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Qualities of Indigo.

(June 1. which each are usually exported, or the the East India; this last being divested particular colours to which they are ap- of the heavy weight of sand and limey plied at hone.

substance which in general is attached to Spanish, Guatirala, terceta, or finest indigo of that inferior quality. fora; this kind is the purest of the whole; Carolina rose is now imported fron it will work in any spirits, and is employ- thence. ed in this kingdoin for Saxon greens.

Mississippi, same as Carolina.First flora if pure is nearly equal to the above ;' it generally brings in the market To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. within 1s. per # of the Guatimala.

SIR, first flura; it is principally used for strong some animadversions, by Mr.

Capel Lofft, on a bill now pending in Third flora: this article is of a strong Parliament, to prevent the contagion of body, and is nearly equal to the foregoing. the small-pox, which appear to be found

Sobres is red, and of a strong and good ed in a misapprehension of the purpose body; this is therefore inost generally in of that bill, and therefore calculated to demand.

make an unfavorable impression on the Coppers or Cortes; this is used princi- public mind respecting it; I have been pally for cold vats.

induced to send you a few observations Carraccas, nearly the same as any of thereon, considering them due to a subthe above, but, if a preference can be ject of such private and public imporgiven, the Guatiinala tercetas are superior; in short, a very little difference It is not a bill to prohibit all inocula. indeed exists in the qualities of the kinds tion for the small-pox, as he supposes. mentioned above.

It very properly, in my opinion, prohibits East India square fine blue; almost church-wardens, overseers, &c. from inoequal to terceta Guatiwala, could it be culating the poor maintained by parishes, divested of the limey substance obtained at the parish expence, because they do in its manufacture; it is used, like the not possess the same right of judging in Guatimala, for Saxon greens, and has lat. the case of pour children, as the parents terly been preferred.

do; and because it is very possible, a East India square fine purple; a good child of a poor nian might have the quality, nearly equal to the above; in small-pox communicated by this means foreign markets it has the preference contrary to the parents' judgment, and even to tercetas..

death might ensue. Parents, both poor East India red violet; always in request and rich, are still at liberty to have their for France, Vienna, Holland, Petersburgh, children inoculated with the small

l-pox and indeed throughout the whole of the virus, under certain regulations and recontinent of Europe.

straints, to prevent the contagion being Fine

coppers, or good shipping copper, communicated, which latter regulation is of a red strong paste, and in great de Mr. Lofft seems to approve. 'mand for France, Ilolland, and l'ienna. Having rectified so material a mis-state

Low coppers, are exported principally ment of the object of the bill, I shall to Sweden, Vienna, and Petersburgh, avail myself of the present opportunity

Pale or shewy coppers are of a weak to make a few remarks on Mr. Lofft's hody, and principally bought up by Jews assertion, that a bill to "prohibit the for the Turkey, Petersburgh, and Vienna sinall-pox, neither can, nor will, take markets, as well as cost other parts of place.” I think this question, which is Europe: this quality is therefore in very an important one, is not to be determined general demani.

entirely by abstract, theoretical reasoning, One reinark it is necessary to make but also by the circumstances of the case, with regard to all the indigves from the which are these. In every nation of E:1st Indies, which is, that the Persian Europe, except England, inoculation for buyers have the cuiling or creaming of the the small-pox is absolutely prohibited, Calcutta market prior to our merchants and when the disease appears naturally, being supplied.

seclusion from intercourse is rigorously There are three other kinds of indign enforced by magisterial authority; the mentioned below, but they are so very consequence of which has been, that inferior that little of the first, and none this heretofore prevalent and very deof the two last, are at present to be inet structive disease has almost disappeared, with in the London murliet.

and I ain authorised to assert, that such Bourbon: this is now superseded by is the disparity of mortality by small-pox,


