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where through such occupations it hath so many, and eke so wealthy cities, that it were almost incredible so litle grounde to sustaine so much people. Wherefore in my minde they are far wide of right consideration, that would haue either none, or lesse clothing within this realme, because it is sometime occasion of bu. sines and tumults, which commeth for lacke of vent. There is nothing euery way so commodious or necessary for mans vse, but it is sometimes by ill handling occasion of some displeasure, no not fier and water, that be so necessary as nothing can be more.

Knight. Yea, maister Doctor we stand not in like case as Fraunce or Flaunders that yee speake of, if they haue not vente one way, they may haue it another way alwaies, for the firme land is rounde about them in maner. If they bee at warre with one neyghbour) they will bee friendes with another to whose countreyes they may sende theyr commodities to sell.

Doctor. So may wee bee, if wee were so wyse, as to keepe one friende or other alwayes in hande. Who will be so mad, being

a priuate man, but hee will bee sure to doe so. Let wyse men Aliance

nce consider what friendes this realme hath had in time past. And if with straungers they bee nowe lost or intercepted another way since, let vs purchase are to be other for them, or els geue as litle occasion of breache with our purcased neyghbours as may bee. The wise man as I remember, sayth in and kept.

pe Ecclesiastes, Non est bonum homini esse solum. Whether Knight. Also in Fraunce they haue diuerse bandes of men in great ar. armes, in diuerse places of the realme, to represse such tumults

as quickely if any should arise. If wee had the like heere, wee necessary qu: heere as in might bee boulde to haue as many artificers as they haue. . Fraunce. Husband. God sworbote, that euer wee should haue any such

tyrauntes come among vs; for as they say, such will in the countrey of Fraunce take poore mens hennes, chikens, pigges, and other prouision, and pay nothinge for it, except it bee an ill turne, as to rauishe hys wyfe, or hys daughters for it: and euen in like manner sayd the marchaunt man, adding thereto, (Marchauut) that hee thought that woulde rather bee an occasion of commocions to bee stirred then to bee quenched. For (as hee sayd) the stomacks of Englishemen would neuer beare, to suffer such iniuries, and reproches, as hee hearde that such vsed to doe to the subiects of Fraunce, which in reproche they call pesaunts.

Knight. Mary, the Prince nsight restrayne them well ynough, for doing outrages upon great paynes.

Doctor. What if it were skant in his power to do: the Romaines had sometimes such men of armes in diuers places for defence of the empyre, it was thought, that at length it ouer threwe the same. Iulius Cæsar doth that declare, and many times after that when the Emperors died, the men of warre erected what empe

ror they lysted, sometime of a Slaue or a Bondman contrary to the election of the senate of Rome, being chiefe counsaylors of the empyre, till the whole empyre was cleane destroyed: it is not for commotions of subiects, that Fraunce also keepeth such : but the state and necessity of the countrey, which is inuironed about with enemies, and neither sea nor wall betwene them, against whose inrodes and inuasion they mayntayne those men of warre of necessity. They would faine lay them downe, if they durst for fear of their neighbours. And some wyse men among them haue sayd and written, that the same men of armes may bee the distruction of their kingdome at length. And beside that the largenesse of our dominion or situation of the same towarde other countreyes, doth not require such men, nor yet the reuenewes of this realme is able , to make vp the like number with Fraunce. And then if we should make a lesse number, wee should declare our selues inferiour in power to Fraunce, to whom wee haue bene hitherto counted superiour in successes, through the stoutenesse of our Englishe hearts. And therefore I would not haue a small sore cured by a greater A les griefe, nor for auoidinge of populer sedicion, which happeneth griefe very seldome and soone quenched, to bring in a continuall yoake Yvould not and charge, both to the prince and the people.

be holpen Knight. You say well, and so as I can say no more against great sore. your sentence, but yet I would wishe your saying could satisfie other men as well as it doth mee.

Doctor. Well, it is nowe tyme to make an ende. I haue troubled you heere with a tedious and longe talke. - Knight. I could be content to be troubled longer of that sorte.

Marchaunt and Capper. And so coulde wee, though it were all this day, but for troubling of your selfe gentle maister Doctor.

Knight. Yet the most necessary pointe which 'wee spake of is yet behinde, that is, how these thinges may be remedied: and therefore wee will not goe from you till we haue bearde your aduice heerein.

Doctor. A Gods name, I will shewe my phantasie in that part: but let vs first goe to supper. And so wee went together to our supper, where our hoste had prepared honestly for vs.

with a









que comedy he propecounting for the pre

and that

The Third Dialogue commences by the Knight praying the Doc-'

tor to shew them what remedy he proposed to the griefs which had Howe one been she

ne been shewn, whereupon the Doctor recounting the griefs and the thing is occasions of them, and the necessity of searching for the original cause of cause, then proceeds: There is some one thing that is the oryanother,

i of ginall cause of these causes, that be as it were secondary and the third. makes them to be the causes of other, as I take the reising of al

prises of victauls at the husbandmans hand, is cause of the reysing of the rent of his land. And that gentlemen fall so much to take fearmes to theyr hands least they bee driuen to buy theyr prouision to deare, that is a great cause againe that inclosure is the more vsed ; for gentlemen hauynge much land in their hand, and not being able to weild all and see it manured in husbandry, which requyreth the industıy, laboure, and gouernaunce of a greate many of persons, doe connerte moste of that laude to pastures, wberein is requyred both lesse charge of persons, and of the which neuerthelesse commeth more cleare games. Thus one thynge hanges vpon another, and sets forward one another, but one fyrst of all is the chiefe cause of all is the chiefe cause of all this circuler motion and impulsion. I shewed ere while, that the chiefe cause was not in the husbandman, nor yet in the gentleman. Let vs see whether it were in the niarchaunt man. It appeares by reason that all wares bought of him are dearer now fare then they were wont to be, the husbandman is dryuen to sel his commodities dearer: now that the matter is brought to niaister inarchaunt, how can ye auoyd the cause from being in you.

