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chaunce any barren yeares of corne to fall, wee should bee assuered to finde as greate extremity in the price of corne from that it was wont to bee, as we finde now in the prices of other victayle. And specially if we haue not ynough to serve within the realme, which may happen hereafter more likely then in time past, by reason that there is much lande since turned to pasture, for euery man wil seeke where most aduauntage is, and they see there is most aduauntage in grasing and breeding, then in husbandry and tillage by a great deale. And so longe as it is so, the pasture shall neuer incroch upon tillage, for all the lawes that euer can be made to the contrary.

Knight. And how thinke yee that this might be remedied then ?

Doctor. To make the profit of the plough to be as good, rate for rate, as the profit of the grasier and sheepe maister is.

Knight. How coulde that be done?

Doctor. Mary, I coniecture two manner of wayes, but I feare How inclome the deuises shall seeme at the first blush so displeasaunt vnto siers may

be remeyou ere yee consider it throughly, that yee will reiect them ere yee a examyne them : for we talke now, to haue things good cheape : out conand then if I should mencion a meane that should make some straint of thinges deerer for the time I should be anone reiected, as a man law that spake against euery man's purpose.'

Knight. Yet say your minde and spare not, and though your reason at the first seeme vnreasonable, yet we will heare whether yee can bring it to any reasonable ende. .

Doctor. Remember what we haue in hande to treate of, not how the prices of thinges ouely may bee brought downe: but howe these inclosures may bee broken vp, and husbandry more vsed : of the prices of thinges we shall speake, heereafter. , ,

Knight. We will remember well that.

Doctor. What maketh men to multiply pastures and inclosures gladly?

Knight. Mary, the profit that groweth thereby.

Doctor. It is very true and none other thinge. Then finde the meanes to doe one of these two thinges that I shall tell you. And yee shall make them as glad to exercise tillage, as they doe nowe pastures.

Knight. What be those two thinges ?

Doctor. Mary, either make as litle gaynes to growe by the pastures as there groweth by the tillage. Or els make that there may growe as much profit by tillage as did before by the pastures, and then I doubt not but tillage shall be aswell cherished of euery man as pasture.

Knight. And how may that be done ?
Doctor. Mary, the first way is to make the wooll to be of as


base pryce to the breeders thereof, as the corne is: and that shalbe,

if yee make a like restraint of it for passing ouer sea, vnwrought as That a yee make of corne : another is to increase the custome of wooll like re

that passeth ouer vowrought. And by that the price of it shalbe straint of wool abated to the breeders, and yet the price ouer sea shalbe neuershuld be theless; but that which is increased in the pryce thereof on straunmade as is gers shall come to the Queenes highnesse, which is as profitable of corne, or none to to the realme as though it came to the breeders, and might relieue be sent them of other subsidies. Thus farre as touchinge the bringing

downe of the price of woolles, now to the inhaupsinge of the price of corne, to be as good to the husbandman as wooll should be, and that might be brought to passe if yee wil let it haue as free passage ouer sea at all times, as yee haue now for wooll.

Marchaunt. By the first two wayes, men woulde send lesse wooll ouer sea then they doe nowe, and by that way the Queenes custome should be dyminished: by your latter way the price of corne should be much enhaunced, wherewith men would be inuch grieued.

Doctor. I wot well it woulde bee deere at the firste, but if I can perswade you that it were reasonable it were so, and that the same could bee noe hinderaunce to the realme vniuersally, but greater profit to the same, then I thinke yee would be content it shoulde be so : and as touchinge the Queenes custome I will speake afterward.

Marchaunt. I graunte if yee coulde shewe mee that.

