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In a former war, this tribe lost their lands; but at the commencement of the last war, the Provincial Congress granted them all the lands from the head of the tide in Penobscot river, included in lines drawn fix miles from the river on each side, i. e, a tract twelve miles wide, intersected in the middle by the river. They, however, consider that they have a right to hunt and fish as far as the mouth of the bay of Penobscot extends. This was their original right, , in opposition to any other tribe, and they now occupy it undisturbed, and we hope will continue to to do, till the period fhall arrive when mingled with the rest of the inhabitants, they shall form butone geo neral mass,
SITUATION, EXTENT, AND BOUNDARIES, THE
HE State known by this name lies between 41° and 42° north atitude and 30 and 4° east longitude from Philadelphia ; the length is about fixty-eight miles, and the breadth forty miles; it is bounded on the north and east by the State of Massachusetts, on the south by the Atlantic ocean, and on the west by the State of Connecticut.
AIR AND CLIMATE. This is as healthful a country as any part of North America. The winters in the maritime parts are milder than in the inland country; the air being softened by a sea vapour, which also enriches the soil. The summers are delightful, especially on Rhode Island, where the extreme heats, which prevail in other parts of America, are allayed by cool and refreshing breezes from the sea.
FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SEĄ COAST, &c. Rhode Island, from which the State takes half its name, is thirteen miles in length; its average breadth is about four miles. It is divided into three townfhips, Newport, Portfinouth, and Middletown. This island, in point of soil, climate, and situation, may be ranked among the finest and most charming in the world. In its molt flourishing state it was called by travellers the Eden of America; but the change which the ravages of war and a decrease of business lave elected is great and melancholy. Some of the most ornamental country seats were destroyed, and their fine groves, orchards, ani fruit trees, wantonly cut down : and the gloom of its present decayed flate is heightened by its charming natural situation, and by reficering upon its former g'ory. Providence, in many parts, is
equally pleasant, the whole country being beautifully variegated and plentifully watered.
There is but one mountain in this State, this is in the town of Bristol, called Mount Hope, or (Haup) there is nothing in the appearance of this mount to claim particular attention. Among the rivers the following deserve particular notice :
Providence and Taunton rivers, both of which fall into Narraganset bay, the former on the weit, the latter on the east side of Rhode-Illand. Providence river rises partly in the Massachusetts, and is navigable as far as Providence for ships of nine hundred tons, thirty miles from the sea. Taunton river is navigable for small vessels to Taunton. . The common tides rise about four feet.
Fall river is small, rising in Freetown, and passing through Tiver. ton. The line between the States of Massachusetts and Rhode-Island, passes Fall river bridge. Patuxet river rises in Mathapog pond, and five miles below Providence empties into Narragantet bay. Pautucket river, called more northerly Blackstone's river, empties into Seekhonck river, four miles N. N. E. from Providence, where are the falls hereafter described, over which is a bridge, on the post road to Boston, and forty niiles from thence. The confluent stream empties into Providence river, about a mile below Weyboffett, or the great bridge. Naspatucket river falls into the hay about one mile and a half N. W. of Weyboffet bridge. Mofhaffuck river falls into the fame bay, three-fourths of a mile north of the bridge. These rivers united form Providence river, which, a few miles be. low the town, receives the name of Narraganset bay, and affords fine filh, oysters, and lobsters, in great plenty; the bay makes up from south to north between the main land on the east and west. It embosoms many fertile islands, the appearance of which and of the circumjacent country in the spring and summer seasons, either from the land or water, is extremely beautiful and charming; the principal of these, besides Rhode Island, are Canonnicut, Prudence, Patience, Hope, Dyers and Hog islands. The first of these, viz. Ca. nonnicut island, lies west of Rhode Island, and is fix miles in length, and about one mile in breadth ; it was purchased of the Indians in 1657, and incorporated by an act of assembly by the name of the Idland of Jamestown in 1678.
