« AnteriorContinuar »
MONTHLY AGRICULTURAL REPORT. FROST, longer and more severe tiian has been experienced in this country for many every species of oul-door or field business, even ihat of the dung.cart. The only eru. ployment has been attendance upon the live steck in the straw-yard, which, from the great plenty of fodder, has been most successful. The covering of snow vill however be very beneficial to the wheat crops, vihich generally stood in need of a check to their luxuriance; and the fallows will receive an ample share of benefit from the same cause, prodncing fine and friable monids for the approaching seed season.
Cattle crops, turnips, cabbage, &c. are in an uncertain state, dependent upon the nature of the thaw, for the degree of damage they may sustain; and as usual, very few growers have had the precaution to draw and stack any part of their roots.
Reports from the north, confirm the universal lavourable accounts of the last crop of every kind of produce, particularly wheat and barley, more excellent still in quality ihazı bulk. No appearance of disease in the wheats, except sprinklings of smut in many parts, but to no great extent. The wheat seed time also was most favourable, equal to fliat of the best years; and notwithstanding the very considerable reduction of prices, improre. ments and the culture of new landis advance with great spirit. Nor lave rents fallen, the full prices being current for all the late leases granted, the term of some having been extended in consequence. Our worst report is the extreme distress of the ta bouring classes, during the severe weather.
The wool markets in general looking upwards, but coarse long wool much in request, and dearer than at any former period. Caitle and pig markets, both fat and store, scantily supplied, and extremely dear. Cows dearer, horses somewhat cheaper, particularly of the cart kind, in some degree to be attributed to the rational return of many farmers to ox labour, and the consequent expectation that it is about to become general, one of the greatest objects of national and individual economy.
Smithfield : Beef is. to 75.-Mutton 6s. to 85.-Vcal Bs. to 10:,-Lamb 20s. to 23s. per quarter. ---Pork 6s. Ed. to 8s. 8d.--Bacon 8s. 4d. to ös. 8d.--Irish ditto 76. 4d. to 7s. 80.-Skins 25s. to 60s.-Fat 6s. 8d.-Oil cake 161.--Potatoes 31. 10s. to 61. 10s.
Corn Exchange: Wheat 54s. to 845.--Barley 345. to 46s --Oats 135. to 36s. The quartern loaf 13.d.-Hay Si, to 51. 55.-- Clover ditto 51. to 71. 78.--Straw 11. 10s. to 21, 2s.
REPORT OF TIIE PROGRESS OF CHEMISTRY.
Chirurgical Society of London, some able observations on the Natme and Avalysis of Animal Fluids, to which we shall devote our present Report.
He says that, a considerable part of his essay was written before he was favoured with a perusał of Professor Berzelius's paper, which was printed in the last volume of these Transactions; and the perusal afforded a presumption of the correctness of many of his own opinions, to find that they had been adopted, without concert or commmication, by one so distinguished for his learning and acuteness.
Mucus is viscid or tenacious fluids, capable of being drawn into threads, but not of being poured in the form of drops, containing a great quantity of water, but not readily miscible with any adrlitional quantity. Saliva may be adduced as a specimen of them: and to the same class belongs the nasal mucus, tie nens found in the stomach, that occasionally discharged from the bladder, and that fron the intestinal canal. These fluids differ from the albuminous, in being principally composed of a substance whirla is not exactly similar to any thing in the blood; and on this account, they are to be consi. dered as the products of secretion, rather than of transudation. They also differ in another circumstance, which is of cousiderable importance in a pathological point of view; that whereas the albuminous fluids seem to be all confined in close cavities, the mucus fluids," in their natural state, are poured out into passages that communicate with the external surface of the body. It is not possible to collect and examine these Maids in the same manner with the albuminous: they are secreted gradually, and are
as they are secreted : they are united to variable quantities of water; and, in most cases, they are mixed with extraceous bodies before they are dischargerl. The sulivu consists of a variable proportion of water, of two animal substances, one which, in its chemical nature, resembles coagulated albumen, of another which is uscoagulable, and of salts. From the circunstance of its being uniteil 10 a large quantity of water, while at the same time it is very difficult to unite an additional quantity to it, We must suppose that it possesses a certain degree of organization ; and as its cemical properties are the same with those of neinbrane, it is perhaps the first step towards tlie formation of this bod y. From its half organized'state, it is less affected by different reagents than albumen but after a sufficient length of time, it exhibits the saine attraction for the oxy-muriate of mercury and før tan, and in tlie same manner is Las its mion
Report of the Progress of Chemistry. [Feb. 1, with the former of these substances promoted by heat. The other animal substance in saliva, lie considers, as being very nearly, if not entirely, similar to the nncoagulable matter in albumen ovi and in serum.