Doctor. I will assay it, albeit the matter bee somewhat intricate, and as I shewed you before, at the first vew'would displease many, for they would say, woulde yee make corne deerer then it

is, haue we not dearth ynough els without that? Nay I pray you Reasons finde the meanes to haue it better cheape if it may bee, it is deere why the husband. ynough already, and such other like reasons would be sayd. But man should now let the husbandman aunswere such againe. Haue not you be at like grasiers j'aysed the price of your woolles, and felles : and you liberty as other Les marchauntien, clothiers, and cappers, raysed the price of your sell his marchaundize and wares, ouer it was wont to bee in manner dou

ble, is it not as good reason then that we should raise the price of our corne : what reason is it you should be at large and wee to bee restrayned. Eyther let vs all bee restrayned to gether, or els let vs bee ail at lyke liberty, yee may sell your wooll ouer sea, your felles, your tallow, your cheese, your butter, and your leather, (which ryseth all by grasing) at your pleasure, and for the deerest penny yee can get for them. And we shall not sel out our corne, except it be at ten pence the bushell or vnder, that is as much to say, as wee that be husbandmen shal not sell our ware except it be for nothing, or for so litle as we shal not be able to liue thereon,


Thiuke rot speake, Hauke you ould doe


Thinke you if the husbandman heere had spoke these words, that he did not speake them somewhat reasonable...

Husband. I thanke you withall my heart, for yee haue spoken. in the matter more then I could doe my selfe, and yet nothing but that is most true. Wee felt the harme, but wee wist not what was the cause thereof, many of vs sawe well long agoe that our profit was but small by the plough, and therefore diuerse of my neighbours that had in time past some two, some three, some foure ploughes of their owne, haue layde downe some of them part, and some of them all their teeines, and turned either parte or al their erable ground to pasture, and thereby haue waxed very riche men. And every day some of vs incloseth soine part of his ground to pasture; and were it not that our grounde lyeth in the common That by fieldes, entermingled one with another, I thinke also our fieldes breeding

the hus. had bene enclosed of common agreement of all the towneship band longe or this time. And to say the very truth, I that haue inclosed hath most litle or nothing of my ground, coulde neuer be able to make vp cleare my lords rent, were it not for a litle herd that I haue of neate, sheepe, swyne, geese, and hennes, that I doe reare vpon my grounde. Whereof because the price is somewhat round : I make more cleare profit then I doe of all my corne, and yet I haue but a very bare liuing, by reason that many thinges doe belong to husbandry, which bee now exceeding charge-able ouer they were in tyme past.

Capper. Though this reason of maister Doctors here doth please you well that be husbandmen, yet it pleaseth vs that be artificers nothing at all, which buy must both breade corne, and malte corne for our peny: and whereas ye maister Doctor say that it were as goode reason that the husbandman should reyse the price of his corne, and haue as free vente of the same ouer sea, as we doe and haue of our wares, I cannot greately deny ;- but that yet I say that euery man hath neede of corne, but they haue not so much of other wares.

Doctor. Therefore the more necessary that corne is, the more bee the men to be chearished that reareth it: for if they see there bee not so much profit in vsing the plough, as they see in other feates ; thinke ye not that they will leaue that trade and fall to ano- That profit ther that they see more profitable? As yee may perceiue by the aduauncdoings of this honest mans neighbours, which haue tourned their eth all fa

culties. erable land to pasture, because they see more profit by pasture then by tillage. Is it not an old saying in Latin, honos alit artes; Honos alit that is to say, profit or aduauncement nourisheth euery facultie, artes. whych saying is so true that it is alowed by the common iudgmentof al men. Wee must vnderstand also that all thinges that should bee done in a cominon weale, bee not to be forced or to be constrayned


by the straight penalties of the lawe, but some so, and some either

by alurement and rewardes rather. For what lawe can compell That some men to bee industrious in trauayle or labour of body, or studious thinges are to learne any science or knowledge of the mynde: to these thinges to be al ured by

they may be well prouoked, encouraged, and alured: if they that

they may be rewardes, be industrious and painefull, bee rewarded well for their paines ; and some and bee suffered to take gaynes and wealth as rewardes of their laother with

th boures, and so likewyse they that be learned bee aduaunced and hopaynes noured according to their forwardnes in learning : euery man will forced, in a then study either to bee industrious in bodely labour, or studious in

I thinges that pertaynes to knowledge. weale.

