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son cæur la jalousie et l'humiliation; Po the Editor of the Monthly Maguzine. quand il ne voit point dans ses cumarudes SIR, ,

BEG leave, through the medium of La verite, la bonté, la confiunce, l' affec your iniscellany, to complain of what tion entourent les enfants : c'est dans I think to be an abuse of the solemnity cette atmosphere qu'ils vivent et pour of an oath. I mean the practice of those quelque temps du moins ils restent etrani: people who, being the proprietor's of gers à toutes les pussions haineuses, à tous some patent medicine, newspaper, or les prejugés orgueilleux du monde.Whe other article in great demand, are in the ther it be more salutary to preserve the habit of appearing before the lord maymind as long as possible in this happy or, or some other magistrate, for the state of innocence and tranquillity, or purpose of making affidavits as to the early to exercise it in those trials and ingredients used in their destrums, or the combats to which it must be exposed at quality and sale of their goods, copies of some tiine or other, may admit of doubt. which affidavits are usually prefixed to

C.S. their hand bills or advertisements. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Now, Sir, in my humble opinion, this SIR,

is a practice which ought not to be alINVITE some of your readers to lowed. An oath should vot be adminis

furnish through your Magazine stered except in cases of necessity, fur A catalogue of useful books for the ser. the sake of justice, &c. For my part I vants' hall of large families.

should be more inclined to purchase And another for an hospital library.

goods of a man who gave ine his simple They might be productive of much word respecting their quality, than of good, by employing usefully those hours him shu should offer me his attidavit of of leisure, which are often worse than the same thing. GULIELMUS. wasted.

London, April 1, 1813, Birmingham.






ACCOUNT of the life and LABOURS of the age of seven years, he attempted to

the COUNT DE FOURCROY; as throw hiin:ell into her grave; and the stracted from the Eulogy delivered by care of an elder sister alone preserved Cuvier in the Imperial Institute. him, till he reached the age at which it NTOINE François DE FOURCROY, was usual to be sent to the college. llere

Count of the French Empire, he met with a brutal master, who conCounsellor of State, Commander of the ceived an aversion to him, and treated Legion of Honour, Member of the Im- him with cruelty. The cousequence was perial Institute, and of most scientific a dislike to study, and he quitted the societies in Europe, Professor of Chemis- college at the age of fourteen, less intry at the Museum of Natural History, formed than when he went to it. He Professor of the Faculty of Medicine at now endeavoured to support himself as a Paris, and Teacher in the Polytechnic writing-master. Hc had even School, was born at Paris on the 15th of thoughts of going upon the stage; but June, 1755. His family had long resided the advice of Viq. d'Azyr, induced him in the capital, and several of his ances to commence the study of medicine. tors had distinguished themselves at This great anatomist was an acquainte the bar,

ance of the elder Fourcroy. Struck with His father exercised in Paris the trade the appearance of his son, and the couof an apothecary, in consequence of an rage with which he süruggled against foroffice which he held in the house of the tune, he conceived an affection for him, Duke of Orleans; but the Corporation of and promised to direct his studies, and Apothecaries having obtained the general assist hiin during their progress. The suppression of all such offices, he was study of medicine to a man in his situobliged to renounce his employment; and ation, was by no ineans an easy task. his son grew up in the nidst of poverty De was obliged to lodge in a garret, so produced by this monopoly of the pri- low in the roof that he could only stund vileged bodies in Paris. Ile felt this si- upright in the centre of the room. Betuation the more keenly, because he pos- side liim lodged a water-carrier, with a sessed from nature an extreme seusibility family of twelve children. I'oureroy of temper. When he lost his mother, at acted as physician to this numerous fi1


Memoirs of the Count de Fourcroy.

[Feb. 1, zily; and, as payment, was supplied with Being thus entitled to practise in Paris, abundance of water. le contrired, how- his success depended entirely upon the ever, to szportlimself by giving lessuns reputation which he could establish. to other students, boy facilitating the re- for this purpose he devoted himself to searchies of wealezier writers, and by the sciences connected with medicine, some translations which ke sold to a as the xhortest and most certain road by bookseller. Furthsee lauter he was paid which he could reach his object. His but half, but the same boukuler offererl

, first writings slowed no predilection for, thirty years afterwards, to make up the any particular brench of science. lle deficiency, when luis author hasi become wrote indifferently upon chemistry, anaDirecior General of Public Bristruction. tomy, and og natural history. He pub

