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sons endowed with it in a great degree have a good memory of facts. This organ observes also the faculties of the other organs, individualizes objects of sense, and causes us (I think) to regard the impressions which the external bodies make on the five senses to come from one object. I have also conceived some other and very interesting functions of this organ, which however I shall not state, but wait to see if other enquiring and reflective persons discover them; and shall be interested to compare their remarks with my present conceptions, as from time to time, this system becomes more known. For sake of brevity, I shall only just nominate the other knowing organs, all in the forehead or near to it. XX. Or. gan of Form. XXI. Organ of Size: this I hardly consider as sufficiently established. XXII. Organ of Weight-place not quite known. XXIII. Organ of Color. XXIV. Of Space. XXV. Organ of Order. XXVI. Of Time. XXVII. Organ of Number. XXVIll. Organ of Tune. XXIX. Organ of Language.
4. THE REFLECTING FACULTIES
are-XXX. Organ of Comparison : an elevation in the middle of the forehead; persons with this organ show delight in analogies: it is the cause of metaphors, similies &c. in language. XXXI. Organ of Causality, on each side of it: this produces inquisitiveness, and desire to know causes. XXXI.Organ of Wit. XXXIII. Organ of Imitativeness, or mimickry. For the places and proofs of all these organis, I refer the reader to Dr. Spurzheim's Lectures, which are a fund of entertainment and of anecdote, independent of the very curious and novel doctrines there explained.
It must be remembered, that, excepting idiots, all the organs are in some degree possessed by all persons. They are useful, and constitute the nature of Man. It is irregularity in the comparative development, which leads to abuses, and requires the influence of morality, and the coercion of law. The organs may all be exercised by education, which makes this an important function of Man, regarded as a social being. They may be separately or generally disordered; hence the influence of a knowledge of them in the treatment of insanity. Lastly, punishment must be adapted to the particular wants and dispositions of individual culprits ; hence
what important improvements the correction of miscreants may derive from such an intimate knowledge of character as this system leads to. These must become separate considerations.
V. Of the Application of the new Phrenology to Educa
tion, founded on the Supremacy of the Will. In the foregoing sketch of the discoveries of Gall and Spurzheim, respecting the brain, I have ventured to affirm positively, that the anatomy of that organ given by them is correct; because I have not only seen it demonstrated by Spurzheim, but have dissected it myself after their peculiar way, and my dissections have corresponded with those of these industrious anatomists. .
With respect to the places and functions of the organs, the test of time and long experience alone can fully establish to the public the truth of these peculiar opinions. For my own part, I have not yet met with a case of exception to the rules ; though I have been active in pursuing this science for a long time past. With a view, however, to encourage persons in the investigation of these interesting facts, I shall conclude this brief account with an examination of some of the most useful results of such an accurate criterion of natural character as it tends to establish.
One of the most important consequences of the establishment of these physiognomical rules will be its influence on the education of youth. Education may be divided into physical, or that which regards the bodily fabric; and moral, or that which appertains to the cultivation of the mind. With regard to physical education, I must observe, that it is much neglected in general. The organs of the mind, like all other parts of the animal fabric, are nourished by the digestive processes, and often fail sick or strengthen with the rest of the body; though there may be a few exceptions in certain specific diseases, yet in general the mens sana must ever be in corpore sano. The greatest care should be taken that young persons be temperate, and in the constant habits of exercise in the open air. I believe that one reason why geniuses who spring up from the common people, and make their way into the literary and scientific world, so often exceed others in mental attainments, to be, because from their early habit of bodily activity the organs ac; quire a strong and active constitutional character.
Moral education may be considered in a twofold capacity : 1. That of exercising the intellectual faculties; and 2. That of regulating the moral character, They both proceed on the supposition that Man has a will to control his propensities and other faculties; and that his will is influenced by motives. The phrenologist admits a will regulated by motives; and denies that the propensities are necessary and incontrolable. As all the faculties of the mind have organs, it may be asked, what are the organs of the will? The organ of Individuality, which knows things, and regards them in their individual capacity; the organ of Comparison, which compares them, and gives, therefore, a choice; and the organ of Causality, which perceives the relation of cause and effect, produce a will, observe, compare, and control the other faculties, and influence the instruments of voluntary motion. I have called these three organs the Board of Control. When the organ of righteousness is the dictator, and its dictates acquire supremacy in counselling the will, a moral conscience is established.