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between England and the continent, that ability to walk about, while those who
where one person dies by the small-pox have it naturally and more severely are
on the continent, in a given number, confined at home. And, however in,
there are ten deaths in England, notwithe oculation for the small-pos may have
standing the number of deaths in Eng. been beneficial to individuals, by lessena
land are not half what they were twentying the chance of death from 1 in 3 to
years ago. Such being the facts, is it to 1 in 300, yet I am bold to assert it has
be wondered at, ' that the legislature been to benefit to the community at
should behold with great uneasiness the large, but the reverse; which is evident,
lamentable; the unnecessary, annual loss both by the bills of mortality thic
of from 12 to 15,000 valuable lives above writings of respectable medical men,
the mortality of other countries? And, as which concur in proving, that the disease
the strength and even wealth of nations of small-pox has increased in England
greatly depend on their population; does since the introduction of inoculation, in
it noc become a political as well as moral the proportion of 19 in every 100.
duty to endeavour, by every justifiable I hope I am as much a friend to real
means, to prevent such a waste of hu- beneficial liberty as Mr. Lofft can be,
man life?

and would as strenuously resist every Let us now consider the question, attempt to infringe that best of priviWhether in a free country the law may leges; but then it must be a privilege to not prohibit a mortal disease? What are do good, and not, as is pleaded for in this the quarantine laws? Their propriety case, a privilege to do mischief. The and necessity has bees universally ad- question will bear to be treated theoretimitted; they are a prohibition of the cally as well as practically. Mr. Lofft, plague; they are a restraint on the per as a lawyer, need not be reininded, that sonal liberty both of the infected and the man, in entering into society, must necesuninfected ; and if it has been necessary sarily.. relinquish some private rights for to interposé a restraint on the liberty of the public benefit; neither can be be the subject, regarding the plague and unacquainted with the standard maxim yellow fever, Why, let me ask, should of the law, that “salus populi suprema they not equally take cognizance of the lex.”

J. L, small-pox, which is a plague? The three diseases mentioned are all highly danger- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, ous, mortal, and infectious; the small.

SIR, pox so much so, that it is computed to POOR man (under the loss of sight) it in the natural way. And until Mr. studying arithmetic; he inakes use of the Lofft can point oue where it essentially palpable Notation, invented by Dr. differs from the plague and yellow fever, Aloyes, of Manchester, as inserted in as an object of legislative interference, several Encyclopædias; the description of otherwise than in the degree of mortality pegs the Dr. used for letters and signs in it occasions, it will be too much to say Algelıra are not mentioned. The person that the legislature would not be autho- is now pursuing Algebra, but is at a loss rised to prohibit it, or that sucli an act to proceed for want of some palpable re

neither can, nor will, take place.' presentation of letters and signs, He supo Through a very great tenderness and poses the Dr. had some kind of pegs to condescension to a supposed right of denote tifein, in addition to those which private judgment, and knowing the strong served him for co-efficients. If any of influence of long-establislied usages and your readers are acquainted with them, customs, the legislature have not at pre- and would be kind enough to cominunicate sent proposed altogether to prohibit the it through the medium of your valuable small-pox, by the bill now pending in Magazine, it would be esteemed a favour, parliament, but I am persuaded from no and greatly facilitate the progress of the other reason. That such a measure may person for whose use it is solicited. be ultiinately necessary to get rid of this As the pegs the Dr. invented for the hideous disease, I think very probable; digits are so easy and preserable to any for so long as inoculation for the small other method we are acquainted with, it pox is tolerated, there is little chance of is not improbable the Dr's invention fire its extinction, it being well known, that letters and symbols would be as expersons inoculated are the greatest dis- cellent,”. yeminators of the contagion, froin their IFisbech, May 1, 1814,

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[June 1, riage, which gives great facility to the Mr. Blenkinsop's Steam Carriagei To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. a description, of the Patent Steam Çar.

ERMIT me to lay before the pub. conveyance of coals, minerals, and other 394

very valuable publication, a sketch, with saving in the expense.

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Airst mover.