There is still a third class of animal fluids, the purticled, which should next come under our consideratio!), the peculiar characteristic of which consists in their containing particles visible to the naked eye. He examined a few of these fluids which had been Thischarged from tumours situate both in muscular and in glandular parts. One of them was procured from a coufined tumonr on thie thiglı ; its basis consisted of an albuminous fluid, and the particles were composed of a substance very similar to spermaceti, both in its physical and chemical properties. Like this substance, it exhibited a considerable Jastre, which it communicated to the fluid, so that when it was gently agitated, it gave to it a waved or glossy appearance, not mlike satin. As the fluid part was miscible with water, while the particles were insoluble, they were readily separated, and retained their lustre for some time after being dried.
SYNOPSIS OF SOME ALBUMINOUS FLUIDS,
1. Physical Pro
Pirties. a. Specific gravity.
1.024 b. Colour.
Different shades of Bright yellow. Primrose.
ow. c. Consistence. Adhesive.
Strongly adhesive. Athesive. d. Odor. Albuminous,
Albuminous. Albuminous. e. Alhalescency. Very obvious. Very obvious. Very obvious. f. Miscellaneons Readily niiscible Transparent, but Transparent; percircumstances. with water.
contains membranous haps always in health.
Glainents. 2. Spontaneous White sediment de
fætid, Becomes fretid ; at changes. posited, alkalescence but less so than ma-first odor like pus; increased, odor very ny other albuminous deposits a creamy seGuids.
diment, then flakes. 3. Coagulability. Completo coagu By boiling firm By boiling so firm
um by heat, rather coagulum; oxym. rer as to be cut with a oft, serositý oozer ders it more dense, fknife ; oxym. pro froin it; rendered and separates the se- iuces the usual ef
more dense hy oxym.frosity: 4. Evaporation. is left in About \left. About s left.
Specimen, in the
.. Reagents. a. Oxym, mercury Copious precipi. The whole con The whole contate.
verted into a dense verted into a thick
mass. b, Tan. The same. The same.
The same. c. Superac. of
lead. d. Nitrate of sil.
ver. c. Muriatic acid.
Converts the wholei Converts the whole to a pulp.
to a pulp. 6. Uncoagulable Proved to exist by Proved to exist by Proved to exist by matter. evaporation, and by bitrate of silver and itrate of silver and
nitrate of silver, and furiate of tin. muriate of tin.
acctate of lead.
88 b. Albumen,
10 c. Vuccag.
2.7 matter. d. Salts.
MONTHLY BOTANICAL REPORT.
VINCE our last Report a second number of Mr. Bauer's work, which we there so high
ly appreciated, bas appeared, and fully merits the same applause. It contains representations of the following plants:
6. ANELLEMA crispata. This is a new genus, framed hy Mr. Brown, belonging to the natural order of Commelineæ, and indeed is intended to include several species that have been heretofore referred to Commelina, viz. giguntea, vaginata, nudiflora, spirata, and mea dica, of Vahl's Enumeratio.
The genus is distinguished from Commelina chiefly by the want of an involucrum, dise tinct from the rest of the foliage. Mr. Brown has not given the etymology of the uame; we suppose it is from svetaopast, an envelope ; though it must be confessed to be rather out of the usual conse to name a plant from a part which is wanting. But it is of little consequence. Nor should we have stopped to enquire into the origin of the name, but for the sake of determining the pronunciation ; if the derivation be right the accent must lie upon the last syllable but one. Nothing can exceed the distinctness with which the dissections of every part are displayed in this beautiful figure. 7. CARTONEMA spicata. Another genus from the same natural order, whichi, having six equad and perfect stamens, belongs to the sixth class in the Limean systein, and has therefore more affinity with Tradescantia than with Commelina, and differs materially from both, and very får indeed in habit. Having naked filaments, which in Tradescantia are hairy, this circunıstance has given occasion to the name, naghoy vap.es, shavedd filument. The stigma is said to be pubescent, but in the figure this is only visible in the lighly magnified dissection.
8. CHILOGLOTTIS diphylla, belongs to the natural order of Orchidea, and takes its name, we presume, from the tongue-like lip (labellum). There is only one species l'ecorded either of this or the preceding genus. Other plants of the same order, which have some affinity with the Chiloglottis, occur in New Holland, but we have nothing like it in Enrope.
9Greville, Bankosii. This beantiful genus was named by Mr. Brown after the late Right Hon. Charles Francis Greville, esq. best known for his celebrater collection of minerals, purchiased since his death by parliament, and deposited in the British Museum. He was likewise possessed of a very large collection of rare plants from all parts of the world, which he was ever ready to communicate to the scientific botanist.
