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nies external matter, and the materialism of Priestley. In other words, we hereby see where was the defect of consideration in the disciples of Kant, who were divided about objective and subjective reality. Long before I became acquainted with craniology, these subjects engaged much of my attention, and I felt convinced, that à radical difference in the conformation of the mind must be the cause why certain people only regarded the objectivity, and others only the subjectivity; and why others saw clearly the reality was the result of the reaction of the impressions of the object on the subject. I know persons who are defective in the organ of Individuality, who, when they are ill of nervous affections, have told me that they felt as if the external world did not exist, but that all ideas were entirely within themselves. All these things, however, must now be superficially treated of aa varieties of insanity, as connected with particular organization and established natural influences.-I mention these facts in a hasty and imperfect manner; they will become the subjects of future consideration of persons more qualified.
There is a secret pleasure the mind feels in contemplating the progress of knowledge; and those who regard the system of Phrenology in the light which its authors do, will rejoice, that in this wilderness of error and ignorance, the thirst after knowledge is at length excited; and hope that it may prevail through the world, and that it may be quenched at the fountain which anon first flowed in Germany, and is spreading its streamlets around.
I can only conclude by encouraging others to the same patient investigation of facts, which led me to embrace this system of An
thropology, that the beneficial results may be generally felt, since · now the tyrants and bigots, which awhile ago oppressed the earth,
can no longer resist the propagation of truth--in a country where the liberty of the press is protected as one of the most sacred rights of the people and at a time when the general cessation of hostilities every where seems to promise, that Philosophy will at length exert her ivfluence over the world in peace.
I here insert the Letter of my friend Dr. Leach, above alluded to.'
po The reader will find an interesting series of Notes, taken from Spurzheim's lectures, in the Philosophical Magazine,
MY DEAR FORSTER,
Having heard that you are preparing an analysis of Spurzheim's Physiological System of the Brain, I am induced to write a few hasty lines on the subject of his doctrine.
Certain Anatomists in London, (and one in Edinburgh,) have absolutely denied the truth of Dr. Spurzheim's observations on the structure of the Brain, and have pronounced them to be fanciful. These assertions have not been made by those who have seen him dissect the brain, but even by those, who from illiberality or from idleness, are not inclined to investigate the subject, and therefore have ridiculed as false, what they are too indolent to examine. After a minute investigation, I do not hesitate to pronounce, that what Dr. S. has asserted respecting the structure of the brain, is perfectly correct, and that this structure may be seen by any anatomist, who may be disposed patiently to examine that organ, after the mode directed by Dr. Spurzheim.
Respecting the indications of the propensities and faculties, named · organs by Drs. Gall and Spurzheim, I am of opinion, that certain
manifestations are satisfactorily proved to exist, that others are ren· dered probable, and that the remainder are extremely fanciful, not being in any manner supported by evidence.
I believe that a developement of the crown of the head is a certain indication of moral feelings—That a developement of the upper part of the forehead indicates a reflecting mind, whilst a developement of the lower part manifests a disposition to acquire knowledge; and that a developement of the whole forehead, as every one must have observed,) indicates a strength of the intellectual faculties in general.
From actual and repeated investigation, I am disposed to admit · Nos. 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 16, 18, 27, 28, of Spurzheim, as de
cided marks of the propensities, sentiments, and faculties, so marked; and that Nos. 5, 10, 14, 32, and 33, are probable signs; whilst all the other numbers seem to me to want evidence of their indications, which have not in the slightest degree been proved by substantial or even by plausible conjectural evidence.
You well know, that truth is my sole aim, and that if any part of the doctrine be disproved by sufficient evidence, I shall be as readily disposed to relinquish, as I have been to admit, the truth of certain parts of the system,
I remain, Dear Forster, in haste,
Yours, very truly,
WM. ELFORD LEACH. British Museum, 31st Jan. 1815.
Which although they are in some part vniust and friuolous, yet are they all by way of Dialogues throughly
debated and discussed.
BY W. S.
IMPRINTED AT LONDON IN FLEETSTREATE NEERE VNTO SAINCTE DUNSTONES CHURCH, BY
Communicated by H. Wrottesley, Esq. M. P.
the ps by the Docto you that benissions, and ilusbandry
Is carried on between a Knight, a Merchant, a Doctor, a Capper, and a Husbandman, who are assembled together at dinner, at the house of the Merchant, after the close of the Sessions of the Peace. It begins by the Doctor observing to the Knight, By my fayth yee make much adoe you that be Justices of the Peace of every Countrey in sitting upon your Commissions, and in causing poore men to appeare before you, and leaving theyr Husbandry unlookt to at home.
