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year. By the Rev. JAMES BREWSTER, Author of Meditations for the Aged, &c.

A Treatise on Field Fortification, and other subjects connected with the Duties of the Field Engineer. By J. S. MACAULAY, Captain Royal Engineers.

Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature. Vol. II., Part 2, comprise Papers by the late W. ROSCOE, S. T. COLERIDGE, Dr. NOLAN, Col. LEAKE, &c.

The Life and Adventures of John Marston Hall, by the Author of Darnley.'

An Account of the Medicinal Employment of Delphinia, by A. TURNBULL, M.D. and J. SUTHERLAND, M.D.

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ROYAL SOCIETY.

April 10. J. W. Lubbock, esq., V.P. The following Fellows were elected: Ansell, -Viscount Adare, Charles esq. of Tottenham; Felix Booth, esq., Lieutenant Alexander Burnes, E.1. C.S., Francis Corbaux, esq., Sir William Browne Folkes, Bart. M.P., James William Freshfield, esq., John Davies Gilbert, esq. M. A., Edward Griffith, esq. F.S.A.; Edmund Halswell, esq. M.A., William Charles Henry, M.D. Physician to the Manchester Infirmary; Robert Hudson, esq., Rev. Wm. Forster Lloyd, M. A. Professor of Political Economy at Oxford; John Phillips, esq. of York, Captain Nugent Smee, E.I.C.S., Wm. Spence, esq., Henry Sykes Thornton, esq. M.A., John Warburton, M.D., Horace, Hayman Wilson, Esq. Read 1. On a General Method in Dynamics, by William Rowan Hamilton, esq., Royal Astronomer of Ireland; 2. Observations on the Motions of Shingle Beaches," by Henry R. Palmer, esq. F. R. S.

April 17. Francis Baily, esq. V.P. The paper on the Elementary Laws of Electricity, by William Snow Harris, esq., F.R.S. was resumed.

April 24. Davis Gilbert, esq. V.P.The same paper was concluded; and a portion read of a paper, on the Generation of Marsupiate Animals, by Richard Owen, esq.

ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY.

At the anniversary meeting, Francis Baily, esq. was re-elected President. The Report of the Council stated that the Planetary Ephemeris, computed under the direction of Lieut. Stratford, and presented by him to the Society, was printed. The Council congratulated the Society on the prospect of the reduction of the observations made by Bradley, Maskelyne, Pond, and others. Government has granted the sum of 5001, for

that purpose; and the execution has been undertaken by Professor Airy. The appearance of the Nautical Almanac for 1834-5, framed on the model propo d by the Society in 1830, under the superintendence of Lieut. Stratford, may be considered as forming a new era in practical astronomy. The funds of the Society were reported to be in a flourishing state-total number of Fellows 325. During the year the Society had lost by death one Fellow and three Associates, viz. M. Legendre, the author of the Elliptic Functions and of the Theory of Numbers; Carlo Brioschi, a native of North Italy, employed in the corps of geographical engineers formed by the Austrian government; and Pietro Caturegli, Professor of Astronomy in the University of Bologna, and director of the Observatory. The Council further announced that the new standard scale, with its stand and apparatus, for compa rative measures, was at length completed under the direction of the committee. No medal was awarded at this anniversary.

THE DUKE OF SUSSEX'S SOIREES.

His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, as President of the Royal Society, manifests a liberality and courtesy highly honourable to himself, and entitled to imitation by other noble and eminent persons, who are advanced to similar stations by the members of their respective societies. Occasionally, during the winter season, his Royal Highness invites some of the leading members of the Royal Society to dine with him at Kensington Palace, and on the same evening receives a large assemblage of visitors from 9 to 12 o'clock. On these occasions, many of the first nobility and gentry of the country thereby meet some of the most eminent men of science, professors of the fine Arts, and literary characters. Thus a familiar and useful intercourse of wealth and talent-of men of rank and men of genius -and other grades of society, are brought into social and familiar union. Nothing can be more delightful, or better calculated to promote harmony and good feeling between the three estates of the kingdom. His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex has evinced not only political wisdom, but intellectual taste, in thus bursting the trammels of formal, cold, courtly etiquette, and standing forth the founder of a new era and a new fashion. Joseph Banks certainly commenced this system, and his Sunday evening soirées were truly pleasant and intellectual; but the example of a Royal Duke is more im

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posing-is calculated to produce more influence than that of a commoner, and the manners and talents which his Royal Highness exercises and displays on these, as on other public occasions, are at once bland, courteous, and dignified.

