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through it, of many more. But these, which are in themselves most desirable things, do not make up all the merits of the "Analecta." There is a second object evident in its composition: it was necessary in a book of this kind to give specimens of Saxon poetry; and in so doing Mr. Thorpe has taken occasion to re-edit some pieces, which were not only incorrectly printed before, but had also the disadvantage of being contained in books difficult of access : thus we have Judith, from the Cotton MS. Vitell. A. xv. printed by Thwaites in his Heptateuch; and the Death of Byrhtnoth, the MS. of which is now lost, and an incorrect copy of which is only to be found in the Appendix to Hearne's Chronicle of Glastonbury. The reprinting these poems will be of great service to those whose time did not admit of their making or procuring copies for themselves. For the benefit of more advanced and philological inquirers, who know that the downward history of a tongue will alone give us mastery over it, there are extracts given from one or two works, yet in MS. which will enable them to judge for themselves upon this point: and which, we will venture to assure Mr. Thorpe, will render his book right valuable in the eyes of Grimm, and some others of our learned German brethren. Among these may be reckoned, 1. the two texts of Lajamon's Tale of King Leir, one from the Cot. MS. Cal. A. Ix. the second (in parallel columns) from Otho. C. x.: 2. a large selection from the strange work called from its author Ormulum, from an Oxford MS. 3. a chapter of the Gospels, from the Durham Book (Cott. MSS. Nero D. iv.) arranged by the side of the pure Saxon text. Mr. Thorpe has, with a true knowledge of their no-value, rejected the silly characters which people call Saxon, except in the case of th, and dh; and, in the Old English, of that equivocal g which most of our editors have persisted in printing as z. Nevertheless, knowing that it will be some time before the bibliomaniacal foppery of using these types ceases, and that the old editions are mostly printed with them, he gives as a specimen of them one chapter of the Gospels: we confess, we think they show to such small advantage by the side of the common text, that we hope a mere comparison of the two will lead to the result which we desire to see; being fully convinced that no other end is gained by retaining the old (and on the Continent, exploded) method, than that of rendering books expensive, and so throwing a new obstacle in the way of the student.

We have so high an opinion of the merits of Mr. Thorpe's work, and the usefulness of his book, that we shall not scruple to say what we think might have been amended in it. We do not see why it was necessary to reprint here the long prose account of Cadmon, already given by Mr. Thorpe in his edition of that poet's Paraphrase: neither, on account of some half a dozen errors in Rask's text of the Spell (in the Appendix to his Grammar), and which as many lines would have sufficed to correct, why it was necessary to give us the whole of this over again. These have helped to encourage his publishers in putting a price upon the book, which, though not great in comparison of the advantages which the book offers, is too much for practical purposes. It is an excellent class book for the London University and King's College; and it should have been made cheaper, that it might be the more widely read.

We have only to add the expression of our unfeigned pleasure at its appearance; to repeat our conviction that it will be of more service to the study of Saxon, and through Saxon of English, than any book which we have hitherto seen, with the exception of the Translation of Rask; and finally to exhort Mr. Thorpe to occupy himself in extending his excellent Glossary. He will do more thereby, even than by his editions of Cædmon and the Codex Exoniensis, because he will found a school of readers, to whom such works may hereafter be useful: at present, his translations are read, and his texts let alone.


THE accompanying engraving (Plate II.) is another specimen of the embel. lishments of Mr. Douce's recent publication on the Dance of Death, noticed in our number for February.


3 D

A highly ornamental dagger, either curiously chased or richly set with jewels, was the fashionable domestic weapon at the commencement of the sixteenth century. It is frequently to be found in the whole-length portraits of Henry the Eighth, Edward the Sixth, and other persons of rank at that period; and was worn nearly in front of the person, as is shown on the figure of the King in the subject before us.

This dagger is copied from an engraving by Mechel, published at Basle in 1780. It is impossible,” observes Mr. Douce," to exceed the beauty and skill that are manifested in this fine piece of art. The figures are, a king, queen, warrior, a young woman, a monk, and an infant, all of whom most unwillingly accompany Death in the dance. The despair of the King, the dejection of the Queen, accompanied by her little dog, the terror of the soldier who hears the drum of Death, the struggling of the female, the reluctance of the monk, and the sorrow of the poor infant, are depicted with equal spirit and veracity. The original drawing is in the Public Library at Basle, and ascribed to Holbein,"

It is remarked by Walpole, that

"Holbein's talents were not confined to his pictures; he was an architect, he modelled, carved, was excellent in designing ornaments, and gave draughts of prints for several books, some of which it is supposed he cut himself. Sir Hans Sloane had a book of jewels designed by him, now in the British Museum. He invented patterns for goldsmith's work, for enamellers and chasers of plate, arts much countenanced by Henry VIII. Inigo Jones showed Sandrart another book of Holbein's designs for weapons, hilts, ornaments, scabbards, sheaths, sword-belts, buttons, and hooks, girdles, hatbands, and clasps for shoes, knives, forks, saltsellers, and vases, all for the King. Hollar engraved several of them. The Duchess of Portland and Lady Elizabeth Germain have each a dagger set with jewels, which belonged to that Prince, and were probably imagined by Holbein."

