and in the adjacent country, until the year 17790 when General Sullivan, with an army of four thousand men, drove them from their country to Niagara, but could not bring them to action. They waited, but waited in vain, for the assistance of the elements, or, as they exprefled themselves, for the assistance of the Great Spirit. Had heavy rains fallen while General Sullivan's army was advanced into their country, perhaps few of his foldiers would have escaped, and none of their baggage, ammunition, or artillery. This expedition had a good effect. General Sullivan burnt several of their towns and destroyed their provisions. Since this irruption into their country, their former habitations have been mostly deserted, and many of them have gone to Canada.
On the 13th of November, 1787, John Livingston, Esq. and four others, obtained of the Six Nations of Indians a lease for nine hun. dred and ninety-nine years, on a yearly rent reserved of two thousand dollars, of all the country included in the following limits,
viz. Beginning at a place coinmonly known by the name of Canada creek, about seven miles west of Fort Stanwix, now Fort Schuyler, thence north-eastwardly to the line of the province of Quebec; thence along the said line to the Pennsylvania line ; thence east on the said line, Pennsylvania line, to the line of property, so called by the State of New-York; thence along the faid line of property to Canada creek aforesaid. And on the 18th of January, 1788, the fame persons obtained a lease of the Oneida Indians for nine hundred and ninety-nine years, on a rent reserved for the first year, of twelve hundred dollars, and increasing at the rate of one hundred dollars a year, until it amounts to one thousand five hundred dollars, of all the tract of land commonly called the Oneida country, except a reservation of several traas specified in the lease. But these leases having been obtained without the consent of the legis. lature of the State, the Senate and Assembly, in their session, March 1788, resolved, “ That the said leates are purchases of lands, and therefore, that by the constitution of this State, the faid leases are not binding on the said Indians, and are not valid." Since this a treaty has been concluded with the faid Indians, the bargain of the leases annulled, and all the country purchased of the natives, except a reservation to the Oneidas, Cayugas, and Onondagas, defmed by cer. tain marks and boundaries.
SITUATION, EXTENT, &c. This State is fituated between 390 and 41° 24' north latitude, and the greatest part of it lies between the meridian of Philadelphia, and 1° east longitude. It is one hundred and sixty miles long, and fifty-two broad; and is bounded eaft, by Hudson river and the sea; south, by the sea; west, by Delaware bay and river, which die vide it from the States of Delaware and Pennsylvania ; nortlı, by a line drawn from the mouth of Mahakkamak river, in latitude 410 24 to a point on Hudson river in latitude 41°. Containing about eight thousand three hundred and twenty square miles, equal to five million three hundred and twenty-four thousand eight hundred acres.
FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SEA COAST, &c. The countics of Sussex, Morris, and the northern part of Bergen, are mountainous. The South mountain, which is one ridge of the great Allegany range, crosses this State in about latitude 41°. This mountain embofors such amazing quantities of iron ore, that it may not improperly be called the Iron Mountain. The Kittatinny ridge paffes through this State north of the South mountain. Several spurs from these mountains are projected in a southern direction. One passes between Springfield and Chatham; another runs west of it, by Morristown, Baskinridge, and Vealtown. The interior country is, in general, agreeably variegated with hills and vallies. The southern counties which lie along the sea coast, are pretty uniformly flat and sandy. The noted Highlands of Navefink, and Center hill, are almost the only hills within the distance of many miles from the sea coast. The Highlands of Navesink are on the fea voast near Sandy-Hook, in the township of Middleton, and are