The Presidents of the Astronomical Society, Mr. Baily-of the Geological, Mr. Greenough, are in the habit of having frequent dinner and evening parties of the members of their respective societies, and thereby contribute very materially to promote science and a friendly intercourse among its lovers and patrons. These gentlemen are rarely ever absent from their presidential duties, and thus manifest a laudable zeal and a positive attachment to that science over which they are elected as professional guardians.

Two of the Duke of Sussex's meetings have taken place since Christmas, and two others are named on the invitation cards. For the purpose of gratifying the company, and furnishing matter for conversation, various objects of art, science, vertu, literature, &c. are placed on the tables, and the choice treasures of the library are accessible through the obliging attentions of Mr. Pettigrew, his Royal Highness's librarian. The unrivalled collection of Bibles is a source of great interest to many persons. Among other objects exhibited have been a series of marbles of different countries and qualities, on which Mr. C. H. Smith has lectured; a model of a machine for polishing lenses; a very curious model of the Great Pyramid of Egypt, made by Mr. Davidson; and a series of drawings illustrating the Architectural Antiquities of different ages and different countries, being part of Mr. Britton's extensive series for his lectures.

ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY.

March 24. John Barrow, esq., in the chair. Eight Fellows were elected; others proposed. There was read a portion of a communication, entitled "Papers descriptive of the countries beyond the north-western frontier of the Bombay Presidency, relating chiefly to the principalities of Joodapoor and Jaysulmar," &c. compiled from the notes of Lieut. Burnes, collected in 1829-30, while surveying these countries under the orders of the Bombay government.

April 7. Mr. Hamilton in the chair.Lieut. Burnes gave a vivâ voce account of a portion of his interesting travels in India. The narrative was descriptive of some of the countries beyond the northwestern frontier of the Bombay presidency, and was illustrated by reference to a capital map, constructed by Lieut.

Burnes himself, under the fostering auspices of Sir J. Malcolm. Our traveller started from Cutch in 1829-30, went up the Runn, a strange region which he describes as entering the territories of the Rajpoot princes, whose ancestors had possession of the country 400 years ago. Leaving the Runn, Lieut. B. proceeded to Parkur, a country which he describes as differing from every other in the world. For six months it is impassable from water; the other six months of the year it is covered with an incrustation of salt, which forms an article of considerable traffic. From Parkur he proceeded into the desert, which, though so called, spontaneously produces vegetation sufficient for sustenance, and has wells of water at the depth of sixty feet. Lieut. B. proceeded to the river Loonee: then to the capital of Joodpoor, the most flourishing principality in Rajasthan. Proceeding to Ajmeer, the only place in the Indian territory where the Creator is worshipped -for the Hindoos only worship the Preserver-Lieut. Burnes visited the sacred stream, in which, whosoever bathes has not only all his own sins washed away, but those likewise of his relations. After some other interesting observations, Lieut. B. returned to Cutch; and finished his narrative by pronouncing a well-merited eulogy upon the encouragement afforded by the Geographical Society to such tra vellers as are willing to devote their science and their energies towards obtaining a more perfect knowledge of the globe we inhabit.

LONDON UNIVERSITY.

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The petition from the proprietors of the London University for a Charter, which would give to them alone, of all the schools in London, the privilege of conferring Degrees in Arts, Medicine, and Law, is immediately to come before a Committee of the Privy Council appointed for that purpose. The prayer is opposed by Oxford and Cambridge, on general grounds; by the College of Surgeons, as adverse to the interests of medical science and by the medical lecturers of the metropolis, as calculated to constitute a new and unjust monopoly in medical teaching. The latter body, amounting to above 100 of the most eminent members of the profession in London, have petitioned for the establishment of a great Metropolitan University, without reference to Ecclesiastical distinctions-in which all the efficient schools would stand on an equal footing, and be considered as Colleges: the duty of examining candidates being placed in other

hands than those of their own teachers. The parties are severally to be heard by Counsel.

