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the emperor of Morocco. After three several examinations of her papers, which were fair, he dismissed her, though he afterwards believed she was authorised to capture Americans. He arrived at Gibraltar 12th September, and immediately found work to fill his hand in the position of our affairs with Morocco. Captain Bainbridge had, on the 26th August, captured the Moorish ship Mirboka of 22 guns and 100 men. This ship had sailed from Tangier August 7th. Among her papers was an order to cruise for Americans. It was not signed, but declared by the captain to have been delivered to him sealed, with a direction to open it at sea, by Hashash, governor of Tangier. She had taken the American brig Celia, captain Bowen, which was then in company, and which captain Bainbridge retook and restored to the owner. The last of May captain Rogers had detained the Mishouda, a Tripolitan vessel under Morocco colours. She had a passport from the American consul, with a reserve for blockaded ports. She was taken attempting to go into Tripoli, which captain Rogers, in the John Adams, was known to be blockading. On board her were guns and other contraband articles not in her when she received her passport at Gibraltar; also 20 Tripoline subjects taken in at Algiers. The appearance was that she had been taken under the imperial flag for the purpose of being restored to our enemy. The emperor denied authorising the attempt of the Mishouda, and said if she was given up the captain should be punished. The governor Hashash on learning the capture of the Mirboka, at which time the emperor was absent, declared she acted without authority, and that war was not intended. At the same time her captain certified that this governor gave him his orders. Hashash was, and continued to be in the confidence of Muley Soliman. He had said “do what you please and I will support you.” a The next day after his arrival, commodore Preble wrote to the consul Simpson at Tangier, desiring him to assure the Moorish court, that the United States wished peace with his majesty, if it could be had on proper terms—that he could not suppose the emperor's subjects would dare to make war without his permission; but as their authority was disavowed by the governor, he should punish as a pirate every Moorish cruiser, who should be found to have taken an American. WOL. iii.
Commodore Rogers, on whom the command of the former squadron under Morris devolved, and who was under orders to return to the United States with the frigates New-York and John Adams, agreed to remain a few days on the station, and to join commodore Preble in Tangier bay, to assist in effecting an adjustInnent. On the 17th, taking into his ship the principal Moorish officers of the two prizes, he appeared, with the Constitution and John Adams, in Tangier bay, hoisting the white flag in token of peace, but having the men at quarters. Mr. Simpson, however, was not permitted to come on board, nor to write except on an open slip of paper; being confined to his house, with two centinels at his door, by order, as was said, of the governor of Tangier. The governor was at Tetuan, and the emperor was absent at Fez and not expected for several days. Another act of hostility had been done at Mogadore, by an order to detain all American vessels, and the actual seizure of the brig Hannah of Salem, Joseph M. Williams master. The commodore was confirmed on the propriety and benefit of
a high tone and vigorous measures. He observes, in his commu
nications to the government, “that all the Barbary powers, except Algiers, appear to have a disposition to quarrel with us, unless we tamely submit to any propositions they may choose to make. Their demands will increase, and be such as our government ought not to comply with.”—“They send out their cruisers—if they prove successful it is war, and we must purchase peace, suffering them to keep all they have taken; and if they are unfortunate, and we capture their cruisersbefore they have taken any thing valuable, it is not war, although the orders for capturing are found on board; and we must restore all.” This he believed ought not, and need not be suf. fered. It was equally disgraceful and impolitic for a nation, whose navigation and commerce were second in the world, and whose resources of skill and courage are abundant, to allow these barbarians to think they might have peace on any terms they might please to dictate. Under these impressions he did not hesitate to use his discretion, although specific instructions on this subject were not given, and follow his own ideas of what expediency and honour required,
taking a firm attitude towards the agressor. This he would have done and risked the consequences, if he had been backed by no force other than that of his peculiar squadron. The consent of commodore Rogers to cooperate with the two frigates under his control, left no room for question. Our officer believed the emperor of Morocco had long meditated to make war when a pretext should be furnished, and a prospect of impunity offered. It was essential he should know the system of concession was abandoned. Accordingly the commodore took a decided course. He gave orders to his squadron to bring in for examination all vessels belonging to the emperor and his subjects; despatched three vessels to cruise off Mogadore, Salee and Zarach, and one off Tetuan, and entered the bay of Tangier at several times. That the Tripolitans might not think they were forgotten, he despatched the Philadelphia and Vixen to lie before Tripoli. The consul, Simpson, made