Prudence island is nearly or quite as large as Canonnicut, and lies north of it, and is a part of the township of Portsmouth,
Block island, called by the Indians Manilles, is twenty-one miles S. S. W. from Newport, and is the southernmoit land belonging to the State ; it was erected into a township, by the name of New Shoreham, in 1672. The inhabitants of this island were formerly noted for making good cheese ; and they catch considerable quantities of cod fish round the ledges near the island.
The harbours in this State are, Newport, Providence, Wickford, Patuxet, Warren, and Bristol, all of which are advantageous, and several of them coinmodious. For the safety and convenience of failing into Narraganfet bay and the harbour of Newport, a lighthouse was erected in 1749 on Beavertail, at the south end of Canona nicut island; the diameter of the base is twenty-four feet, and of the top' thirteen feet; the height from the ground to the top of the cornice is fifty feet, round which is a gallery, and within that stands the lanthorn, which is about eleven feet high and eight feet in diameter. The ground the light-house stands on is about twelve feet above the surface of the sea at high water,
SOIL, PRODUCTIONS, &c. This State, generally speaking, is a country for pasture, and not for grain ; in Rhode Island alone thirty or forty thousand sheep are fed, besides neat cattle and horses, and a like proportion in many other parts of the State. It however produces corn, rye, barley, oats, and in some parts wheat sufficient for home confumption; and the various kinds of graffes, fruits, culinary roots and plants in great abundance, and in good perfection, and cyder is made for exportation. The north-western parts of the State are but thinly inhabited, and are more rocky and barren than the other parts. The tract of country lying between South-Kingston and the Connecticut line, called the Narraganset country, is excellent grazing land, and is inhabited by a number of wealthy farmers, who raise fome of the finest neat cattle in New-England, weighing from sixteen to eighteen hundred weight. They keep large dairies, and make both butter and cheese of the best quality and in very large quantities for exportation. Narraganser has been famed for an excellent breed of pacing horses, retsarkable for their speed and hardiness, and for enduring the fatigues of a journey; this breed of horses has, however, much depreciated of late, the best mares having been purchased by the people from the westward.
The bowels of the earth in this State offer a large recompense to the industrious adventurer. Iron ore is found in great plenty in several parts of the State. The iron works on Patuxet river, twelve miles from Providence, are supplied with ore from a bed four miles and a half distant, which lies in a valley, through which runs 2 brook; the brook is turned into a new channel, and the ore pits are cleared of water hy a steam engine, constructed and inade at the furnace, by and under the direction of the late Joseph Brown, Esq. of Providence, which continues a very useful monument of his mechani. cal genius : at this ore bed are a variety of ores, curious stones, ochres, &c.
At Diamond-Hill, in the county of Providence, which is fo called from its sparkling and fining appearance, there are a variety of peculiar stones, more curious than at present they appear to be useful; but not far from this hill, in the township of Cumberland, is a copper mine, mixed with iron strongly impregnated with loadstone, of which fome large pieces have been found in the neighbourhood : no method has yet been discovered to work it to advantage, or rather, no one has yet been found with sufficient spirit to engage in an undertaking, which, though it might be attended with difficulty at first, could hardly fail, ultimately, of yielding an ample recompense.
An abundance of limestone is found in this State, particularly in the county of Providence, of which large quantities of lime are made and exported. This limestone is of different colours, and is the true marble, of the white, plain, and variegated kinds; it takes a fine polish, and works equal to any in America.
There are several mineral springs in this State, to one of which, near Providence, many people resort to bathe and drink the water.
The waters of this State are equally productive; in the rivers and bays are plenty of sheeps-head, black-fish, herring, fhad, lobsters, oysters, and clams; and around the shores of Rhode Island, besides those already mentioned, are cod, halibut, mackerel, bass, haddock, &c. to the amount of more than seventy different kinds, so that in the seasons of fith the markets present a continual scene of bustle and hurry. Rhode-Ifland is indeed considered by travellers as the best fish market, not only in the United States, but in the world.
CIVIL DIVISIONS, CHIEF TOWNS, &c.