Fourcray studies with so much zeal lished an Abidinent of the History of and ardoui', that he soon became ac- Insects, and a Drscripiion of the Bursce quainted with the entire science of me Mfucosa of the Tensions. This last piece dicine. but this did not answer his gave him the greatest celebrity: for in purpose. It was necessary to get a Doc- 1785 he was admitted, in consequence, tor's degreco; and the expenses amounted into the facadieiny of Sciences as an anto 2301. sie:ling. An old physician, atonist; but the reputation of Bucquet, Dr. Diest, bad left funds to the faculty which at that time was very high, graduto confer a gratuitous degree and license, ally led hi:n to direct his principal attenevery two years, in the poor sludent who tion to chemistry, and he retained this should best deserve them. Fourcroy predilection during the remainder of his was the most conspicuous of this descrip- life, becoming the first and most celetion at that time in Paris; and he would brated chenist of his age. therefore have reaped the benefit of this Bucuust was at that time professor of benevolent legacy, had it not been for chemistry in the medical school of Paris, the unlucky situation in which he was and was greatly celebrated and followed, placed. A quarrel existed between the on account of his eloquence. Foureroy faculty charged with the education of became in the first place his pupil, and medical men who granted degrees, and soon after his particular friend. One a society recently established by govern- day, when an unforeseen illness prement for the inprovement of the medical ventert him from lecturing as usual, he

This dispute was carried to a great entreated MI. de Fourcroy to supply his length, and had aitracted the attention place. He at first declined, and alleged of the frivolous and idle inhabitants of his total ignorance of the method of adParis. Fiq. d'Azyr wus secretary to the dressing a popular audience. But, oversociety, and of course one of its most ac come by the persuasions of Bucquet, he tive champions, and was in consequence consented; and in this first essay, spoke particularly obnoxious to the faculty of two hours without disorder or hesitation, medicine. Fourcroy tvas unluckily the and acquitted himself to the satisfaction acknowledged proiegé of this eminerit an. of his whole audience. Bucquet soon atomist, and tiris was sufficient to induce after substituted him in his place, and it the faculty of medicine to refuse him the was in laboratory and in his classgratuitous degree. He would have been rocon, that Fourcroy first made himself excluded in covsequence from entering acquainted with chemistry. He was enupon the career of medicine, had not the abled at the death of Bucquet, in consen society, curaged at this treatment, and quence of an advantageous marriage, to intiuenced by violent party spirit, formed purchase the apparatus and cabinet of a subscription, and contributed the ne his master; and although the faculty of cessary expences,

medicine would not allow him to succeed It was not possible to refuse M. dle to the chair of Bucquet, they could not Fourcroy the degree of Doctor, wlien he preveut him from succeeding to his rewas enabled to pay for it; but above the putation. simple degree or Doctor, there was a There was a college established in the higher one, that of Docteur Regent, King's garden, which was at that time which depending on the votes of the under the superintendance of Buffon, and faculty, it was unaniinously refused. This Macquer was the professor of chemistry violent and unjust conduct of the faculty in this institution. On the death of this of medicine, inale a deep impression in chemist, in 1784, Lavoisier stood canthe mind of Funreroy, and contributed didate for the chair. But Buffon receive not a little, by bis subsequent influence, ing more than a hundred letters in fa

downfall of that powerful your of Fourcroy, and the voice of the body.

public was so loud in lus favour, that he


to the

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was appointed to the situation, in were therefore founded for educating of the high reputation of his opponent, medical men, nobly endowed, and coiand the superior interest that nected with the University of Paris, sulted from his fortune and situation in The terın Schools of Medicine was howlife.

ever proscribed as reviving the detested Fourcroy continued professor at the ancient reginen, and they were distinJardin des Plantes, during the remainder guished by the appellation of Schools of of his life, which lasted twenty-five years;

Health. The Polyteehnic school was and such was his eloquence, or so welí next instituted, as a kind of preparation was it fitted to the taste of the French for the military profession, where young nation, that his celebrity as a lecturer men could be instructed in mathenatics .continued always upon the increase: so and natural philosophy, to qualify thera great also were the crowds that ilocked for entering the schools of the artillery, to hear him, that it becaihe twice neces the engineers, and of navigation. This şary to enlarge the lecture-room. central schools was another institu'ion

He was elected a member of the Na- for which France is indebted to the efforts tional Convention in the autumn of 1792. of Fourcroy. The idea was to establisha That assembly, and France herseli, were

a kind of university in every department, in a state of terror, produced by a vile for which the young men were to be preconspiracy of despots to subjugate the pared by means of a sufficient number of country and overturn the government; interior schools scattered through the and so sanguinary was the executive department. But these inferior schools committee, that it was almost as dan- have never been generally established or gerous for the members of the Convention endowed; and even the central schools to remain silent, as to take any active themselves have never been entirely suppart in the business of that assembly. plied with proper masters. Indeed it Fourcroy, notwithstanding his reputation would have been impossible to have furfor eloquence, and the love of fame, nished such a number of masters at which appears to have been his prevail. once. On that account an institution ing passion, had prudence enough not to was established at Paris, under the name open his mouth in the Convention till of Normal School, for the express purafter the death of Robespierre. This is pose of educating a sufficient number of the more to be wondered at, as it is we! masters to supply the different central known that he took a warin part in sa schools. Fourcroy lived however to see vour of the revolution, and that he was a the whole in as good a train of establishdetermined enemy to the order of things went as the esteut of the undertaking, from which he håd suffered so severely and the wars in which France has been at his entrance into life.

