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State of New-Hampthire.” In each State, the supreme magistrate has the title of “His Excellency."

The President of New Hampshire, like the Governor of Malfachusetts, has not the power of negativing all bills and resolves of the Senate and House of Representatives, and of preventing their passing into laws, unless approved of by two-thirds of the members present. In New-Hampshire “ the President of State presides in the senate,” in Massachusetts the senate choose their own President.

There are no other differences worth mentioning, except it be in the mode of appointing militia officers, in which New Hampshire has greatly the advantage of Massachusetts.

To preserve an adherence to the principles of the constitution, and to make such alterations as experience might point out, and render necessary, provision was made, that at the end of seven years a convention should be called to revise the form of government, agreeably to which, in 1791, a convention was called, who settled the confti. wtion on the same general plan; for which,--fee Massachusetts.

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STATE OF

MASSACHUSETTS,

SITUATION, EXTENT, AND BOUNDARIES.
Massachusetts

, which may be considered as the parent State of New-England, is fituated between 41° 30' and 43° north latitude, and 1° 30' and 5° 40' longitude, east of Philadelphia : its length is about one hundred and twenty-five miles, and its breadth about fifty; it is bounded on the north by the States of Vermont and New. Hampshire, on the east by the Atlantic ocean, on the south by the Atlantic, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, and on the west by NewYork; its air and climate the same as already described in the general account of New-England.*

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FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SEA-COAST, &c. This State, like the other States of New-England, is high and hilly: Wackhurst mountain, in Prince-Town, is at its top two thousand nine hundred and eighty-nine feet from the level of the sea, and the town itself one thousand three hundred and thirty-two feet. The whole state is well watered with numerous rivers and springs; many of the former are of the utmost importance to the inhabitants, by the ready and easy carriage they afford for their different articles of produce.

Houfatonick river rises from several sources in the western parts of this State, and flows foutherly through Connecticut into Long Island found. Deerfield river falls into Connecticut river, from the west, between Deerfield and Greenfield. A most excellent and beautiful. tract of meadow lies on its banks. Westfield river empties into the Connecticut at West-Springfield. Connecticut river pafses through. this State, and interfects the county of Hampshire: in its course it runs over the falls above Deerfield, and between Northampton and Springfield. A company, by the name of “ The Proprietors of the

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Locks and Canals on Connecticut river," was incorporated by the general court in 1792, for the purpose of rendering Connecticut river passable for boats and other things, from Chicapee river north, ward to New Hampshire. Miller's and Chicapee rivers fall into Connecticut on the east side; the former at Northfield, the latter at Springfield.

In the eastern part of the State is the Merrimack, which we have already in part described. It is navigable for vefsels of burden about twenty miles from its mouth, where it is obstructed by the first falls, or rapids, called Mitchell's Eddy, between Bradford and Haverhill. Valt quantities of thip timber, ranging timber, plank, deals, clapboards, shingles, Itaves, and other lumber, are brought down in rafts, fo constructed as to pass all the falls in the river except those of Amuikaeg and Pantucket. In the spring and summer confiderable quantities of salmon, Mhad, and alewives are caught, wirich are either used as bait in the cod fillery, or pickled and shipped to the West Indies. There are twelve ferries across this river in the county of Eflex. The bar across the mouth of this river is a very great incumbrance to the navigation, and is especially terrible to strangers. There are sixteen feet water upon it at common tides. In 1787 the general court granted a sum of money for the erection of two fufficient light-houses, and made the maintenance of them a public charge. The houses are of wood, and contrived to be removed at pleasure, so as to be always conformed to the shifting of the bar ; and thus the single rule of bringing them in a line will be the only necessary direction for vessels approaching the harbour, and by this direction they may fail with safety until they are abreast of the lights, where is a bold shore and good anchoring ground. The bridges over this river will be mentioned under that head.

Nashua, Concord, and Shawlleen rivers rise in this state, and run a north-easterly course into the Merrimack. Parker's river takes its rise in Rowley, and after a course of a few miles, passes into the found which separates Plum Island from the main land. It is navi. gable about two miles from its mouth. Ipswich and Chebacco rivers pass through the town of Ipswich into Ipswich bay. Mistick river falls into Boston harbour, east of the peninsula of Charlestown: it is navigable three miles to Medford.

