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or obtained, in lieu and satisfaction of all services, duties, fines, for feitures, made or to be made, claims or demands whatsoever, to be to us, our heirs or successors, therefor or thereabout rendered, made or paid; any grant or clause, in a late grant to the governor and company of Connecticut colony in America, to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding; the aforesaid Pawcatuck river having been yielded after much debate, for the fixed and certain bounds between these our faid colonies, by the agents thereof; who have also agreed, that the said Pawcatuck river shall also be called alias Narrogancett or Narrogansett river, and to prevent future disputes that otherwise might arise thereby, for ever hereafter shall be construed, deemed, and taken to be the Narrogancett river, in our late grant to Connecticut colony, mentioned as the easterly bounds of that colony. And farther, our will and pleasure is, that in all matters of public controversies, which may fall out between our colony of Cona necticut and Providence Plantation, to make their appeal therein to us, our heirs and successors, for redress in such cases, within this
realm of England: and that it shall be lawful to and for the inhabitants of the said colony of Providence plantation, without lett or inolestation to pass and repass with freedom into and through the rest of the English colonies upon their lawful and civil occasions, and to converse, and hold commerce, and trade with such of the inhabitants of our other English colonies as shall be willing to admit them thereunto, they behaving themselves peaceably among them; any act, clause, or sentence, in any of the said colonies provided, or that shall be provided, to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding. And laftly, we do for us, our heirs and successors, ordain and grant unto the said governor and company, and their successors, by these presents, that these our letters patents shall be firm, good, effectual, and available, in all things in the law, to all intents, constructions and purposes whatsoever, according to our true intent and meaning herein before declared; and shall be construed, reputed and adjudged in all cafes, most favourably on the behalf, and for the best benefit and behoof of the said governor and company, and their successors; although express mention, &c. In witness, &c. witness, &c.
Per ipfum Regem. Since the foregoing sheets went to press, Mr. Cooper's valuable work, entitled " Some Information respecting America,” has been published with his obfervations we fall conclude our account of this State.
• Rhode Island, in point of climate and productions, as well as in appearance, is perhaps the most similar to Great-Britain of any State in the Union. The winters are somewhat longer and more severe, the summers, perhaps, a little warmer : but it participates with Great Britain in fome measure in the defects of climate, being from its situation subject to a moiiter atmosphere * than many of the other States. The soil of Rhode Ifland also (though not in general of a good quality) is too much improved, and the land too much divided to admit of any large contiguous purchases as a speculation, though single farms at a rate comparatively moderate might be procured here: this, however, is owing to a decay of trade in this part of America, and to the inhabitants themselves quitting their fituations for the prospect of a more advantageous trade. It is rather adapted for a grazing than a corn country; fcantily timbered, comparatively plentiful in milk and butter, and cheese; but not abounding in what the Americans term good or rich land. The division of property, however, and its present tendency rather to decrease than increase in value, renders it ineligible for most British settlers.”
* This observation is applicabic to the vicinity of New-York also, where they find that wood intended for use in the southern climates cannot be sufficiently seasoned. In Pennsylvania it may. Indeed this remark will evidently apply to the whole northcræ Iea-coast of America.
SITUATION, EXTENT, AND BOUNDARIES,
HIS State is situated between 41o and 42° 2' north latitude, and 1° 50' and 3° 20' east longitude from Philadelphia. Its length is about eighty-two miles, and its breadth fifty-seven. It is bounded on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Ifland, on the south by the Sound, which divides it from Long-Island, and on the west by the State of New York.
The divisional line between Connecticut and Massachusetts, as settled in 1713, was found to be about seventy-two miles in length, The line dividing Connecticut from Rhode Island was settled in 1728, and found to be about forty-five miles. The sea coast, from the mouth of Paukatuk river, which forms a part of the eastern boundary of Connecticut, in a direct south-westerly line to the mouth of Byram river, is reckoned at about ninety miles. The line between Connecticut and New-York runs from latitude 41° to latitude 42° 2', seventy-two miles. Thus Connecticut contains about four thousand fix hundred and seventy-four square miles, equal to about two millions fix hundred and forty thousand acres.