A museum, consisting of many valuable specimens and preparations of morbid anatomy, midwifery, and casts, with numerous prints and drawings, collected by Gore Clough, esq., of Upper Nortonstreet, Fitzroy-square, at an expenditure of nearly 3,000l., has been presented to the London University for the Use of the Students of the new North London Hospital, which will be opened at Michaelmas with 110 beds. The preparations are for the most part in excellent preservation, and will be deposited in a temporary apartment till the large room, about to be fitted up, is ready for their reception.

DUKE OF YORK'S MONUMENT.

April 8. The Statue of the Duke of York was raised to the top of the column in Carlton Gardens: the following details respecting this magnificent work will be found interesting.

The subscription for a monument to commemorate the public services of the Duke of York, as Commander-in-Chief of the Army, having, in the year 1829, amounted to the sum of 21,000l. (which was afterwards increased, by an accumulation of interest and further contributions, to about 25,0001). the Committee of Nobleman and Gentlemen for managing the application of that fund, invited seven or eight of the most eminent architects in the country to offer their suggestions and to make designs, with a view to the accomplishment of that object. Great zeal and talent were displayed on the occasion by the several competitors, who, in the month of August, 1829, delivered in their respective designs and estimates. The Committee, however, did not come to a decision upon those designs until the month of December, 1830, when that which had been submitted (at the same time with the rest) by Mr. B. Wyatt, was finally adopted. Mr. Nowell, the mason, of Grosvenor-wharf, Pimlico, became the contractor, under an engagement to complete the column, for the sum of 15,7607. 9s. 6d. within two years from the time of his being put in possession of the ground.

Fortunately the great opening from Carlton-gardens into St. James's Park had been decided on before the exact site for the column was fixed upon; and thus an opportunity was afforded for placing this magnificent structure in one of the most imposing positions imaginable, whether with reference to its effect as viewed from the top of Regent-street, or from the Park, below the steps. Possession

of the ground having been given over to the architect and the contractor on the 25th of April, 1831, the excavation of the foundation was commenced on the 27th of the same month, and finished on the 25th of the month following. The peculiar nature of that foundation is not one of the least extraordinary characteristics of this great work. The ground being in an artificial and a very loose state, to a great depth below the general level of Carlton-gardens, it became necessary to remove the loose soil, and dig to a solid stratum of natural earth, which was not found at less than 22 feet below the general surface. In the course of 28 days from the completion of the excavation, a body of concrete, consisting of stone-lime, river stones, sand, coal-ashes, and water, in certain proportions, was formed, of sufficient magnitude and solidity to fill up the excavation, and to sustain the vast superincumbent weight of the column. This artificial foundation was, to a certain degree, of a pyramidal form, its base lines forming a square of 53 feet, whilst its top lines formed a square of 30 feet, with all four sides inclining equally and regularly (as towards the apex of a pyramid) from the base to the top. At the height of 11 feet six inches above the base line of the concrete, was introduced a strong course of Yorkshire stone slabs seven inches thick, lying over the whole surface of the concrete at that level, an extent of upwards of 40 feet each way, and composed of stones of such magnitude, that nine of them were sufficient to cover the whole superficies, effectually equalising the pressure from above upon the body of the concrete below. Again at the top of the line of the concrete this same expedient was repeated, and another course of Yorkshire stone slabs introduced, to complete the artificial mass which was to form the foundation for the column and its pedestal, and which, in a short time, became as solid and compact as if it had been a natural rock of granite. Upon this huge newly-created body of composition (which was completed on the 25th of June, 1831) the first course of masonry was, in only three weeks afterwards, commenced.

The column is of the Tuscan order, and is composed of granite of different colours, all brought from quarries in Aberdeenshire. Its surface throughout is, according to technical language, "fine-axed" (not polished or rubbed); and as regards hardness, colour, and external appearance, it is not inferior to the red and grey Egyptian granite of ancient times.

