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In the town of Wrentham, about two miles S. E. of the meeting house, is a curious cavern called Wampom's Rock, from an Indian fa. mily of that name who resided in it for a number of years. It is situated on the south side of a hill, and is surrounded by a number of broken rocks. It is nearly square, each fide measuring about nine feet. The height is about eight feet in front, but from the center it leffens to about four feet. At present it serves only as a Mhelter for cattle and fleep, as do one or two other rocks or caves in the town, formerly inhabited by Indians.
Under this article we mention the falls of Powow river, which rise in New-Hampshire, and fall into the Merrimack between Salisbury and Amesbury, in the county of Eflex. At these falls, the descent of the water, in the distance of fifty rods, is one hundred feet, and in its paffage carries one bloomery, five faw mills, seven grist mills, two linfeed oil mills, one fulling mill, and one fouff mill, besides several wheels, auxiliary to different labours. The rapid fall of the water-the dams at very sort distances crossing the river-the various wheels and mills arising almost immediately one over another-and the very irregular and grotesque situation of the houses and other buildings on the adjoining grounds, give this place a romantic appearance, and afford in the whole, one of the most fingular views to be found in this country.
Lynn beach may be reckoned a curiosity. It is one mile in length, and connects the peninsula, called Nahant, with the main land, This is a place of much resort for parties of pleasure from Boston, Charleston, Salem, and Marblehead, in the summer season. The beach is used as a race ground, for which it is well calculated, being level, smooth, and hard.
PUBLIC SOCIETIES. The societies formed in Massachusetts with a view to promote the benefit of mankind, exhibit a fair trait in the character of its inhabitants. Among the first literary institutions in this State, is the
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES.
This society was incorporated May the 4th, 1980. It is declared in the act, that the end and design of the institution is to promote and encourage the knowledge of the antiquities of America, and of the natural history of the country, and to determine the uses to which the various natural productions of the country may be applied; also
to promote and encourage medical discoveries, mathematical difqui. fitions, philosophical inquiries and experiinents; astronomical, meteorological, and geographical observations ; improvements in agriculture, arts, manufacture, commerce, and the cultivation of every science that may tend to advance a frec, independent, and virtuous people. There are never to be more than two hundred members, nor less than forty. This society has four itated annual meetings.
MASSACHUSETTS CHARITABLE SOCIETY.
This society, incorporated December 16th, 1779, is intended for the mutual aid of themselves and families, who may be diftreffed by any of the adverse accidents of life, and for the comforting and relieving of widows and orphans of their deceased members. The members of this society meet annually, and are not to exceed an hundred in number.
BOSTON EPISCOPAL CHARITABLE SOCIETY,
First instituted in 1724, and incorporated February 12, 1984, has for its object, charity 10 such as are of the episcopal churchi, and to fuch others as the society fall think fit; but more especially the relief of thofe who are members of, and benefactors to, the society, and afterwards becoire suitable objects of its charity. The members of this society meet annually, and are not to exceed one hundred in number.
MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOCIETY. This fociety was incorporated November ist, 1781. The design of it is, to promote medical and surgical knowledge, inquiries into the animal economy, and the properties and effets of medicine, by encouraging a free intercourse with the gentlemen of the faculty throughout the United States of America, and a friendly correspondence with the eminent in those professions throughout the world. The number of fellows who are inhabitants of the State, carinot exceed seventy. The present number is fixty-one, and thirteen have died since its establishment. The powers vested in the society are To choose their officers, and enact any laws for their own government which is not repugnant to the laws of the CommonwealthTo use a common seal-To fue and be sued-To hold real estate of the annual income of two hundred pounds, and personal estate of the annual income of fix hundied pounds-To elect, fufpend, expel or
disfranchise any fellows of the society-To describe and point out, from time to time, such a mode of medical instruction or education as they fall judge requisite for candidates for the practice of phyfic and surgery—To examine all candidates who fall offer themselves for examination, respecting their skill in the profeffion-And to give letters testimonial of their approbation to all such as may be duly qualified to practise. *
Committees are appointed in each county to receive communications from, and to correspond with, their medical brethren who are not fellows of this society; and this has led to the formation of several medical associations, whose views are to aid the laudable designs of this important institution.