The book of drawings by Holbein, formerly in the possession of Sir Hans Sloane, and which Walpole says afterwards came to the British Museum, are not mentioned in the Catalogue of the Sloane MSS. but is perhaps among the drawings in the Print Room.

The etchings by Hollar consist of four octavo plates from weapons then in the collection of the Earl of Arundel. One of them is stated to have belonged to King Edward the Sixth. The chasing is very elegant arabesque work, but not a series of figures in the style of the subject before us.

The Duchess of Portland's dagger is mere " goldsmith's work," with no extraordinary merit in its design to justify the use of Holbein's name. It is "made of a nephritick stone, set with jacinths and gold ornaments: the blade of steel damasked with gold." It had been purchased by the Earl of Oxford in 1720, for 45l. when the remains of the Arundelian collection were sold at Tart Hall, Pimlico. There is a folio engraving of it, by Vertue, one of four plates of the Duchess of Portland's jewels.

Lady Elizabeth Germaine's dagger was afterwards purchased by Mr. Walpole for fifty guineas, and is now at Strawberry Hill. It is set with above a hundred rubies, and a few diamonds.


MR. URBAN,-The following letter is devoted to the remains of ancient architecture in Devonshire, with a view principally to investigate the distintinguishing forms and features of the churches, their antiquity, and their various decorations; and also to notice the general system of innovation, which seems almost to have been established in this county, and which in its mischievous and unrestrained course has deprived many of the noblest ecclesiastical edifices of their most sumptuous or most admired ornaments, and the progress of which is still negligently permitted on many of the valuable remains that have hitherto escaped the excesses of ignorant and deluded fanatics.

Breadth and extent of building are among the striking characteristics of the churches in Devonshire. The former is perhaps more remarkably conspicuous

than the latter. Triple aisles-those on the sides of the chancel and body, in many cases as wide, or nearly as wide as the centre space-almost uniformly compose the plan, whose general figure, as seen in its complete elevation, has seldom sufficient height to give the triple gables which terminate the roof, a graceful external appearance. A tower of stately proportions at the west end or on the south side was calculated to ennoble the design; but Barnstaple and Bideford, and some other large churches, have towers remarkable for their insignificance; and perhaps the ancient fashion of building churches, in Devonshire, could not be exemplified by instances more ungraceful, I had almost said apposite, than these; for, generally speaking, magnificence and extent of structure are not united in the Ecclesiastical Architecture of Devonshire. A strong and striking distinction between the body and chancel, is a handsome character which does not generally belong to the churches in this county. A long undivided line of roof usually extends from the east to the west end, and spans an area with sides exactly parallel, though not always precisely uniform in their design. The Church of Broad Clist, which in some respects is an exception to these remarks, invites the attention of the traveller, and would be admired in the adjoining county of Somerset. It was built in the 15th century, and in the words of Dr. Johnson, is an "edifice of loftiness and elegance equal to the highest hopes of architecture." It will be observed that the apex of the chancel is somewhat exceeded in elevation by that of the nave, but even this building, with all the fascination of its design, is far inferior in the beauty of its relative proportions, to such churches as Wrington, St. John's in Glastonbury, High Ham, Huish, and East Brent in Somersetshire, which I name as perfect models of churches of the class under consideration, and in which the beauty of the design is enhanced by the contracted proportions of the chancel, the double set of gables, and the pleasing informality in the height of the walls and the size of the windows. The Church of Broad Clist must however be regarded as a very beautiful specimen of architecture, as pre-eminent for the choice and arrangement of its ornaments, for the magnificence of its Tower, which stands at the west end, and for the perfection of all its windows and embattled parapets, as well as for the whole of its internal decorations. It would be difficult to name a church in the county that would not lose by comparison with this admirable specimen of ecclesiastical architecture. The Tower possesses loftiness and grace, and presents the most imposing elegance. Its proportions attract admiration, and admiration is heightened by the judicious distribution of solidity and ornament. There is no display of finery, no inequality in the allotment of decoration. The door at the base is very handsome, and eight tall and tapering pinnacles crown the summit. The most superb window in the Church appears at the east end of the north aisle: the rest have less novelty in their design, but these claim the praise of symmetry; and if their numerous ramifications were now as formerly occupied by painted glass, no part of the interior would be deficient in lustre, nay, the solemnity would be increased by the addition. Clustered pillars and arches, combined with the utmost attention to science and good taste, separate the nave and chancel from their aisles. Whole-length statues of angels, holding books or shields, stand on the capitals, and sustain the external moulding of the arches in all the aisles. The wings mount above the heads of the figures, and descend in straight lines to their feet. The moulding is decorated with rosets, and the capitals are beautifully enriched with foliage, heads, and other sculptures. I was fortunate in seeing this Church before the hand of mischief was uplifted to do it violence. It has since descended upon the building, and modernized its roof both externally and internally, giving it an outward covering of sheet iron. It has also defaced the monuments, by tearing away the ornamented iron rails by which they were protected: these trophies of barbarism were for a time to be seen glittering with gold, among ancient oaken beams and rafters from the roof, and heaps of less valuable rubbish, in the church-yard.