Charles river is a considerable stream, the principal branch of which rises from a pond bordering on Hopkinton: it passes through Holliston and Bellingham, and divides Medway from Medfield,

Wrentham,

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Wrentham and Franklin, and thence into Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forns a peninsula of nine hundred acres of land; and what is very singular, a stream called Mother Brook, runs out of this river, in this town, and falls into Neponset river, which answers to a canał uniting the two rivers, and affords a number of excellent inill seats. From Dedhain the course of the river is northerly through Newton, passing over romantic falls-it then bends to the north-east and east, through Watertown and Cambridge, and passes into Boston harbour, between Charlestown and Boston : it is navigable for boats to Watertown seven miles..

Neponset river originates chiefly from Muddy and Punkapog Ponds in Stonghton, and Mashapog Pond in Sharon, and after passing over falls sufficient to carry mills, unites with other small streams, and forms a very constant supply of water for the many mills situated on the river below, until it meets the tide in Milton, from whence it is navigable for vessels of one hundred and fifty tons burthen to the bay, diftant about four miles. Neponfet river, from Milton to the Bay, forms a regular and beautiful ferpentine, interspersed with hillocks of wood so regularly placed, that from Milton Hill it affords one of the finest prospects in the world. Paffing Fore and Back rivers in Weymouth, you come to North river, which rises in Indian-Head pond, in Pembroke, and running in a serpentine course between Scituate and Marshfield, passes to the sea. This river for its fize is remarkable for its great depth of water, it being in some places not more than forty or fifty feet wide, and yet vessels of three hundred tons are built at Pembroke, eighteen miles, as the river runs, from its mouth. This river is navigable for boats to the first fall, five miles from its source in Indian-Head pond; thence to the nearest waters which run into Taunton river is only three miles. A canal to connect the waters of these two rivers, which communicate with Narraganset and Massachusetts bays, would be of great utility, as it would save a long and dangerous navigation round Cape Cod.

Taunton river is made up of several streams which unite in or near the town of Bridgwater. Its course is from N. E. to S. W. till it falls into Narraganfet bay at Tiverton, opposite the north end of Rhode Island. It receives a confiderable tributary stream at Taunton from the north-west. The head waters of Pantucket and Providence rivers in Rhode Island, and of Quinnabaug and Shetucket rivers in Connecticut, and several other inferior streains, which run in va rious directions and answer various purposes, are in this State.

The

The only capes of note on the coast of this state, are Cape Ann on the north side of Massachusetts bay, and Cape Cod on the south. Cape Cod, so called from the quantity of cod fifti which are found on its coast, is the south-easterly part of the commonwealth of Massachusetts : in shape it resembles a man's arm when bended with the hand turned inward towards the body. The Cape comprehends the county of Barnstable, and is between seventy and eighty miles in length.

Province-town is the hook of the Cape, and is generally narrow, the widest place not being more than three miles in extent. The harbour, which is one of the best in the State, opens to the southward, and has depth of water for any ships. This place has often been in a state of rapid improvement, and as often gone to decay; it is now rising. It contains about ninety families, whose whole dependence is upon the sea for their support: they employ about twenty sail of vessels, great and finall, in the cod fishery: they have been remarkably successful of late. Ten of their vessels employed in 1790 upon the grand Bank, took eleven thousand quintals of cod fiili. They have scarce lost a vessel or a man in the business since the war.

The houses stand upon the inner fide of the hook of the Cape, fronting south-east, and looking into the harbour : they are finall, one story high, and set up on blocks or piles, that the driving sands may pass under them, otherwise they would be buried in fand. The houses stand in one range upon the beach; the flakes on which they dry their fish are round them; the vessels run in upon the shore, which is a soft sand, throw their fish over, where they are wallied from the falt, and carried up to the flakes on hand-barrows.

They raise nothing from their lands, but are wholly dependent upon Boston market and other places for every kind of vegetable production.

There are but two horses and two yoke of oxen kept in the town: they have about fifty cows, which feed in the spring upon beach grafs, which grows here and there upon the fliore; and in summer they feed in the sunken ponds and marshy places, that are found be. tween the sand hills. Here the cows are seen wading, and even swimming, plunging their heads into the water up to their horns, picking a scanty subsistence from the roots and herbs produced in the water. They are fed in the winter on sedge cut upon the flats.

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