Knight. Surely it is so; yet the Prince must be served and the Commonweale.
Then (said the Husbandman) I would yee had never worse Commission in hand than this is-So we had lost no more dayes workes at our Husbandry than this.
Knight. Why so ?
Husband. Mary, for these inclosures doe vndoe vs all, for
they make vs to pay dearer for our lande that we occupy, and Complaynt causes that we can haue no lande in manner for our money, to of Inclo
hou put to tyllage, all is taken vp for pasture; for pasture, eyther for Husband. sheepe, or for grasing of cattell, in so much, that I haue knowne of
late a dozen ploughes within lesse compasse than sixt myles about mee, lay de downe within this seuen yeares: and where threescore persons or vpward had their liuings, now one man with his cattell bath all, which thinge is not the least cause of former vprores : for by these inclosures many doe lacke lyuings and be ydle, and therefore for very necessity, they are desirous of a chaunge being, in hope to come thereby to somewhat, and well assured, that howe so euer it befall with them, it can bee no harder with them, than it was before : more ouer, all things are so deere, that by their day wages they are not able to lyue.
Capper. I haue well the experience thereof, for I am faine to geue my journeimen two pence in a day more than I was wont to
it doe, and yet they say they cannot sufficiently live thereon. And I of dearth, of vittayle, know for truth, that the best husbande of them can saue but litle by artifi- at the yeares ende, and by reason of such derth as yee speake of,
we that are artificers, are able to keepe but fewe or no prentizes like as wee were wont to doe, and therefore, cityes which were heretofore well inhabyted and wealthy, (as yee know euery one of you,) are now for lacke of occupiers fallen to great pouerty and desolation.
Mari hau t. So be the most parte of all the townes of Engand, London onely except, and not only the good townes are
sore decayed in their howses, walles, streates and other buildings, but also the countrey in their high wayes and brydges, for such pouerty raygneth every where, that few men haue so much to spare Complaynt as they may geue any thing to the reparation of such wayes, of townes brydges, and other common easements, and albeit, there be many by mar
chauntmen things layde downe now which before time were occasions of and of all much expences, as may-games, wakes, reuels, wages at shootinge, other com. wrestling, running, and throwing the stone, or barre, and besides mon
easements, that, pardons, pylgrimages, offrings, and many such other thinges, yet I perceyue we bee neuer the wealthyer, but rather poorer: whereof it is long I cannot well tell, for ther is such a general superdearth of al things as before twenty or thirty yeares hath not finous been the like, not onely of things growing within this Realme, but charges
layde also of all other marchaundize that we buy from beyond the downe sea, as sylkes, wynes, oyles, woode, madder, yron, steele, waxe, yet neuer flaxe, lyonencloth, fustyans, worsteddes, couerlets, carpets, and all the more kearses and tapestry. Spyces of all sort and al haberdasherware, pe as paper both white and browne, glasses aswell drinckinge and D. looking, as for glasinge of windowes, pinnes, needles, kniues, dag- outwarde gers, hats, cappes, broches, buttons and laces. I wot well all marchaunthese doe cost nowe more by the thyrde parte than they did but dize. few yeares agoe: than all kinde of Vittayle are as deere or deerer agayne, and no cause of Gods part thereof, as farre as I can per
Dearth of ceaue, for I neuer saw more plenty of corne, grasse, and cattell of all kinde all sorte than wee haue at this present, and have had, (as yee know,) of vittayle, all these tweuty years passed continually, thanked bee our Lord God: If these inclosures were cause thereof, or any other thinge els, it were pity but they might be remoued.
Knight. Synce yee haue plenty of all thinges, of Corne, and cattell, (as yee say,) then it should not seeme this dearth should be longe of these inclosures, for it is not for scarcenesse of corne, that yee haue this dearth, (for thanked be God,) corne is good cheape, and so hath been these many yeares past continually. Than it The cannot bee the occasion of the dearth of cattell, for inclosure is the inclosures thing that nourisheth most of any other: yet I confesse there is a be not the wonderful dearth of all things, and that doe I, and all men of my cause of sorte feele most griefe in, which haue no way to sell, or occupation dearth. to lyue by, but onely our landes. For you all three, (I mean) you my neighbour the husbandman, you maister mercer, and you That goodman capper, with other artificers, may saue your selues meetely Gentlemen well. , Forasmuch as all thinges are deerer then they were, so feele most
- griefe by much doe you aryse in the pryce of your wares and occupations that yee sell agayne. But we haue nothing to sell, whereby we might aduaunce the price thereof, to courterualue those things, that we must buy againe.