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United States of America.
GRAND DIVISIONS OF THE UNITED STATES.
HE AMERICAN REPUBLIC, of which we have in the preceding volume given a general account, consists of three grand divisions, denominated the NORTHERN, or more properly EASTERN, MIDDLE, and SOUTHERN States.
The first division, the Northern or Eastern States, comprehenda
to Massachusetts, These are called the New-England States, and comprehend that part of America, which, since the year 1614, has been known by the name of New-ENGLAND.
The second division, the Middle States, comprehends
TERRITORY, N. W. of Ohio.
The third division, the Southern States, comprehends
TERRITORY S. of Ohio,
SITUATION, BOUNDARIES, &c. New-exch
Ew-ENGLAND lies between 41 and 46 degrees N. Lat. and between 1 degree 30 minutes, and 8 degrees E. Lon. from Philadelphia; and is bounded north by Lower-Canada; eait, by the province of New-Brunswick, and the Atlantic Ocean; fouth, by the same ocean, and Long-Island sound; west, by the State of New-York. It lies in the form of a quarter of a circle. Its west line, beginning at the mouth of Byram river, which empties into Long Island sound at the south-west corner of Connecticut, lat. 41 degrees, runs a little east of north, until it strikes the 45th degree of latitude, and then curves to the eastward almost to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Its climate is very healthful, as is evinced by the longevity of the inhabitants; for it is estimated that about one in seven of them live to the age of seventy years; and about one in thirteen or fourteen to eighty years and upwards.
North-west, weit, and south-wert winds, are the moft prevalent, East and north-east winds, which are unelastic and disagreeable, are frequent at certain seasons of the year, particularly in April and May, on the sea coasts. The weather is less variable than in the Middle and especially the Southern States, and more so than in Canada. The extremes of heat and cold, according to Fahrenheit's thermometer, are from 20° below, to 100° above o. The medium is from 48 to 50°. The inhabitants of New-England, on account of the dryness of their atmosphere, can endure, without inconvenience; a greater degree of heat than the inhabitants of a moister climate, It is supposed by some philofophers, that the difference of moisture in the atmosphere in Pennsylvania and New England is fuch, as that a person might bear at leait ten degrees of heat more in the latter than in the former.
The quantity of raia which falls in England annually, is computed to be twenty-four inches; in France eigliteen inches, and in NewEngland from forty-eight to fifty inches; and yet in New-England they suffer more from drought than in either of the forementioned countries, although they have more than double the quantity of rain. These facts evince the remarkable dryness of the atmosphere in this