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des rivaux, ni dans ses maitres des juegos I BEG leave through the medium af

son cæur la jalousie et l'humiliation ; lo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. quand il ne voit point dans ses camarades

SIR, verite, la bonté, la , affec- your iniscellany, coinplain of what tion entourent les enfants : c'est dans I think to be an abuse of the solemnity cette atmosphere qu'ils vivent et pour of an oath. I mean the practice of those quelque temps du moins ils restent etrani. people who, being the proprietors of gers à toutes les passions haineuses, à tous some patent medicine, newspaper, or les prejugés orgueilleux du monde.Whe other article in great demand, are in the ther it be more salutary to preserve the habit of appearing before the lord maymind as long as possible in this happy or, or some other magistraté, for the state of innocence and tranquillity, or purpose of making affidavits as to the early to exercise it in those trials and ingredients used in their nostrums, or the combats to which it must be exposed at quality and sale of their goods, copies of some tiine or other, may admit of doubt. which affidavits are usually prefixed to

C.S. their hand-bills or advertisements. To the Editor of the Monthly Magasine. Now, Sir, in my humble opinion, this SIR,

is a practice which ought not to be alJ

INVITE some of your readers to lowed. An oath should aot be adminis

furnish through your Magazine stered except in cases of necessity, for A catalogue of useful books for the ser. the sake of justice, &c. For my part I vants' hall of large families.

should be more inclined to purchase And another for an hospital library. goods of a man who gave me his simple

They might be productive of much word respecting their quality, than of good, by employing usefully those hours himn who should offer me his affidavit of of leisure, which are often worse than the same thing. GULIELMUS. wasted.

London, April 1, 1813. Birmingham.





ACCOUNT of the life and LABOURS of the age of seven years, he attempted to

the COUNT DE FOURCROY; ab. throw hiinself into her grave; and the stracted from the Eulogy delivered by care of an elder sister alone preserved Cuvier in the Imperial Institute. him, till he reached the age at which NTOINE FRANÇOIS DE FOURcroy, was usual to be sent to the college. Here

Count of the French Empire, he met with a brutal master, who con: Counsellor of State, Commander of the ceived an aversion to him, and treated Legion of Honour, Member of the Im- him with cruelty. The consequence was perial Institute, and of most scientific a dislike to study, and he quitted the societies in Europe, Professor of Chemis- college at the age of fourteen, less intry at the Museum of Natural History, formed than when he went to it. Ha Professor of the Faculty of Medicine at now endeavoured to support himself as ą, Paris, and Teacher in the Polytechnic writing-inaster, Hc had School, was born at Paris on the 15th of thoughts of going upon the stage; but June, 1755. His family had long resided the advice of Viq. d'Azyr, induced him in the capital, and several of his ances- to coinience the study of medicine. tors had distinguished themselves at This great anatomist was an acquaintthe bar.

ance of the elder Fourcroy: Struck with His father exercised in Paris the trade the appearance of his son, and the cou. of an apothecary, in consequence of an rage with which he struggled against foroffice wbich he held in the house of the tune, he conceived an affection for him, Duke of Orleans; but the Corporation of and promised to direct bis studies, and Apothecaries having obtained the general assist him during their progress. The suppression of all such offices, he was study of medicine to a man in his situobliged to renounce his employment; and ation, was by no means an easy task. his son grew up in the midst of poverty He was obliged to lodge in a garret, so produced by this monopoly of the pri- low in the roof that he could only stand vileged bodies in Paris. IIe felt this si- upright in the centre of the room. Be tuation the more keenly, because he pos- side him lodged a water-carrier, with a sessed from nature an extreme sensibility family of twelve children. Fourcroy of temper. When he lost his mother, at acted as physician to this numerous fil1


nily; and, as payment, was supplied with Being thus entitled to practise in Paris, abundance of water. He contrived, how- his success depended entirely upon the ever, to support himself by giving les3ons reputation which he could establish. to other students, by facilitating the re- For this purpose he devoted himself to searches of wealthier writers, and by the sciences connected with medicine, some translations which be sold to a as the shortest and most certain road by bookseller. For these lattor he was paid which he could reach his object. His but half, but the same bookseller offered, first writings showed no predilection for thirty years afterwards, to make up the any particular branch of science. He deficiency, when his author has become wrote indifferently upon chemistry, anaDirecior General of Public Instruction. tomy, and on natural history. He pub