The broad and lofty arch, as the internal feature of separation between the body and chancel, seems no less indispensable to the beauty of the internal design, than a difference of dimensions both in breadth and height (the length

being always greater) is deemed necessary to complete the character and elegant effect of the exterior; but owing to the arrangement before described as common in the churches of Devonshire, the arch in this position was omitted, as interfering with the regularity and uniformity of the sides, and the even line of roof. But the screen, with its rood-loft, seems never to have been discarded, but always to have maintained its situation over the entrance to the chancel; and the rood, with its accompanying figures, reached nearly to the ceiling, where a beam perhaps larger the rest, and more elaborately carved, appeared as a suitable ornament to the sculptured representations immediately over which it was fixed. This description may be applied to Collumpton Church, the interior of which, in its pristine state, must have exhibited a glorious spectacle. The display of enrichment over the door of the sanctuary was most magnificent. Other portions were highly beautiful in their design and ornament, but the sculptors reserved their powers for the embellishment of this part of the interior, which exhibited the rood carved in oak, high above every other object, and elevated in this instance nearly to the crown of the ceiling. The last relic of its adornments was removed from its 'situation little more than half a century ago, and is still to be seen in the church, where it is preserved, or I should say, suffered to occupy a vacant place, without molestation and without regard. Its use is not remembered by those who might have witnessed it among heaps of rubbish in the loft or gallery, where it had lain neglected ever since the period when it was forced from its position, and other acts of violence and impiety were committed in the church. The beam which supported the Rood and its attendant figures, was formed of a tree of noble growth, and of undiminished bulk when the carver wrought out his design upon its surface. It is partly solid and partly hollow, and has been sawn in two pieces. When entire it measured about fifteen feet and a half in length, and twenty inches in diameter. The carving is of the boldest character, and requires distance to show it to advantage. The surface is covered with a kind of leaf ornament, or it may be intended to represent the rough bark of a tree. In the centre is a pedestal eleven inches and a quarter square, with a mortise eight inches deep, for the purpose of receiving the foot of the cross, and securing its stem in an upright position. Under it is a death's head and cross bones. The side pedestals, which also have death's heads and bones under them, are nearly twice as broad as that in the middle, and supported the figures of the Virgin and St. John, which were not mortised into the beam, but were kept in their positions by a rim or border, formed by excavating the pedestals about two inches below the surface. The distance between each pedestal, measured from their centres, is full four feet two inches. Between the pedestals, and beyond them, near to the extremities of the beam, are holes more than an inch in diameter, deeply sunk in cones which are raised as high as the pedestals: these were designed for the four waxen tapers which were occasionally required in the rites of the ancient religion.

It will perhaps be expected that I should at least glance at the Elder Architecture of Devonshire. I will therefore observe in this place, that there is absolutely nothing among the ecclesiastical buildings that the most acute discoverer of Saxon architecture would claim as exhibiting evidences of a date anterior to the Norman Conquest. Bishop's Teignton Church has been wretchedly mutilated. The remains of the old building have been violently disturbed, if not strangely displaced. The chief object of curiosity among them is the head of the south doorway: its lintel is sculptured with a representation of the Magii presenting their gifts to the infant Jesus. If the quality and character of the sculpture be considered, it does not differ, in my judgment at least, from those of the acknowledged productions of the Normans in the 12th century. If the position be regarded, I would observe that the lintel of the magnificent west doorway of Rochester Cathedral is covered with some historical representation.

I approached Crediton with reverence, and was prepared to abate something of my distrust of genuine Saxon Architecture (spite of the bungling manner in which its advocates have attempted to characterise it), in favour of what I

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