Marchaunt. Sir easly ynough for as wee sell nowe dearer all thinges then wee were wont to do. So wee buy dearer all thinges of straungers, and therefore let them put the matter from vs, for we disburden ourselues of this fault.

Doctor. And they be not here to make aunswere, if they were, I would aske them why they sell their wares dearer nowe

then they were wont to doe. were tou. Marchaunt. Mary and to that I hearde many of them aunswere ching this er this (when they were asked that question) two maner of wayes.

One was they selled in deede no dearer than they were wont to do;

The straungers auns

dearth. /

gaying for proofe thereof that they woulde take for theyr commodities, as much and no more of our commodities then they were wont to do. As for our tod of woll they would gieue asmuch Wine, Spice or Silke as they were wont to geue for so much. Yea for an ounce of our siluer or golde, as much siuffe as ener was geuen for the same : and their other aunswere was that if we reckened they did sell their wares dearer because they demaunded moe pieces of our coyne for the same then they were wont to do, that was not their fault they saide but oures, that made our pieces lesse or lesse worth then they were in tymes past. Therefore they demaunded the moe pieces of them for their Wares, saying, they caried not what names wee woulde gieue our coynes, they would consider the quantitie and right value of it, that they were esteemed at, euery where through the world.

Knight. Then I woulde haue aunswered them there of this sort. If they came hether but for our commodities, what made it the matter to them, what quantitie or value our coyne were, if so they might haue as niuch of our commodities for the same as they were woni to do. If they came againe for our siluer and golde, it was neuer lawfull nor yet is expedient they should haue any from us. Wherefore I woulde thinke that was no cause why they should sell theyr wares dearer then they were wonte to doe. · Doctor. Then he might haue aunswered againe, that it chaunsed not all wayes together, that when they had wares whych we wanted, we had againe al those wares that they looked for. And therefore they hauinge percase more wares necessarie for vs, then we had of such wares as they looked for, would be glad to receiue of us such stuffe currant in most places, as might buy that they looked for elsewhere at their pleasure ; and that they will say is not our coyne. And as for our lawes of not transporting ouer sea any gold or siluer, they passed not thereof, so they mighte haue the same ones conueyed thein, as they had many waies to haue it so, which I haue before remembred. Finally hee miglit say that wee had not in deede our coyne in that estate our selues, that by the name they pretended, but esteemed both the value and quantity of the stuffe it was made of. For if they had brought vnto vs halfe an ownce of siluer, wee would not take it for an ownce: nor if they brought vs brasse mingled with siluer, we would not take it for pure syluer, and if we would not take it so at theyr handes, why shoulde they take it otherwise at ours. Then they saw no man heere but woulde rather haue a cup of siluer then of brasse, no not the maister of our mints though they woulde otherwise perswade the one to be as good as the other. Wherfore seing vs esteeme the one in deede better then the other, as all the world doth beside, why should they not esteeme our coine after the quantity and value of the substaunce

thereof, both after the rate it was esteemed amonge vs, and also euery other where. And so as in moe pieces now there is but the value that was in fewer pieces afore, therefore they demaunded greater number of pieces, but yet the like value in substaunce that they were wont to demaund for their wares. Now let vs see whether now goeth the cause of this matter ? from the straungers : for me thinkes he hath resonably excused himselfe, and put it from him.

Knight. By your tale it must bee in the coine, and consequently in the kynges highnes by whose commaundement the same was altered.

Doctor. Yea percase it goes further yet, yea to such as were the first counsailours of that deede, pretending it should bee to his highnes greate and notable commoditye, which if his grace mought haue perceiued to haue ben but a momentain profit, and continuall losse both to his highnes and also hys whole realme. He with his people might haue ben easely reuoked againe, from the practise of that simple deuise : but as a man that entendeth to heale an other by a medecine that he thinkes good, thoughte it proue otherwise, is not much to be blamed: no more was the kinges maiesty in any wyse, (in whose time this was don, which is not to be supposed to haue intended thereby any losse, but rather commoditye to him selfe and his subiects) io be herein reprehended albeit the thing succeded beside the purpose.

Knight. Then ye thinke plainely that this alteration of the coyne was the chiefe and principall cause of this vniuersall dearth, · Doctor. Yea, no doubt, and of many of the sayd grieues that we haue talked of, by meanes, it being the oryginall of all,

and that beside the reason of the thing, being playne inough of That the alteration

hit self: also experience and proofe doth make it more playne. of the for euen with the alteration of the coyne began this dearth, and coyne was as the coyne appayred so rose the prices of thinges with all :

E and this to be true, the few pieces of olde coyne which afcause of this dearth tеrward remained, did testefie. For ye should haue for any and conse of that same coyne as much of any ware either outward or quently of ingrard

19 of inward as euer was wont to be had for the same. For as the other griefs euer measure is made lesse, there goeth more number to make since that vp the tale, and because this reised not together at all mens time.

handes, therfore some hath greate losses and some other greate games thereby, and that made such a generall grudge for the thinge at the fyrst tyme. And thus to conclude I thinke this alteration of the coine to haue ben the first originall cause, that straungers first sould their wares dearer to vs, and that made all farmors, and tenaunts, that reared any commodity againe, to sell the same dearer.

the very

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