Fourcroy studied with so much zeal lished an Abridgment of the History of and ardoui, that he soon became ac- Insects, and a Description of the Bursa quainted with the entire science of me- Mucosa of the Tendons. This last piece dicine. but this did not answer his gave him the greatest celebrity: for in purpose. It was necessary to get a Doc- 1785 he was admitted, in consequence, tor's degres; and the expenses amounted into the Academy of Sciences as an anto 2501. sterling. An old physician, atonist; but the reputation of Bucquet, Dr. Diest, bad left funds to the faculty which at that time was very high, graduto confer a gratuitous degree and license, ally led him to direct his principal attenevery two years, on the poor student who tion to chemistry, and he retained this should best deserve them. Fourcroy predilection during the remainder of his was the most conspicuous of this descrip- life, becoming the first and most celetion at that time in Paris; and he would brated chemist of his age. therefore have reaped the benefit of this Bucquet was at that time professor of benevolent legacy, had it not been for chemistry in the medical school of Paris, the unlucky situation in which he was and was greatly celebrated and followed, placed. A quarrel existed between the on account of his eloquence. Fourervy faculty charged with the education of became in the first place his pupil, and medical men who granted degrees, and soon after his particular friend.

One il society recently established by govern- day, when an unforeseen illness prement for the improvement of the medical vented bin from lecturing as usual, he art. This dispute was carried to a great entreated M. de Fourcroy to supply his length, and had attracted the attention place. He at first declined, and alleged ef the frivoloys and idle inhabitants of his total ignorance of the method of adParis. Vig. d'Azyr was secretary to the dressing a popular audience. But, oversociety, and of course one of its most ac- come by the persuasions of Bucquet, he tive champions, and was in consequence 'consented; and in this first essay, spoke particularly obnoxious to the faculty of two hours without disorder or hesitation, medicine. Fourcroy was unluckily the and acquitted himself to the satisfaction acknowledged protege of this eminentan. of his whole audience. Bucquet soon atomist, and this was sufficient to induce after substituted him in his place, and it the faculty of medicine to refuse him the was in his laboratory and in his classgratuitous degree. He would have been room, that Fourcroy first made himself excluded in cousequence from entering acquainted with chemistry. He was enupon the career of inedicine, had not the abled at the death of Bucquet, in consen society, enraged at this treatment, and quence of an advantageous marriage, to influenced by violent party spirit, formed purchase the apparatus and cabinet of a subscription, and contributed the ne- his master; and although the faculty of cessary expences.

medicine would not allow him to succeed It was not possible to refuse M. de to the chair of Bucquet, they could not Fourcroy the degree of Doctor, when he prevent him from succeeding to his rewas enabled to pay for it; but above the putation. simple dsgree of Doctor, there was a There was a college established in the higher one, that of Docteur Regent, King's garden, which was at that time which depending on the votes of the under the superintendance of Buffon, and faculty, it was unanimously refused. This Macquer was the professor of chemistry violent and unjust conduct of the faculty in this institution. On the death of this of medicine, made a deep impression in chemist, in 1784, Lavoisier stood canthe mind of Fourcroy, and contributed didate for the chair. But Buffon receive not a little, by his subsequent influence, ing more than a hundred letters in fato the downfall

of that powerful your of Fourcroy, and the voice of the body

public was so loud in luis fuyour, that he



was appointed to the situation, in $.. were therefore founded for educating of the high reputation of his opponent, medical men, nobly endowed, and conand the superior interest that nected with the University of Paris. sulted from his fortune and situation in The term Schools of Medicine was howlife.

ever proscribed as reviving the detested Fourcroy continued professor at the ancient regimen, and they were distinJardin des Plantes, during the remainder guished by the appellation of Schools of of his life, which lasted twenty-five years; Health. The Polytechnic school was and such was his eloquence, or so well next instituted, as a kind of preparation was it fitted to the taste of the French for the military profession, where young nation, that his celebrity as a lecturer men could be instructed in matheniaties .continued always upon the increase: so and natural philosophy, to qualify therm great also were the crowds that flocked for entering the schools of the artillery, to hear him, that it became twice neces- the engineers, and of navigation. The sary to enlarge the lecture-room. * central schools was another institu'ion

He was elected a member of the Na- for which France is indebted to the efforts tional Convention in the autumn of 1792. of Fourcroy. The idea was to establisha That assembly, and France herself, were

a kind of university in every department, in a state of terror, produced by a vile for which the young men were to be pre.conspiracy of despots to subjugate the pared by means of a sufficient number of country and overturn the government; inferior schools scattered through the and so sanguinary was the executive department. But these inferior schools committee, that it was almost as dan- have never been generally established or gerous for the members of the Convention endowed; and even the central schools to remain silent, as to take any active themselves have never been entirely suppart in the business of that assembly. plied with proper masters. Indeed it Fourcroy, notwithstanding his reputation would have been impossible to have fur

for eloquence, and the love of fame, nished sucli a number of masters at -which appears to have been his prevail- once. On that account an institution ing passion, bad prudence enough not to was established at Paris, under the name open his mouth in the Convention till of Normal School, for the express purafter the death of Robespierre. This is pose of educating a sufficient number of the more to be wondered at, as it is well masters to supply the different central known that he took a warin part in fa, schools. Fourcroy lived however to see vour of the revolution, and that he was a the whole in as good a train of establishdetermined enemy to the order of things ment as the extent of the undertaking, from which he had suffered so severely and the wars in which Franee has been at his entrance into life.

