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this man spake wyers of the lawet professe: as if the

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Knight. When we had walked vp and downe in the sayd garden a prety whyle, I thought longe till I had hearde more of the sayd Doctors communication, for hee seemed to mee a very wise man, not after the common sort of these Clarks, which can talke nothing but of the faculty that they professe: as if they be deuines, of diuinity : lawyers of the lawe: and phisitions of phisicke onely: this man spake very naturally of euery thinge, as a man vniuersally seene, that had ioined good learning with good wit, and therefore I desired him, and the rest of our sayde companions to resorte agayne to the matter that wee left, at, and first to discourse and search out what should be the causes of the sayd common and vniuersall dearth of all things, (in comparison of the former age,). saying to the Doctor thus : I maruayle much, maister Doctor, what That it i

maruayshould be the cause of this dearth, seeing all thinges are (thankes lous dearth be to God) so plentyfull. There was neuer more plenty of Cattell that comthen there is nowe of all sortes. And yet it is scarsity of things meti in which commonly maketh dearth : this is a maruaylous dearth, that plents.

time of in such plenty commeth, contrary to his kinde.

Doctor. Syr, it is (no doubt) a thing to be mused upon, and worthy of inquisition : let mee heare euery one of your opinions, and than yee shall heare myne. Husband. I thinke it is longe of you Gentlemen, that this

ontlomon that thic The occa

18 siou of this dearth groweth, by reason yee enhaunse your lands to such a dearth is

whichhere is no plentyful.his cleari, de much,

excuse a reasonable

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Javde to heyght as men that liveth thereon must needes sell deere agayne, the gentle- or els they were neuer able to make their rent. men.

Knight. And I say it is long of you husbandmen, that wee are

forced to rayse our rents, by reason we must buy so deere all From the things that wee haue of you, as corne, cattell, goose, pig, capon, gentleman it is lavde chiken, butter, and egges. What thinge is there of all these but to the hus. that yee sell it nowe deerer by the one halfe then yee did within bandman. these thirty yeares: cannot you, neyghbour, remember, that with

in these thirty yeres I could in this towne buy the best pig or goose that I could laye my hand on for fourepence, which now costeth twelue pence, a good capon for threepence or fourepence, a chiken för one penny, a hen for two pence, which now costeth mee double and triple the money : it is likewise in greater ware, as biefe and mutton.

Husband. I graunt that, but I say you and your sorte, men of landes, are the first cause hereof, by reason you rayse your

landes. The gen

Knight. Well, if yee and your sorte will agree thereto, that tlemens shalbe holpen, vnder take that you and your sorte will sell al

a things at the price yee did thirty yeares agoe, and I doubt not to offer. bring all gentlemen to let vnto you their landes at the rent they

went at thirty yeares past: and that the fault is more in you that bee husbandmen, then in vs that bee gentlemen, it appeareth by

this, all the landes of the realme is not enhaunsed, for some haue · takings therein, as leases, or copies not yet expyred, which cannot

be enhaunsed though the owners would, and some noblemen and gentlemen there be, that when their landes be at their disposition, yet they will enhaunse nothinge aboue the olde rent, so as a greate parte of the landes of the realme stand yet at the old rent; and yet neuerthelesse there is none of your sorte at all, but selleth all things they haue deerer then they were wont to doe by the one halfe. And yet these gentlemen that doe enhaunse their rentes, doe not enhaunse it generally to the double, though I confesse that some of vs that had landes either geuen vs by the king's highnesse, that belonged heretofore to abbeyes, and priories, and were neuer surueyed to the vtter most before: or otherwise descended to vs, haue enhaunsed any of them aboue the old rent : yet all that amounteth not to halfe the landes of the realme.

Doctor. How say yee; he sayeth well to you nowe: will yee sell your wares as yee were wont to doe, and hee will let you haue his lande at the rent yee were accustomed to haue it. When the husbandman had pawsed a whyle, hee sayd :

Husband. If I had the price of euery thing that I must pay for besides, likewise brought downe, I could be content: els not.