To return to education. The application of the physiology of the brain to the education of youth, the cultivation of the intellect, and comprising regulation of the moral character, is founded on the proof we have already obtained from experience, that we can ascertain from the external form of the head the principle and basis of education; namely, the relative development of the different material conditions of the faculties.
I. With regard to the intellect. Education consists in exercising the faculties. Phrenology, by pointing out the strongest faculties of individuals, will assist us in choosing professions for youth suitable to the genius of the individual; and teach us, Ist, to cultivate those faculties, in the exercise whereof he is likely to become ensinent; or, 2dly, to give additional excitement to those which, though naturally weak, may be roused into comparative exertion by the excitements offered by education.
II. With regard to the moral character. In education we shall be enabled by phrenology to see where, from a preponderance of
* These organs know and compare, and therefore give the choiee for the volition; but it is still a question whether they operate immediately on the nerves of the muscles, and produce thereby the voluntary motions. If not, what part of the brain influences immediately these nerves ?
some particular faculty, there is greater necessity of a counteraction by the excitement of the antagonist faculties. We learn also how the superior sentiments ought to control the lower propensities; and how the organs of the will should in all cases be exercised early, to give them the greatest range of power over the propensities. We learn also another important branch of education in observing, that to strengthen and render habitual any good feeling, as benevolence for instance, we must not only inculcate it, but must expose the child to objects of charity, and enhance it by setting before him instances of mercy. The same applies to all other faculties, we wish to strengthen, we must call them into action by their proper objects; and thus phrenology comprises the sentiment which the wise have held in all ages, of the inefficacy of precept when compared with example, as an incentive to moral excellence.
How much genius lays buried in obscurity, performing the meanest of employments, for want of being brought forth, and receiving opportunities of qualifying itself for higher functions in society! What benefit would result to society, should phrenology point to a just election of objects in youth, to be placed in situations capable of ripening their naturally energetic faculties!
It may be useful to speak briefly of the passions by their vulgar names, and of the simple or compound actions of the organs, which are the cause of them; since the passions are more familiar to people in general, than any new names for the primitive faculties.
The sexual passion, as I have before related, is the result of the proper and independent activity of the cerebellum, or organ of amativeness : in animals it is very simple ; in Man, much compounded with other associations. When this organ acts in association with the organ of Adhesiveness, love is the consequence: Ideality frequently further enhances and gives a romantic character to this passion. Many other associations may be established. Thus, in the human subject, this, as well as other passions, is very compound. What is called Anger is an affection of the organ of Combativeness ; when perpetuated by Determinateness, and unchecked by Benevolence, the consequence of the activity of this organ is often Revenge.
Fear and Terror are degrees of the activity of the organ of Cautiousness; Circumspection is a more slow and salutary affection of it. The same organ is doubtless the seat of Anxiety and Melancholy. Hypochondriasis, when it includes the timor lethi, timor orci, or any other fear, is a morbid affection of the same organ : in hypochondriasis, Ideality often adds many imaginary and whimsical fancies, to which Cautiousness adds as many fears and per- plexities. A disordered state of the digestive organs irritates the brain, and disturbs the tranquillity of its functions; and in persons pre-disposed by organization, excites the strange nervous fears alluded to. The organ of Cautiousness is likewise partly the cause of Horror; this, however, is a compound feeling, and has not as yet been accurately defined and analyzed. I think that Benevolence enters into combination with Cautiousness and some other organs, in the production of this passion.
The organ of Haughtiness is the seat of Self-love and Pride ; Modesty is circumspection and benevolence-perhaps Approbation enters into it. Jealousy is Covetiveness and self-love; the objects of Jealousy varying—at different times Amativeness, Approbation &e. enter into it: without Righteousness, or moral checks, this passion becomes Envy.
Hope is the result of its proper organ. Superstition, or at least the disposition to it, is caused by the mystic organ; or that part of the brain between Ideality, Imitation and Flope. All the facts are sufficiently proved by experience. A whole volume might be written on the functions of each organ; and many on the compound affections. In fine, as all the primitive and compound affections of the human mind are produced by the simple or conjoined actions of one or more organs, so we see that the particular organization lays the foundation of the diversities of the human character, which education by its exercising and ripening the faculties still further varies. Thus we see why national character of mind is connected with a general outline of national form of the head.
We must never forget, when we consider education, that character has a compound cause ; Ist. Innateness, or the original structure and comparative size of the different orgaus ; and 2d. The manner in which they are educated. Neither, in education, should we overlook the effects of bodily ill-health on the mind, by means of its altering the tone and activity of the organs. Education be