The pedestal underneath the column consists of 10 courses of gray granite, from the quarries of Aberdeen, above the

level of the ground, and is 16 feet 18 inches high, to the bottom of the base of the column, having one course of rough granite (from the island of Hern) between the first of these ten courses and the course of Yorkshire stone slabs on the top of the concrete. The plinth of the pedestal measures 22 feet 6 inches on either side; and its die is 18 feet and three-quarters of an inch diameter. The base of the column, consisting of two members only, viz. the plinth and the torus, are formed also of granite from Aberdeenshire, but of a bluer tone of colour than that of the pedestal; and are, together, five feet four inches in height. The shaft of the column, which is of red granite, contains 26 courses, and has six apertures on one side and seven on the other, for the admission of light to the staircase within. The bottom diameter of the shaft is 11 feet 7 inches, and that of its top, immediately under the capital, is 10 feet 14 inches; whilst its whole height is 84 feet 10 inches, from the top of the basement

to the bottom of the capital. The capital consists of two courses of the same coloured granite as the base, and is four feet two inches in height. Upon the outer lines of the abacus of the capital is fixed a plain but very substantial iron railing; and in its centre is constructed the acroter, which at once forms a roof or covering to the internal staircase, and a pedestal for the statue to stand upon. The superstructure is of the same red granite as the shaft, and contains seven courses in height between the top of the abacus and the foot of the statue. The gross altitude of the whole structure, from the surface of the ground to the top of the acroter, is 123 feet six inches.

The statue which surmounts the column, was executed in bronze by Mr. Westmacott for 3,000l. It is 13 feet high, and weighs seven tons. The Duke appears fronting the Horse Guards in the robes of the Order of the Garter, the folds of which assist in supporting the

statue.

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIANS.

April 10. Hudson Gurney, esq. V.P. · Reader Wainwright, esq. of Lincoln's Inn, barrister-at-law, was elected Fellow of the Society.

Mr. William Taylor exhibited a small Roman lamp, of earthenware, found a few months since among some rubbish thrown up near the bridge which passes over the Surrey canal on the Kent Road. It has this mark, STROBIII.

A. J. Kempe, esq. F.S.A. exbibited an early and very rare copy of the Military Ordinances, printed by Richard Pynson in 1513, from the library of Mr. Molyneaux, at Loseley house.

The reading was continued of Mr. Ottley's memoir on the ancient MS. of Cicero's Aratus in the British Museum.

April 17. Mr. Gurney in the chair. Henry Beckley Richardson, esq. architect, was elected Fellow.

Edward Hawkins, esq. F. S. A. exhibited a torques of very pure gold, and weighing 74 oz. very similar to that engraved in Camden's Britannia.

The Countess of Tyrconnell exhibited a jewel, also of very pure gold and high antiquity. It is a cross, each limb of which is rather more than an inch in length, and set with five uncut rubies. It is strung on a gold chain of closely wrought fillagree work, resembling in texture a silken cord, and terminating in snakes' heads (with jewelled eyes), and two minute rings. Two handsome gold sliders, and a rudely formed bead, also

run upon the chain. It was found in Yorkshire.

A. J. Kempe, esq. F.S. A. communicated a chronological review of the Articles of War, in illustration of the Tract above mentioned.

The reading of Mr. Ottley's memoir was continued.

April 23. This being St. George's day, the annual elections took place, when the officers were severally re-elected, and the following Council: The Earl of Aberdeen, Pres.; the Duke of Sussex; Thos. Amyot, esq. Treas.; G. F. Belts, esq.; John Bruce, esq.; the Bishop of Carlisle ; Nich. Carlisle, esq. Sec.; Col. Sir Alex. Dickson; Sir H. Ellis, Sec.; John Gage, esq. Director; H. Gurney, esq. V.P.; H. Hallam, esq. V.P.; W. R. Hamilton, esq. V.P.; Rev. Joseph Hunter; Sir Fred. Madden; Sir F. Palgrave; Thos. Phillips, esq.; Thos. Rickman, esq.; Edw. Rudge, esq.; Lt.-Gen. Sir T. H. Turner; and the Rt. Hon. C. W. W. Wynn, V. P. The names in Italics are new Members in the room of C. R. Cockerell, esq. C. P. Cooper, esq., Rev. J. B. Deane, D. Gilbert, esq., R. Lemon, esq., the Bishop of Landaff, J. H. Markland, esq., Rt. Hon. Sir R. Peel, Sir T. Phillipps, and C. G. Young, esq.