obliged to defend hier existence, would He had influence enough to save.

the aduit. life of some men of merit, till at last his as aomber of the Convention, or of own life was threatened, and his influence the Council of Ancients, Fourcroy took of course utterly annihilated.

an active part in all those institutions, After the 9th Thermidor, 1794, when He was also concerned in the establish the nation was wearied with destruction, ment of the Institute, and of the Museum and when efforts were making to restoré d' lIistoire Nuurelle.

This last was those institutions of science and educa, endowed by the imperial government tion, which, during the reaction of the with the utmost liberality, and Fourcroy revolution, had been overturned and de was one of the frst professors; as he stroyed, Fourcroy was particularly &c- also was in the School of Medicine, and tive in this period of renovation, and it is in the Polytechnic School. to him chiefly that the entire system of equally concerned in the restoratiou of sehools established in France for the edién the University of Paris, which constitutes cation of youth is to be ascribed. The a splendid part of Bonaparte's reign, and Convention had destroyed all the which will be long remeinbered with colleges, universities, and academies applause. Tie violent exertions which throughout France. Three new schools M. de Fourcroy made in the numerous

situations which he filled, and the proHis style was precisely similar to that digious activity which he displayed, graof his books, flowing and harmonious, but dually undermined bis constitutionale very diffuse, and destitute of precision; and

was himself sensible of his approaching his manner was that of a petit maitre, death, and announced it to his friends as mixed with a good deal of posposity, and an event which would speedily take an affectation of profundity.

place. On the 16th of December, 1809,


Ile was

Memoirs of the Count de Fourcroy. [Feb. 1, after signing some dispatches, he sud ments of Berthollet upon the evolution of denly cried out, Je suis mort, and dropt azotic gas from animal substances. lifeless on the ground.

2. He ascertained that ammonia is He was twice married: first to Made- decomposed by the oxides of manganese, moiselle Bettinger, by whom he had two inercury, and iron; and that these oxa children; a son, an officer in the artil- ides, at the same time, lose either the lery, who inherits his title; and a daugh- whole or a portion of their oxygen. ter, Madame Foucaud. Ile was married 3. He ascertained that the most conto a second time to Madame Bellville, the mon constituent of biliary calculi; is a widow of Vailly, by whom he had no substance very similar in its properties to family.

spermaceti. The character of M. de Fourcroy was 4. Ile found that vegetable juices freexactly fitted to the country in which he quently contain a substance which coalived, and the revolutionary government gulates when the juice is exposed to a in which he finished his career. His gentle heat. occupations were too numerous, and his 5. He ascertained the properties of elocution too ready, to allow him either several triple salts, which magnesia, and to make profound discoveries, or com ammonia, and an acid, are capable of pose treatises of great depthor originality. formning. The changes which took place in the sci 6. He published a very olaborate anence of chemistry were brought about by alysis of the quinquina, a species of bark others, who were placed in a different si- from St. Domingo, which was considered tuation, and endowed with different at the time as a model for vegetable antalents; but no man contributed so alysis. much as Fourcroy to the popularity of 7. His experiments on the brain conthe Lavoisierian opinions, and the rapi- tain soveral valuable facts, and his opia dity with which they were propagated nion approaches to accuracy. through France, and most countries in 8. The analysis of tears, and the muEurope. His eloquence drew crowds to cus of the nose, by Fourcroy and Vau. hear him, and he persuaded his audience quelin, is valuable. to embrace his opinions.

9. The analysis of urine, and of uri. He possessed an uncommon facility in nary calculi, by the same gentlemen, has writing, for his literary labours are ex. been much admired. ceedingly numerous. Besides his Essays, 10. A method of obtaining barytes in he published five editions of his System a state of purity, by exposing the nitrate of Chemistry, each gradually increasing of barytes to a red heat in a porcelain in size and value; the first edition being crucible. in two volumes, and the fifth in ten. 11. Ile and Vauquelin ascertained by The last edition, written in sixteen experiment that the three liquids, known months, contains a vast quantity of va- by the names of pyromucous, pyroliga luable matter, and contributed consider, nous, and pyrotartarous acids, are vine ably to the general diffusion of chemical gar holding in solution a portion of emknowledge. Perhaps the best of all pyreumatic oil. Fourcroy's productions is his Philosophy 12. They ascertained the presence of of Chemistry, which is remarkable for phosphate of magnesia in the bones of its conciseness, its perspicuity, and the all animals. neatness of its arrangement. Besides 13. They discovered a quantity of these works, and the periodical work uncombined phosphorus in the melts of called Le Medicin Ecluiré, of which he fishes. They showed, likewise, an anwas the editor, there are above one hun- alogy between the pollen of the anthera domed and sixty papers on chemical sub- of some flowers, and the seminal fluid of jects, with his name attached to them as animals. the author, in the Memoirs of the Aca 14. They detected in the common demy, of the Institute, in the Annales de onion the presence of a considerable Chimie, or the Annales de Museum d'His- quantity of saccharine matter, and showtoire Naturelle, of whicha last work he ed by experiment that this saccharine was the projector.