1. HATS,


The engine insed on the rail-road at on the S.W. of Reading town, between Leeds, is four horses power, being the the plastic red clay and the chalk. The most powerful one used at present, and supposed tortoises of Lewis Melburry, is so constructed that by the operating are, I believe, only Ludi Helinontif aid of cranks (fixed at right angles) it puts which used to be called turtle-stones, in motion a cogged wheel, acting in teeth from the supposed resemblance of the cast on one side of the rail-road itself, or compartments formed on their surfaces, a separate rack, by which a considerable by the septa therein, to those on the propelling power is given to the machine; shells of turtles,

JOHN FAREY, SEN, å power so considerable that when the Westminster, May 1, carriage is lightly loaded it cravels at the rate of 10 miles an hour, but when load For the Monthly Magasine. ed with 30 coal-waggons, which is fre

Ancient manners. quently the case, each weighing 34 tons,

No. 1. it is propelled ou a dead level at the rate (We are promised a series of papers, by an of 84 miles an hour.

eminent Antiquary, similar to that of The use of these Steam Carriages has which we here introduce the first Num. given the greatest satisfaction, and they ber; and judging of the literary percep. promise to be attended with the most tions of our readers hy our own, we are beneficial effects, particularly as it is persuaded that they will anticipate,in clearly ascertained that at least five successive communications, á new source sixths of the expence of conveying

of periodical pleasure.] goods, by horses will be saved by the invention.


N a paper found among Secretary Cem The Steam Carriage has been fully cil's manuscripts, concerning the va. employed at Leeds since June 1812, and, rieties, or confusion more properly, in 20 the satisfaction of the patentee, was

which the English service was performed not impeded even during ihe great

falls at the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's of snow in January last; and more wag. reign, in the article of apparel, is this : gons of coals were conveyed to Leeds in “ Some with.a square cap; some with a that severe month, by the locomotive en- round cap; some with a button cap ; gine, than in any preceding one by

some with a hat'; some in scholars horses.

clothes; some in others.” Bishop MaAny gentleman wishing to see the per dor's Vindication of the Church of Eng. formance of the Steam Carriaye will be land against Neale, p. 156.-In the much gratified by visiting Middleton 'same work, p. 187, one Mr. Cole, a puColliery, Leeds, Yorkshire; Orrell Core iritan chaplain to some great lord, is said liery, Wigan, Lancaster; or Kenton and to have appeared at court at that time, Coxlodge Collieries, near Newcastle the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign, upon Tyne,.. where they are daily at in his hat and short cloak. work.

Joun BLÈNKINSOP. 11. HOUR-GLASSes IX CHURCHES. Middleton Hall, near Leeds,

Among Dr. Rawlinson's Manuscripts March 26, 1814.

in the Bodleian Library, No. 941 con.

tains a Collection of Miscellaneous Dis. To the Editor of the Monthly Magasine. courses, by Mr. Lewis, of Margate, in SR,

Kent: whence the following extract has

been made :. T appears to me, that your correI . a , “ It appears that these hour-glasses has omitted to state, that the two strata were coeval with vur Reformation. For of chalk only a yard chick each, which a fide frontispiece prefixed to the Holy he mentions at bottom of col. 1, were

Bible of the bishops' translation, printed in loose fragments, and that the whole in 410. by John Day, 1569, Archbishop of the beds which he mentions, aré allu. Parker is represented in the pulpit with vial, moved and mixed matters, lodged an standing on his right hand; on the great stratum of chalk, whose our's, here, stood on the left without any thickness, he says, is not ascertained. frame. Ic was proper that some time The słaty coal of Flelton and Okefords should be prescribed for the length of Firzpain, N.E. of Dorchester, which Mr. 'she sermon, and clocks and watches were H. mentions, seems to belong to the ch. not then so common as they are now, vering of the plastic clay of Burbeck, This time of an hour continued till tho above the chalk: the lørge oysters of "tevolution, as appears by Bishop Sandere Austy in Helton, Answer to those found ' sen's, Tillotson's, Stillingficet's, Dr. Bare





Ancient Manners, No. I.