AIR AND CLIMATE. Connecticut, though subject to the extremes of heat and cold in their seasons, and to frequent sudden changes, is very healthful, The north-west winds, in the winter season, are often extremely fevere and piercing, occasioned by the great body of snow which lies concealed from the diffolving influence of the sun, in the immense forests north and north-west. The clear and ferene temperature of the sky, however, makes amends for the severity of the weather, and is favourable to health and longevity. In the maritime towns the weather is variable, according as the wind blows from the sea or
Jand; but in the interior of the country, the sea breezes having less effect upon the air, confequently the weather is less variable,
FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SEA COAST, &c. Connecticut is generally broken land, made up of mountains, hills, and vallies. It is laid out in finall farins, from fifty to three or four hundred acres each, which are held by the farmers in fec fimple, and are generally cultivated as well as the nature of the soil will admit. The State is chequered with innumerable roads or highways, crossing each other in every direction. A traveller, in any of these roads, even in the most unsettled parts of the State, will seldom pass more than two or three miles without finding a house or cottage, and a farm under such improvements as to afford the neceffaries for the support of a family. The whole State resembles a wellcultivated garden, which, with that degree of induftry that is necessary to happiness, produces the necessaries and conveniencies of life in great plenty; it is exceedingly well watered by numerous rivers, but the principal is that which gives its name to this State ; this we have already described. *
The Housatonick † paties through a number of pleasant towns in this State, and empties into the sound between Stratford and Milford: it is navigable twelve miles to Derby. A bar of shells, at its mouth, obftruéts its navigation for large vessels. In this river, between Salisbury and Canaan, is a cataract, where the water of the whole river, which is one hundred and fifty yards wide, falls about fixty feet perpendicular, in a perfect white fheet, exhibitiog a fcene exceedingly grand and beautiful.
Naugatuk is a small river which rises in Torrington, and empties into the Housatonick at Derby.
The Thames empties into Long-Island found at New-London : it is navigable fourteen miles to Norwich Landing: here it loses its name, and branches into Shetucket on the east, and Norwich or Little river on the west. The city of Norwich stands on the tongue of land between these rivers. Little river, about a mile from its mouth, has a remarkable and very romantic cataract. A rock, ten or twelve feet in perpendicular height, extends quite across the channel of the river over this the whole river pitches, in one entire Dieet, upon a bed of rocks below. Here the river is compressed into
a very narrow channel between two craggy cliffs, one of which towers to a considerable height: the channel descends gradually, is very crooked, and covered with pointed rocks. Upon these the water swiftly tumbles, foaming with the most violent agitation, fifteen or twenty rods, into a broad bason which spreads before it. At the bottom of the perpendicular' falls, the rocks are curiously exca. vated by the constant pouring of the water : fome of the cavities, which are all of a circular form, are five or fix feet deep. The finoothness of the water above its descent--the regularity and beauty of the perpendicular fall--the tremendous roughness of the other, and the craggy, towering cliff which impends the whole presents to the view of the spectator a scene indescribably delightful and majestic. On this river are some of the finest inill seats in New-England; and those immediately below the falls, occupied by Lathrop’s mills, are, perhaps, not exceeded by any in the world. Across the mouth of this river is a broad, commodious bridge, in the form of a wharf, built at a great expense.
Shetucket river, the other branch of the Thames, four miles from its mouth, receives Quinnabogue, which has its source in Brimfield in Massachusetts; thence palling through Sturbridge and Dudley in Massachusetts, it crosses into Connecticut, and divides Pomfret from Killingly, Canterbury from Plainfield, and Lisbon from Preston, and then mingles with the Shetucket. In passing through this hilly country, it tumbles over many falls, two of which, one in Thompfon, the other in Brooklyo, are thirty feet each ; this river affords a vast number of fine mill feats. In its course it receives a great number of tributary streams, the principal of which are Muddy Brook, and Five Mile river. Shetucket river is formed by the junction of Willamantick and Mount Hope rivers, which unite between Wyndham and Lebanon. In Lisbon it receives Little river ; and at a little distance farther the Quinnabogue, and empties as above. These rivers are, indeed, fed by numberless brooks from every part of the adjacent country.-At the mouth of Shetucket is a bridge of timber one hundred and twenty-four feet in length, supported at each end by pillars, and held up in the middle by braces on the top, in the nature of an arch.
Paukatuck river is an inconsiderable stream which heads in Ston nington, and empties into Stonington harbour. It forms part of the dividing line between Connecticut and Rhode-Inand, VOL. II. LI