inatter was converted into manna by a The following is a summary of his chief spontaneous change. labours and discoveries, according to Dr. 15. They ascertained the properties of Thoinson.

animal mucus, ang showed that it dif 1. He repeated the curious experi- fered from all other animal, substances.





ILLUSTRATIVE OF ENGLISHI HIISTORY: From Letters, State Pupers, Scarce Tracts, &c. fc. found in Public or Privalo

Libraries at Home or Abroud. To be continued Occusionally. LANSDOWNIANA. others of the town or country are touched

but those present there at the gaol deli[It is well known that the late Il’illium,

very, and of al thui fel sick lew recie Marquis of Lansdowne, employed part vered. Nor any that keepeth them, or of his active life in collecting NISS. ord cometh to them take any intection at all, Papers illustrative of English History, And so God help your lördlehip, as I wish and that after his death they were

mysel brought to the hammer, and the greater In hast this xxx July, part of them purchased by the Trustees of

Your lordship’s assured, the British Museum, at a cost of up

R. LYCESTER, wards of 60001. The account of them, as prepared for the Record Commission Device on the Burner of Henry VIT. by Mr. Ellis, we have printed at pige afler ile Buttle of Bosworth. 25 of this Nuniber; bit we here pre Kiny llenry VII. aiter the battle of sent our readers with solien specimens of Bosworth-field, with great pomp and tritheir contents, and propose to repente a umph rode through the ritty of London similar article two or three times per to the cathedral church of St. Paul, where annum, till we have culructed the he offered his three standards ; in the one essence of the 1000 volumes of which

was the inage of St. Vieorge; in the sea they consist. ]

cond was a red fyry virzyci, done uppon

white and green sarsuet; the third was 3 The Earl of Leicester to the Earl of Sus- yellow tarteran, in which was printed a sex; upon his Invitai ion of the Queen dun cow; and after prayers Te Deu111 in her Progress to his House at Nezo- was sung, and he deparied to the bishop's hal, in the Year 1577 ; the strange pallace, it!d there sojourned a season.

Infection at Oxford Assizes. Vol. 95. My good Lord,

Minute of a Signet of Charles le First,
HAVE shewell

letter to her Ma for the Title of his Son Henry Duke of

Gloucester. have her welcome to your house in most Right-trusty and well-heloved cozen kind and gracious part, thanking your and counsellor,we grete you well. Wherelordship many times; albeit she saith

very as we are purposed (by God's permisearnestly, that she will by no means coine sion) hereafter to create our dear and this time to Newhal; saying it were no entirely beloved songe llenry, (lately reason, and less good manners, having so borne at our mannor of Oatlands) Daks short warning, this year to trouble you; of Glouceste, we have terrefore thought and was very loth to have come into these good to decla't our moyoli vill and pleaparts at all, but to fly the further from sure, that in the muane time he shall these infected places; and charged me su uppon all occasions be called and styled to let your lordship know, that by no Duke of Gloucester; and we will and means she would have you prepare for her require you to conımad our officers of this tiine; nevertheless, my lord, for mine armes to take notice thereof, and that

own opinion, I believe she will hunt, and they forthwith register in their oflice these • visit your house, coming so near. Herein our royall commands, to the end that

you may use your matter accordingly, all our lovinge subjects, of what degree since she would have you not to look for soever, may the better be informed and her.

take knowledge thereof, vir royall pleaAnd now, my lord, we all do what we

sure being given and cieciared concerncan to persuade from any progress at all, ing the title of our deare and entirely onely to remain at Winsor and there. beloved sonne Jaunes Duke of Yorké. abouts. But it much'disliketh her not And for su duing this shall be your succito go somewhere to have change of air. cient warrant and discharge. Given So what will fal out yet I know not, but under our signele at London. must like to go forward, since she fan To our right trusty and right.well-becieth it so greatly herself. The infection loved cozen aud counsellor, Thomas, Earle in Oxford and the county falleth out to of Arundell and Surry, Earle-Marshall of be onely at the assizes gotten, for none England, MONTHKX MAG, No.751,




I jesty, who did the your great care to

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