Doctor. What thinges bee those ?
Husband. Mary, iron for my plough, harrowes, and cartes :

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e not

· tarte for our sheepe; shooes, cappes, linnen and wollen cloth for The hus. my meany, which if I should buy neuerthelesse as dere as I doe now, handman and yet sell my wares good cheape, though my rent were thereafter re ahated, except the other thinges aforesayd might bee abated in teth over pryce together, I could neuer lyue.

the faulte Doctor. Then I perceaue yee must haue the price of other to iron

mongers, things qualified as well as the rent of your land, ere yee can aford and choo' your ware good cheape.

thiers. Husband. Yea, (but Sir) I thinke if the land were brought downe, that the pryce of all things would fall witl all.

Doctor. Graunt that all the landlords in this realme woulde If all withone assent agree that their landes should bee in their tenaunts landes

were abat. handes, at like rent as they were at thirty yeares agoe; yee sayd ed in in afore yee coulde not yet sell your wares as good cheape as yee might rent, whetwenty yeares past, because of the pryce that is raysed in other ther this things that yee must buy: and if yee would say that those men

would be should be driuen againe to sell those wares that yee buy, first bet- remedied. ter cheape, and then yee will sell youres thereafter. I pray you low might they be compelled to doe so: they be straungers, and not within obedience of our soueraigne lady, that doe sell such wares, as iron, tarre, flaxe, and other : then consider mee, if yee cannot so compell them, whether it were expedient for vs to suffer That it straungers to sell all their commodities deere, and wee ours good as

"expedient cheape; if it were so, than it were a greate enryching of other that countreyes, and impouerishinge of our owne, for they should haue straungers much treasure for theirs, and haue our commodities from vs for

O deere and a very litle : except yee could deuise to make one price of our com- we ours modities among our selues, and another outwardes, which I can- good not see how it may bee.

cheape. Knight. Nay, I will make my neyghbour heere, another rea- Another sonable offer, if hee refuse this : let my tenauntes rent bee increased offer of the as your payment is increased, after the rate and yet I am contented.

• made to Husband. What meane yee by that?

the hus. Knight. I meane this, yee sell that yee were wont to sell a bandman. foretime for twenty grotes, now for thirty, let my rent bee increased after that proportion and rate, that is, for euery twenty groots of olưe rent ten shillings, and so as the pryce of your wares ryseth, and yet I doe but keepe my lande at the olde stent.

Husband. My bargayne was to pay for my holde, but six poundes- thirteen shillinges fourepence ycarely of rent, and I pay that truely, yee can require no more of mee.

Knight. I cannot much say agaynst that, but yet I perceaue I shalbe still a loser by that bargayne, though I cannot tell the reason why: but I perceiue yee sell deerer that yee liue on, and I good cheape that which is my liuing: help me mayster Doctor I pray you, for the husbandman driueth mee to the wall.


octor. Mary, but to his shifts, that is, to defend him selfe



Doctor. Mary, but mee thinketh touching that matter yee did reason of, yee draue him to his shifts, that is, to confesse that this dearth ryseth not at your hand. And though he do defend him selfe for his payment to you by colour of a lawe, yet he seemeth to confesse thus much, that the lawe compelleth you to take litle for your land, and that there is no lawe to restrayne him, but hee may sell his wares as deere as he listeth: it is ynough for your purpose that

yee tooke in hand to proue that this dearth rose not first at your Whether if hande, but whether the pryces of thinges increasing as they the hus. doe': it were reason yee did rayse your wares (which is your

ad lande) or to bee payde after the olde rate : whan yee did let your were forced to land, if yee be compelled to pay for your prouision after the new abate the rate, we will talke of that heere after, or let that to be considered prices of

fuiffe of otherwise men : but now let vs see if the husbandman were this dearth forced to sell his thinges good cheape, whether all thinges shoulde should be bee well then. Our Englishe coyne being supposed to be base, then mended. and of no such estimation in other countryes as within our owne