representations to the emperor, who was absent, before and after the arrival of commodore Preble, explaining our hostile movements. The answers received were general, but showed that if he had authorised war, he was now prepared to disavow it; and if the orders for the capture and detention of American vessels had been the acts of his governor, given under a general discretion, he would refuse his sanction. The excessive bad weather obliged our officer to keep harbour in Gibraltar several days. When this permitted, he was cruising, occasionally standing in to Tangier bay. On the 5th of October, when his majesty was expected, he anchored, with the Nautilus in company, in Tangier bay—the circular battery at the town W. 4 S. 14 miles distant. Here he remained, only changing his ground once to be nearer the town, until peace was concluded. He was joined in the afternoon of the 6th by the frigates New-York and John Adams. The ship was kept constantly cleared for action, and the men at quarters night and day. On the 6th his majesty arrived with a great body of troops, horse and foot, estimated at 5,000, who encamped on the beach opposite the squadron. The consular flag on shore indicating that the emperor had come and was in view of the ship, the commodore was careful to order the ship dressed and a salute of 21 guns, which was returned from the fort with an equal number, as was the salute of the other frigates in the morning fol
lowing. The consul gave information, that when the emperor's minister arrived the negotiation would be opened. A present (of bullocks, sheep and fowls) was ordered for the squadron, as a token of the emperor's good will. On the 8th, the emperor, with his court and a large body of troops, visited the beach and batteries on the bay for the purpose of viewing the United States squadron, when the Constitution saluted again with 21 guns—a compliment with which the king and court, as the consul reported, were very much gratified. The present arriving at the same time, it was acknowledged by three guns, according to Moorish custom. The Moorish captain of the port and several respectable Moors, friends to the prisoners on board, came off to see their friends. The following day the consul gave notice that the emperor had given an order under his hand and private seal, to the governor of Mogadore, for the release of the American brig detained at that place, and that Monday was appointed for giving an audience to the commodore and consul. On the day assigned, the 11th, the commodore, accompanied by col. Lear, Mr. Morris, as secretary, and two midshipmen, landed at Tangier for the proposed audience. He believed there was no danger in landing; but he expressed his desire, that if he should be forcibly detained, the commanding officer on board would not
enter into treaty for his release, or consider his personal safety;
but open a fire upon the town. They were ushered into the castle
and the presence of the sovereign through a double file of guards. The commodore at the entrance was requested, according to Moorish custom in such cases, to dispose of his side-arms. He said he must comply with the custom of his own country, and retain them, which was allowed. On coming into the imperial presence, our officer and the consul were requested to advance near the emperor, with whom they conversed by an interpreter. He expressed much sorrow and regret that any differences had arisen, for he was at peace with the United States. He disavowed having given any hostile orders; said he would restore all American vessels and property detained in consequence of any act of his governors, and renew and confirm the treaty made with his father in 1786–The commodore and consul, on the part of the United States, promised that the vessels and property of the emperor should be restored,
and the orders of capture revoked. They proceeded to an interview with the minister, where the details were settled. The mutual stipulations were forthwith executed, the Mirboka being appraised, with a view to the indemnification of the captors by our government. The commodore received a formal ratification of the treaty of 1786, and a letter of friendship and peace to the president, signed by the emperor. Thus by the happy union of prudence and energy, seconded by a competent force, we escaped war with a power, from his situation formidable, and placed our affairs with him in a better condition than before the variance. The commodore acknowledges his obligations to his coadjutors, observing, “In the whole of this business I have advised with col. Lear, Mr. Simpson, and commodore Rogers. I am confident we have all been actuated by the same motive, the good of our country.” (To be continued.)
For THE PORT FOLIO.
STORY OF AMELLA HOWARD.
That clandestine marriages are generally productive of unhappiness, is an observation which the experience of every year proves to be just. The act of obtaining a wife surreptitiously is by many deemed heroic, and praiseworthy; but by none, I may venture to assert, but those whose minds have received on improper bias from unprincipled associates, or from seductive books and amusements. It is not surprising that a union thus secretly effected should often disappoint the fond and romantic hopes of the intrepid adventurers. They set out in the full idea of enjoying that happiness which they imagine is centred in themselves; and resolve to make up in love what they may lose in the good opinion of their friends. Hence they are very apt to overrate the passion: and, upon being convinced of error, vent their disappointment in sighs, up
braidings, and tears.