obliged to defend her existence, would He had influence enough to save the admit. life of some men of merit, till at last his As member of the Convention, or of own life was threatened, and his influence the Council of Ancients, Fourcroy took ef course utterly annihilated.

an active part in all those institutions. After the 9th Thermidor, 1794, when He was also concerned in the establishe the nation was wearied with destruction, ment of the Institute, and of the Museum and when efforts were making to estoré d'Histoire Naturelle.

This last was those institutions of science and educa endowed by the imperial government tion, which, during the reaction of the with the utmost liberality, and Fourcroy revolution, had been overturned and de- was one of the first professors; as he stroyed, Fourcroy was particularly ac- also was in the School of Medicine, and tive in this period of renovation, and it is in the Polytechnic School. to him chiefly that the entire system of equally concerned in the restoratioą of sehools established in France for the edu- the University of Paris, which constitutes cation of youth is to be ascribed. The a splendid part of Bonaparte's reign, and Convention had destroyed all the which will be long remembered with colleges, universities, and academies applause. The violent exertions which throughout France. Three new schools M. de Fourcroy made in the numerous

en situations which he filled, and the pro* His style was precisely similar to that digious activity which he displayed, gra

He of his books, flowing and harmonious, but dually undermined his constitution. very diffuse, and destitute of precision; and

was himself sensible of his approaching his manner was that of a petit maitre, death, and announced it to his friends as mixed with a good deal of porpesity, and an event which would speedily take an affectation of profundity.

place, On the 16th of December, 1809,



He was



after signing some dispatches, he sud- ments of Berthollet upon the evolution of denly cried out, Je suis mort, and dropt azotic gas from aniinal substances. lifeless on the ground.

2. He ascertained that ammonia is He was twice married: first to Made- decomposed by the oxides of manganese, moiselle Bettinger, by whom he had two inercury, and iron; and that these oxo children; a son, an officer in the artil- ides, at the same time, lose either the lery, who inherits his title; and a daugh- whole or a portion of their oxygen. ter, Madame Foucaud. He was married 3. He ascertained that the most con• a second time to Madame Bellville, the mon constituent of biliary calculi; is a widow of Vailly, by whom he had no substance very similar in its properties to family.

The character of M. de Fourcroy was 4. He found that vegetable juices freexactly fitted to the country in which he quently contain a substance which coalived, and the revolutionary government gulates when the juice is exposed to a in which he finished his career. His gentle heat. occupations were too numerous, and his 5. He ascertained the properties of elocution too ready, to allow him either several triple salts, which magnesia, and to make profound discoveries, or com- arnmonia, and an acid, are capable of pose treatises of great depthor originality. forming. The changes which took place in the sci- 6. He published a very elaborate anence of chemistry were brought about by alysis of the quinquina, a species of bark others, who were placed in a different si- from St. Domingo, which was considered tuation, and endowed with different at the time as a model for vegetable antalents; but no man contributed so alysis. much as Fourcroy to the popularity of 7. His experiments on the brain conthe Lavoisierian opinions, and the rapi- tain several valuable facts, and his opi. dity with which they were propagated níon approaches to accuracy. through France, and most countries in 8. The analysis of tears, and the muEurope. His eloquence drew crowds to cus of the nose, by Fourcroy and Vauhear him, and he persuaded his audience quelin, is valuable. to embrace his opinions.

9. The analysis of urine, and of uri. He possessed an uncommon facility in nary calculi, by the same gentlemen, has writing, for his literary labours are ex- been much admired. ceedingly numerous. Besides his Essays, 10. A inethod of obtaining barytes in he published five editions of his System a state of purity, by exposing the nitrato of Chemistry, each gradually increasing of barytes to a red heat in a porcelain in size and value; the first edition being crucible. in two volumes, and the fifth in ten. 11. He and Vauquelin ascertained by The last edition, written in sixteen experiment that the three liquids, known months, contains a vast quantity of va- by the names of pyromucous, pyroliga luable matter, and contributed consider nous, and pyrotartarous acids, are vineably to the general diffusion of chemical gar holding in solution a portion of emknowledge. Perhaps the best of all pyreumatic oil. Fourcroy's productions is his Philosophy 12. They ascertained the presence of of Chemistry, which is remarkable for phosphate of magnesia in the bones of ats conciseness, its perspicuity, and the all animals. neatness of its arrangement. Besides 13. They discovered a quantity of these works, and the periodical work uncombined phosphorus in the melts of called Le Medicin Eclairé, of which he fishes. They showed, likewise, an anwas the editor, there are above one hun- alogy between the pollen of the antheræ died and sixty papers on chemical sub- of some flowers, and the seminal fluid of jects, with his name attached to them as animals. the author, in the Memoirs of the Aca- 14. They detected in the common demy, of the Institute, in the Annales de onion the presence of a considerable Chimie, or the Annales de Museum d'His- quantity of saccharine matter, and slowtoire Naturelle, of which last work he ed by experiment that this saccharine Was the projector.