HUMANE SOCIETY. To evidence their humanity and benevolence, a number of the medical and other gentlemen, in the town of Boston, in 1785, formed a society, by the name of the HUMANE SOCIETY, for the purpose of recovering persons apparently dead, from drowning, suffocation, strangling, and other accidents. This fociety, which was incorporated in 1791, have erected seven huts, furnished with wood, straw, cabbins, tinder boxes, blankets, &c. two on Lovel's island,
ne on Calf island in Boston harbour, two on Nautasket beach, and another on Scituate beach near Marshfield, for the comfort of shipwrecked seamen. Huts of the same kind are erected on PlumIfiand, near Newbury, by the marine society of that place, already mentioned; and there are also some contiguous to Hampton and Salisbury Beach.
At their semi-annual meetings, a public discourse is delivered by some person appointed by the trustees for that purpose, on some medical subject connected with the principal object of the society; and as a stimulus to investigation, and a reward of merit, a medal is adjudged annually by the president and trustees to the person who exhibits the most approved differtation.
SOCIETY FOR PROPAGATING THE GOSPEL. This society, formed for the express purpose of propagating the Gospel among the Indians, and others in North-America, was incor
* The qualifications required of candidates for examination, and the books reRommended by the society, are published in Fleet's Massachusett's Register,
A. D. 1791.
porated November 19, 1787. They are enabled to receive subscrip tions of charitably disposed persons, and may take any personal estate in succession. All donations to the society, either by subscriptions, legacy, or otherwise, excepting such as may be differently appropriated by the donors, to make a part of, or be put into the capital stock of the society, which is to be put out on interest on good security, or otherwise improved to the best advantage, and the income and profits are to be applied to the purposes aforesaid, in such manner as the society shall judge most conducive to answer the design of their institution. For several years past missionaries have been
appointed and supported by the society to visit the eastern parts of the district of Maine, where the people are generally destitute of the means of religious instruction, and to spend the summer months with them. The success of these missions have been highly satisfactory to the focicty. Several thousand books of different kinds, suited to the state of the people, have been purchased by the society's funds, and distributed among them and the Oneida Indians.
A part of this society are a board of commissioners from the Scot's fociety for promoting Christian knowledge among the Indians in America.
MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING AGRICULTURE.
This society was incorporated in 1792, in consequence of which the agricultural committee of the academy is. dissolved. At a late meeting of this society, in Boston, a very considerable sum of money was subscribed for establishing a fund to defray the expense of premiums and bounties, which may be voted by the society.
A society was established in this State in 1791, called the HistoRICAL SOCIETY, the professed design of which is to collect, preserve, and communicate materials for a complete history of this country from the beginning of its settlement.
Next to Pennsylvania, this State has the greatest number of societies for the promotion of useful knowledge and human happiness; and as they are founded on the broad basis of BENEVOLENCE, PATRIOTISM, and CHARITY, they cannot fail to prosper. These inftitutions, which are fast ittcreasing in almost every State in the Union, are so many evidences of the advanced and advancing state of civilization and improveinent in this country, and of the excellence
of our national government. They prove likewise that a free republican government, like that of America, is the most happily calculated to promote a general diffusion of useful knowledge, and the most favourable to the benevolent and humane feelings of the human heart.
LITERATURE, COLLEGES, ACADEMIES, &c. According to the laws of this Commonwealth, every town having fifty householders or upwards, is to be provided with one or more school-masters, to teach children and youth to read and write, and instruct them in the English language, arithmetic, orthography, and decent behaviour; and where any town has two hundred families, there is also to be a grammar school set up therein, and some difcreet person, well instructed in the Latin, Greek and English languages, procured to keep the same, and be suitably paid by the inhabitants. The penalty for neglect of schools in towns of fifty families is ten pounds,—those of one hundred families twenty pounds,--of one hundred and fifty, thirty pounds.
These laws respecting schools are not so well regarded in many parts of the State, as the wife purposes which they were intended to answer, and the happiness of the people require.
In Boston there are seven public schools, supported wholly at the expense of the town, and in which the children of every class of citizens freely associate. In the Latin grammar school the rudiments of the Latin and Greek languages are taught, and boys qualified for the universities; into this school none are admitted till ten years of age, having been previoufly well instructed in English grammar. In the three English grammar schools, the children of both sexes, from feven to fourteen years of age, are instructed in spelling, accenting and reading the English language, both profe and verse, with propriety, also in English grammar and compofition, together with the rudiments of geography ; in the other three the same children are taught writing and arithmetic. These schools are attended alternately, and each of them is furnished with an uther or assistant. The masters of these schools have each a salary of fix hundred and fixty: fix and two-thirds dollars per annum, payable quarterly.
They are all under the immediate care of a committee of twenty-one gentlemen, for the time being, chosen annually, whose duty it is " to visit the schools at least once in three months, to examine the scholars in the various branches in which they are taught, to devise VOL. II. Аа