Of this genus, eight and thirty species, divided into several sections, are described by Mr. Brown in his Prodromus. It belongs to the natural order of Protence. There is a very great singularity in the pubescence of this genus, and of the nearly related one lukea, or Conchium, of Dr. Smith ; that such species as are hairy have their hairs attached by the middle, a structare not observed by Mr. Brown in any other genus of this extensive order,
10. BRUNONIA sericea. This singular genus was named in honour of Robert Brown, esq. the learned author of the Prodromus Nova Hollandiæ, by Dr. Smith, in the 10th volume of the Transactiong of the Linnean Society. In habits it approaches to Globularius and by Dr. Smith was hesitatingly added to the natural order of aggregata of Linens, the Dipsace of Jussieu. Mr. Browu considers it as intermediate between the Goodenoviæ and Corymbifere. There are two species of this genus, both of which are figured in the Linnean Society's Transactions.
This sudden change was be
On Sawday the 16th tween the even
in the middle of the Greatest 62-hun ings of the 19th Greatest
day, the thermometer variation in diedths of and 20th. On variation in 12. was at 399, and at the 24 bours, an inch. the former the 24 hours,
salue hour next day it mercury was at
was no higher than 28.73, and on the
20%. latter at 29.35. There has been no rain this month, excepting a very small quantity on Christmas day; the quantity of snow fallen in this neighbourhood exceeds et cry thing of the kind for a
Meteorological Report. great mumber of ycars; but this is not measurable by any kind of weather-gage with which we are acquainted.
The average height of the barometer for the month is 29.50 : that of the thermometer is 262 nearly, several degrees short of what it has been the last twelve years.
Christmas-day, which is the first day of our month, was wet, fogyy, and extremely un. comfortable; but at Highgate, the thiree following days, viz. the 26th, 27th, and 28th, were anong the most brilliant that ever shone, vot a cloud or a particle of fog intervened to obscure for a moment the splendor of the sun.
In London, however, and in many other parts south, east, and west of the metropolis, and even to the foot of Highgate Hill, those tremendous fogs occnrred, which continued almost without any cessation eight days: they began on the 27th, and the last was on January 31: of these we experieneel, oa the hill, very little, excepting on part of two or three days. On most of the roads, excepting the high north, travelling was performed with the utmost danger, and the progress of the mails was greatly impeded. On Wednesday the 29th, the Birmingham nail was, we were informied, nearly seven hours in going from the post-office to a mile or two below Uxbridge: on this, and the other evenins, the short stages in the neighbourhood of London had two persons with links, ransing by the horses heads; nevertheless, with this and other precautions, some serious and many wlinsical accidents occurred. It would be desirable to ascertain as accurately as possible, how far these fogs extended, in order that some foundation might be laid to enquire into the canse which produced them, or whether they have been at all connected with the rast quantity of snow fallen : it being certain that the snow began to fall in large quantities the very day after the fogs were dispersed.
We have said that 15" is the lowest that we have seen the thermometer, which is ezposed as usual to a N. E. aspert: we have heard it lias been as low as 12e in Kentišle Tow; and it is saith, that at Wandsworth, Raitersea, and that neighbourhood, it has been as low as 7o; We own we have some doubts as to the accuracy of the observers. 112 general, the coldest time lias been abont eight o'ciock in the morning; and at Highgate, (on the south side of the liill, it has never been inwer than 15° :) in all the cold weather, the instrument was examined at five v'clock, and also at eight, and uniformly it was colder at the latter hour than at the furiyer, unless there was ali evident change from cold to lieat, as there has been during the last twenty hours, it being yesterday, (the 25th) at three o'clock, 39°; at night at vine, ?1?; at five this morning, (the 26th) at 290 ; and now at eleven o'clock it is 352. We very much suspect the accuracy of those instruments that have registeredl, in the nighbourhood of London, the degrees of cold at 70. We have no rell authenticated accommts tiom any part of England or Scotland, of the thermoncter having been as low as this. In the West of England, the frost has been very severe, where the snow has been more abundant Uran it las bure; but at Plyinonth, it was not below 17o; it is said, however, that on a N. E. wall, it Sir Thomas Acland's, at nine in the morning of the 13th, the mercirry was as low as 39.
In our next we will resanke the subject, and give a summary of the weather, not only for the last year, but for the last tsvelve years.