[Jane 1 row's, and others, printed during that square caps, the saide Drs. and heads

shal he likewise bounde to weare, wheit The writer of this article was informed they shall resorte eyther to the courte, in 1811, by the Rev, Mr. Burder, who or to the citie of London." kad the curacy of St. Dunstan's, Fleet 3d. “ And that the excesse of shirt street, that the large silver hands and ruffes, exceding an ynehe and formerly used in that church was melted halfe, (saving the sones of noblemen) the down into two staff-heads for the parish fashion and colour other than white, be beadles.

avoyded presentlie; and no scholler, or An hour-glass frame of iron, fixed in fellowe of the foundation of anie howse the wall by the side of the pulpit, was of learninge, doe weare either in the remaining in 1797 in the church of North Universitie or without, &c. anie hose, Door, in Oxfordshire.

stockings, duhlets, jackets, crates, . Or IU. CIOCOLATE.

jerknees, or anie other kynde of garment An advertisement in “ The Public Ad- of velvet, satten, or silke, or in the facing viser," from Tuesday June 16 to Tuesday of the same shall have above 5 yarde of June 22, 1657, informs us, that "in silke, or shall use anie other light kynde Bishopsgate-street, in Queen's-Ilead Al of colour, or cuts, or gards, or fashion, ley, at a Frenchman's house, is an excel- the which shall be forbidden by the bent West India drink called Chocolate chancellor, &c." to be sold, where you may have it ready 4th. ~ And that no.scholler doe weare at any time, and also unmade at reasone anie long lockes of heare vppon his head, able rates."

but that he be notted, pouled, or round

ed, after the accustomed mader of the In a previous number of the paper just gravest scholers of the saide Universitie.” mentioned, from May 19 to May 20, The letter was addressed to Dr. Legge 1657, “ In Bartholomew Lane, on the The penalty for every offence against back side of the old Exchange, the drink these orders, or any of them, was 6s. 8dla called Coffee is advertised as to be sold in to be levied by one of the bedels if comthe morning, and at three of the clock in mitted in public, and to be converted to the afternoon.'

the use of the University; and by masters and sub-heads in colleges for college

use."-MIS. Cole, vol. xlii. p. 408. Among the papers inserted in what is called the Black-paper Book of the Uni

A folio sheet of the time of Charles II. versity of Cambridge, Mr. Cole found a

entitled “ An Exact Description of the letter from the Chancellor, Lord Bur. Growth, Quality, and Vertues of the leigli

, dated, “from my house in the Leaf Tea, by Thomas Garway, in Ex. Strande, this seventhe of Maye, 1588,” change Alley, near the Royal Exchange against excess of apparel, and containing in London, tobacconist, and seller and certain orders which he required to be retailer of tea and coffee," informs us abserved.

that “in England it hath been sold in The first of these orders was, "That the leaf för six pounds, and sometimes no hatt be worne of anie graduat or

for ten pounds the pound weight; and in scholler, within the said Universitie, (ex- respect of its former scarceness anet cepte it shal be when he shall journey dearness, it hath been only used as a owte of the towne, or) excepte in the regalia in high treatments and entertaintyme of his sicknes.'

All graduates ments, and presents made thereof t. were to wear square caps of cloth; and princes and grandees till the year 1652. scholars, not graduates, round cloth The said Thomas Garway did purchase a caps, "saving that it maye be lawfull quantity thereof, and first publikely. suld for the sonnes of noblemen, or the sounes the said tea in leaf and drink, made aço and heires of knights, to weare round cording to the directions of the most çaps of velvet, but no hats."

knowing merchants and travellers, inte 2d. All graduats "shall sveare abroade those eastern countries; and upon knoür. in the University, going out of his col ledge and experience of the said. Gare ledg, a gowne and an hoode of cloth, way's continued care and ob according to the order of his degree. taining the best tea, and making drink Provided that it shal be lawfull for everie thereof, very many noblemen, physi

D.D. and for the Mr, of anie coll. t? cians, merchants, and gentlemen of quaweare a sarcenet tippet, or a tippet of lity, have ever since sent to him for the velvet, according to the ancient customes

said leaf, and daily resort to his house in of this realme, and of the saide Univer: 'Exchange Alley to drink the drink aitie. The whiche gowne, tippet, and thereof."




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