From the Treasurer's accounts for the last year, it appears that the total income of the Society, including dividends, was 1,7007.; and that the sum expended upon the publications of the Society had been 1,300l. The number of Fellows in the last printed list is 678.

HISTORICAL CHRONICLE.

PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT.

HOUSE OF COMMONS.

April 14. The House resolved into a Committee of Supply.—Mr. Spring Rice moved several grants, amongst which was 8,000l. towards the new buildings at the British Museum. The next grants were 37,000l. on account of works at Windsor Castle, and 13,000l. on account of the National Gallery. Several other grants were admitted without much opposition.

HOUSE OF LORDS.

April 15. After the presentation of several Petitions in favour of the ESTABLISHED CHURCH, for the relief of the Dissenters, for an alteration in the sale of Beer, &c., the Lord Chancellor entered into a brief explanation of his views upon that important measure, the NEW BEER ACT. His Lordship explained, in giving a history of the measure, that the provision which allowed the drinking of ale upon the premises, and out of which the evils appeared to have chiefly arisen, was not contained in his original Bill, but was subsequently adopted, after an investigation of the subject by a Committee of the House of Commons, and upon their express recommendation. He thought that more time ought to be allowed, in order to try whether the evils were or were not incurable. There was a wide distinction to be drawn between Beer-shops established in towns and villages, and those established in remote parts of the country, where no public-houses had existed before. It was in the latter situations, where there was no police to look after them, that they produced such injurious effects as were complained of. But, by improving the superintendence of Beer-shops, and only permitting them in towns and villages, it appeared to him that a great portion of the existing evils might be overcome.-Lord Kenyon expressed his determination to bring forward a measure for its correction. -Lord Ellenborough thought that Government should take up the subject.-Lord Melbourne observed that there were great difficulties attending it. The question lay between the present system and the old one, and he thought no one would wish to return to the old one. After a few words, the conversation dropped.

In the HOUSE OF COMMONS, the same day, the Chancellor of the Exchequer entered into a statement of his plan for effecting

the Commutation of Tithes. The following are the propositions moved by his Lordship: "That all Tithes in England and Wales do cease and determine from..... That in future, all land liable to Tithe shall pay an average rate in proportion to its value, in the different counties. That all land liable to Tithe may have such Tithe redeemed, by the payment of twenty-five years' purchase." After a speech of some length from the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Baring, Sir R. Peel, Sir R. Inglis, and other Members, made a few remarks, expressly reserving their opinions on the plan itself, until they saw it detailed in the printed Bill.

HOUSE OF LORDS.

April 16. The Lord Chancellor moved for certain returns upon subjects which, he said, had occupied their Lordships' attention, as well as the attention of many distinguished persons, Members of the other House of Parliament. In a large and prosperous country like England, something ought to be done towards educating SCHOOLMASTERS, and not have it left to a casual supply. He did not think any person, however desirous he might be of seeing economical principles acted upon, would object to a sum of money being spent with that view. He was favourable to the establishment of normal schools, as in France, supported by such funds as the wisdom of Parliament should think fit to adopt; and he hoped that the present Session of Parliament would not pass, without some provision of that nature being made. Some institutions were not only not innocent if they did no good-for if they were he would not condemn thembut actually were productive of much mischief. Many of them, whatever persons might think to the contrary, were not only mischievous, but were such as the law ought never to have allowed, and of this class he would name an instance-the Foundling Hospital, with its extensive buildings in the neighbourhood of Guildford-street: and when the leases expired it would have a vast increase of revenue. It was now a hospital for children, it was true; but no longer for foundling children, because such an institution led to great and obvious mischief; and the rule now was, before a child could be received into the institution, its parent must first undergo an examination. In the same manner, when another institution had ceased to be

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