realme (as for the most parte it hath bene) before that it was restored by our noble Prince which noweraygneth: put the case this, that this husbandman should be commaunded to sell his wheate at eight pence the bushell, rye at six pence, bareley at fourepence, his pig and goose at fourepence, his capon at fourepence, his henne at one penny, ob.; his wooll at a marke the todde, biefes and mutons after the old pryces, as in time past haue bene: he hath then ynough to pay his landlord, as hee had in time past: his landlorde agayne hath as much rent as hee was wont to haue; and the same, when the pryce is so set, will go as far for the sayd wares, whereof the pryces be thus set, as so much of olde coine, paide after the olde wont would haue done : all this is yet well, heere is yet neither lord nor tenaunt grieued: well, let vs goe farther, the husbandman must buy iron, salt, tarre, pitch, and suppose hee should bee also forced to reare vp flaxe on his owne, and that pryces of cloth, both linnen and wollen, and leather were set after the rate. The gentleman must buy wynes, spices, silkes, armour, glasse to glase his house withall, iron also for tooles, weapons, and other instruments necessary, as salt, oyles, and many other diuerse thinges, more then I can recken without summe; whereof they may-in no wise want, as iron and salt, for of that which is within the realme of both, is not halfe sufficient for the same: oyles, tarre, pitch, and rosyn, whereof wee haue none at all, and without some other of the said commodities wee could liue but grossly, and barbarously, as without wynes, spyces, and silkes, these must bee brought from beyonde the seas, shall wee buy them as good cheape after the rate? A man would thinke yes, for when straungers should see that with lesse money then they were wont to take for these wares, they may buy as much of the commodities of this realme as they were wonte


a fore with more money, they will bee content to take the lesse
money when it goeth as farre as the more went before, and so sell.
their wares as good cheape : (as for example, if they sell nowe a
yard of ueluet for twenty shillings, or twenty-two shillings, and
payeth that for a todde of wooll, were it not as good for them then
to sell their ueluet at a marke a yarde, so they had a todde of wooll
for a marke?

Knight. I would thinke so, for thereby hee should be at no more losse then hee is now. And so the like reason may serue for iron, wynes, salt, spice, oyles, pitch, tarre, flaxe, waxe, and all other outwarde commodities.

Doctor. If I should aske you this question, whether they should bee compelled by a lawe to sell their wares so or no, what could ye say?

Knight. It maketh no matter whether it were so or no, and I think they cannot, because they be out of the princes donsinion, and at liberty, whether they will bring any thinge to vs or no, but seeinge they may haue all thinges heere, as good cheape at that pryce they sell for lesse money, as they had before for the greater price they will willingly bring their wares and sell them so. Doctor. Thereof I doubt, upon the foriner supposition of our

w straungers base coyne, for I thinke they woulde sell still at the highest, as they will take doe nowe, or bring nothinge at all to vs. For yee must understand but inoney they come not alwayes for our commodities, but sometimes to sell con

euery theirs heere, knowing it heere to be best vendible, and to buy in where for other countryes other commodities, where the same is best cheape, their ware and some times to sell in one parte of the realme their wares that bee that

balle on there most desired, and to goe to some other parte of the realme their for the commodities that be there most abundant aud best cheape : charge. or partly of our countrey and partly of another, and for that purpose coine uniuersally currant is most commodious, specially if they entend to bestow it in any other place, then where they were vnladen of their marchaundize. Now if our coine were not so alowed in other places as it is heere, the straunger should be at greater losses, if he should take our coyne for his wares, he had leauer bring his wares to other places, where hee might haue coyne currant in all places for it, that he might bestowe where and when hee list. If they woulde looke but for our wares for theirs, thinke yee that they would not study to bring to vs such wares or stuffe as should be best cheape with them, and most deere with vs.

Knight. Yea, no doubt, that is the polisie of all marchaunts.
Doctor. What stuffe is that trowe you?

Knight. Mary, glasses of all sorte, paynted clothes, and pa-
pers, orenges, pippens, cherries, perfumed gloues, and such like
Doctor. Yee say well, they will percase attempt vs with such, That
Pam. VOL. V. R


that they

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