Take these rewards from them, and go about to compel them by lawes thereto, what man wil plough or digg the ground, or exercise any manuall arte wherein is any paine: or who will aduenture ouer seaes for any marchaundize, or vse any facultie wherein any perill or daunger should be, seeing his reward shalbe no more then his that sits still: but yee wil percase aunswere me that all their reward shal not be taken away, but part of it. Yet then yee must graunt me that as if al these rewardes were taken from them, all these faculties must decaie, so if part of that reward be minished, the vse of these fa

culties shall minish withall after the rate, and so they shal be the The lesse lesse occupied, the lesse they be rewarded and esteemed. But now honor or profit is

is to our purpose: I thinke it more necessary to deuise a meane how geuen to husbandry may be more occupied rather then less ; which I cannot any arte, perceiue howe it may be brought to passe, but as men do see the the less it

fre. more gains therein, the gladder they will occupie that feate, and quented. this is to be true (that some things in a common weale must be

forced with paines, and some by rewards allured) may appeare, by Tulliin.. that which the wise and pollitique senator Tully wryteth, saying, Ep. ad atti.

that it was the wordes of Solon which was one of the seuen wise men of Greece, and of those seuen the only man that made lawes, that a common weale was holden vp by two things chiefely, that is, by reward and peyne : of which words I gather, that men should be prouoked to do good deedes by rewardes and preferments : and to abstaine from ill doinges by paines, trowe you if husband men bee not better chearyshed or prouoked then they be to exercise the plough, but that in process of time so many ploughes wil be layde downe, as I feare me there be all ready, that if one vnfruitefull yeare shall happen amonge vs, as commonly doth once in seuen yeares, we should then not only haue dearth, but also skarceness of corne, that we should be driuen to seeke it from outwarde parties, and pay deare for it.

Knight. How would yee haue them better chearished to vse the plough.

Doctor. To let them haue more profit by it then they haue,


sure should plenty of core gaines, an will the

re occu

fupy husbandre gladder ocat, wherein he sait is



and liberty to sell it at all times, and to all places, as freely as men may do other things : but then (no doubt) the price of corne would rise specially at the first more then at length : yet that price would prouoke euery man to set the plough in the ground, to till waste grounds; yea, and to turne the lands that is now enclosed for pasture to erable, for euery man will the gladder follow that wherein they see the more gaines, and thereby muste nedes ensue both greater plenty of corne within the realme, and also much treasure should be brought into the realme by reason thereof. And besides that plentie of all other victuall encreased amonge vs. Knight. That would I faine heare you declare howe?

Profit will Doctor. Ye haue heard that by this free vent and sale of corne, ma

? bandmen the husbandmans profit is aduaunced, then it is shewed that euery more man naturally will follow that, wherein he sees profit insue: there-pied and fore men wil the gladder occupy husbandry, and the more doe oc- thereby

more profit cupy husbandry, the more plenty of corne must nedes be: and and the more plenty of corne there is thereof the better cheape; and quently also the more will be spared ouer that which shall suffise for the better realme. And then that may be spared in a good yeare, shall cor bringe vs againe ether corne; or els the commodities of other countries necessary for vs. Then the more husbandry there is occupied, the more vniuersall breede should be of all victuals of neate, sheepe, swine, geese, hennes, capons, and chickens : for al these are reared much on corne.

Knight. If men shoulde sell when a good seasonable yeare is, all that is ouerplus: when the realme is serued what shoulde wee doe if a barren yeare should happen, when no store of corne is lefte of the good yeare before.

Doctor. Fyrst yee muste consider that men will be sure they wyll keepe inoughe to finde themselues within the realme, ere they sell any forth of the same and hauing libertie to sell at their pleasure, doubte ye not, but they had leuer sell their corne two pence or three pence in a bushell better cheape within the realme, then to bee at the charge of cariage, and perill of aduenture in sending it ouer, and sell it dearer, except it be for much more gaines. And thus men being prouoked with luker, wilkeepe the more corne, loking for a deare yeare in the countrey, whereby must needes be great store : and though they did not so, but should sell ouer sea all that they might spare ouerthat serues the realme, when the yere is plentifull, yet by reason that throughe the meanes aforesaid moe ploughes are set a worke, then would suffice the realıne in a plentifull yeare; if a scarse year should fal after, the corne of so many ploughes as in a good yere, would be more then inough in an vnfruitefull yere, at the leaste would be sufficient to finde the realme, and so should the realme be serued with inough of corn in a scarse yere, and in a plentiful yere no more then


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