TO CORRESPONDENTS, &c. A crolod of communications beyond u'lformer crumple, us our pages fully testify, has compelled us to drfer the much-sleeine'd filrours of many old and valued Correspondents. Contiauctions from the stone cause all'e celul, of the population Tables, of the Code Napoleon, of the Stute of Mannur's, Sc. in Iniliit, vj' i ke Polrig und Richardson correspondence, &c. fc.
Our Kentish Town correspondent has our warmest thanks, and we court an interview trith him.
Our Parnassinn friendt iinformel, that we alreays insert without deluy, specimens of Poctical 17orks in the press, with which their Authors may furour us.
As a compliment j'stly due to those Correspondents, why confer authority on their papers by their signatures, ue purpose in friure to excmpt them from the condition of paying postage; but to prevent inistars, it is necessary; they should indorse their Letters with their names at the c67'17ct of the address.
Amicus, and some other Friends, are more anxious than we are in regard to certain unprincipled iad malignunt Aloertisements in the Muspapers. We have lived too long to be move by such aukcivus quekery ; ani on pagrs and our publisher's accounts of increased. and increasing syles, affirit triumphunt unil tungible answers to calumnies wrich defeat élemreivis by their grossness. We are strong (rd incincible, while our cause is that of Truth au Humunity; and while our Frien:ls continue to enrich our pages to the extent which is se conspicuvus in our current Number.
Our usual Supplementary . Vumber is published, and will be delivered with the present Drugazine.
EERATU M. - In the second paragragh of the Public Affairs, for “Mentz" read “ Metz,"
MARCH 1, 1814.
[2 of Vol. 37.
As long as those who write are ambitious of making Converts, and of giving their Opinions a Maxiraum of
Influence and Celebrity, the most extensively circulated Miscellany will repay with the greatest Effect the
Curiosity of those who read, whether it be for Amusement or for Instruction. -JOHNSON. Sir Joshua Reynolds, on being questioned in regard to the cause of the inferiority of counterfeits and imitators,
answered, that their being copyists was of itself a proof of the inferiority of their power, and that while they continued to be so, it was impossible for them to attain superiority. " It was like a man's resolving to go behind another, whilst that resolution lasted, it would be impossible he should ever be on a par with him."NORTHCOTE.
CONTINUATION of the ACCOUNT of the recent ERECTION of PUBLIC
BUILDINGS in various PARTS of the BRITISH EMPIRE.
THE ROYAL MILITARY ACADEMY, WOOLWICH. THI
NHE Royal Military Academy at Wool- inspector, a professor of mathematics,
wich was established in the year 1741, and six mathematical masters; a profesby warrants from King George II. The sor of fortification, and two masters; a situation of the old academy in the Royal chemical professor; two French masters; Arsenal being found unfavourable in ma. two masters of surveying and plan-drawa ny respects, and the gradual increase of ing; two other drawing masters; with the establishment calling for a larger fencing and dancing masters. building, a new one has been erected in dets are admitted to the institution on an an elevated situation near the foot of examination, the qualifications for which Shooter's Hill, and at the distance of were stated among our Literary Varieabout a mile from the Thames. The ties, in a late Monthly Magazine. After first stone was laid in May 1803, and the their admission the strictest impartiality academy was removed to the new build- is observed. There neither is, nor can ings (of which the above sketch exhibits be, a system of favouritism in this instituthe north front) on the 12th of August, tion. The cadets are examined for pro
motion from one class to another, and The youths who are educated in the inspectors always attend these exa. this institution form a separate com- minations ; talents and attainments alone pany, under the denomination of " The ensure the preference. The examina. Company of Gentlemen Cudets." They tions for commissions, which are the most
from the moment they enter important, are half yearly; and they are the company (which is so managed as to always held before a board of general defray the expences of board, education, officers, who recommend the cadets for books, uniform, &c.), and are under mi- commissions in the Artillery or Royal litary discipline, the Master-General of Engineer service, according to their fita : the Ordnance being their captain, as well ness and proficiency. as governor of the academy. Under him Among the gentlemen of established there are two captains, and four lieute- reputation now connected with this im. nants, upon whom devulve the military portant institution, are the following, care and instruction of the cadets when Colonel Mudge, the able and scientific they are out of the academy. The pre- conductor of the “ Trigonometrical Sure sent number of cadets at the institution rey of England and Wales,” is the lieuteis about 200; though we believe there nant-governor, under whose superinten. are others in the company who cannot dence the academy is rapidly returning yet be received for want of room. In to the state of celebrity it had twenty or the department of instruction there are, thirty years ago. Di. Hutton, who for under the general direction of a lieute. nearly forty years filled the mathematical nant-governor, inspector, and assistant chair with so much honour to bimself MONTHLY MAG. No. 252.