inatter was converted into manna by a The following is a summary of his chief spontaneous change. labours and discoveries, according to Dr. ** 15. They ascertained the properties of Thornson.

animal mucus, and showed that it dif1. He repeated the curious experis fered from all other animal substances.


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ILLUSTRATIVE OF ENGLISH HISTORY: From Letters, State Papers, Scarce Trạcts, &c. &c. found in Public or Privalo

Libraries at Home or Abroud. To be continued Occasionally. LANSDOWNIANA. others of the town or country are touched [It is well known that the late William, very, and of al that fel sick few reco

but those present there at the gaol deliMarquis of Lansdowne, employed part

, vered. Nor any that keepeth them, or of his active life in collecting MSS. and cometh to then take any infection at all. Pupers illustrative of English History, And so God help your lordship, as I wish and that after his death they were

myself. brought to the hammer, and the greater In hast this xxx July, part of them purchased by the Trustees of

Your lordship’s assured, the British Museum, at a cost of up

R. LEYCESTER. wards of 6000l. The account of them, as prepared for the Record Commission Device on the Banner of Henry VII. by Mr. Ellis, we have printed at page after the Battle of Bosworth. 25 of this Number; but we here pre- King Henry VII. after the battle of sent our readers with sovie specimens of Bosworth-field, with great pomp and tritheir contents, and propose to repeat a umph rode through the citty of London similar article two or three times per

to the cathedral church of St. Paul, where annum, till we have extracted the he offered his three standards; in the one essence of the 1000 volumes of which

was the image of St. George; in the sethey consist.]

cond was a red fyry dragon, done uppou

white and green sarsnet; tlie third was a The Earl of Leicester to the Eurl of Sus- yellow tarteran, in which was printed a

sex; upon his Invitation of the Queen dun cow: and after prayers, Te Deun in her Progress to his House at New- was sung, and he departed to the bishop'a hal, in the Year 1577 ; the strange pallace, and there sojourned a season. Infection at Oxford Assizes. Vol. 25. My good Lord,

Minute of a Signet of Charles the First, sbewed your letter to

for the Title of his Son Henry Duke of

Gloucester. bave her welcome to your house in most Right-trusty and well-heloved cozen kind and gracious part, thanking your and counsellor,we grete you well. Wherelordship many times; albeit she saith very as we are purposed (by God's permisearnestly, that she will by no means come sion) hereafter to create our dear and this time to Newhal; saying it were no entirely beloved sonne Henry, (lately reason, and less good manners, having so borne at our mannor of Oatlands) Dake short warning, this year to trouble you; of Gloucester, we have therefore thought and was very loth to have come into these good to declare our royall will and pleaparts at all, but to fly the further from sure, that in the meane time he shall these infected places; and charged me so uppon all occasions be called and styled to let your lordship know, that by no Duke of Gloucester; and we will and means she would have you prepare for her require you to command our officers of this tiine; nevertheless, my lord, for mine armes to take notice thereof, and that own opinion, I believe she will hunt, and they forthwith register in their office these visit your house, coming so near. Herein our royall commands, to the end that you may use your matter accordingly, all our lovinge subjects, of what degree since she would have you not to look for soever, may the better be informed and her.

take knowledge thereof, our royall pleaAnd now, my lord, we all do what we

sure being given and declared concerncan to persuade from any progress at all, ing the title of our deare and entirely onely to remain at Winsor and there beloved sonne James Duke of Yorke. abouts. But it much disliketh her not And for so doing this shall be your suffito go somewhere to have change of air. cient warrant and discharge. Given So what will fal out yet I know not, but under our signele at London. must like to go forward, since she fan- To our right trusty and right-well-becieth it so greatly herself. The infection loved cozen and counsellor,Thomas, Earle in Oxford and the county falleth out to of Arundell and Surry, Earle-Marshall of be onely at the assizes gotten, for none England. MONTAKY MAG. No.751,




I jesty, who did take youre great care to

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