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202 Plan for improving Female Penitentiaries. [April 1; thoughtless career, (and such are the religious members of the commons ohjects it is proposed to begin with;) but wealth to which they belong : wives, when she is told that the end is her per. the mothers of children; and agents, to fect salvation, that it is not only intended promote the recovery and reform of to convince her of the deformity of her others. To this end I propose, that all crimes, but also to screen her for a while those who are considered by the matron from the world's resentment, teach her and managers as thoroughly reclaimed, religious principles, useful arts, and should be placed in front of the gallery finally to endeavour to fix her in the mar of the chapel, at prayers, (which should ried state, can it be doubted that such be early each morning) decently dressed, tidings would be hailed with joy? My and that those so placed, should be cons plan theretire is, to form an establish- sidered by the public as penitent and inent, (in some respect like the Mora- entirely reformed characters, willing to vian societies,) where all the inmates engage in matrimonial duties, and 11shall, according to their abilities, assist structed to make industrious wives ; each by their industry in the support of each being entitled on the day of marriage, to other; and being all females, practise in fifteen pounds value in useful household the useful labours of the needle, in their furniture, apparel, and linen, &c. so that

service, and for wages, where any young man who should attend the temperance and frugality, united with re- chapel with proper devotion, and with a ligious duties, should be the character- view to see their persons, might not only istic of their rules; where the necessaries have an opportunity of doing so,at a convefor existence should be all that were nient distance, but afterwards of speaking found, and plainpess and cleanliness be to the matron on that head; and if she aps followed with great exactness and reso- proved of liis character, be introduced in lution.

her presence into the parlour, where he The managers must be females of a should have an interview with the young proper age, embarking in it as well from woman whom he thought he should apzeal as interest; and no male should be prove, for the purpose, by conversation; allowed to enter the mansion, but for of explaining his prospects, and the pro.. medical or spiritual purposes; and then, bability of their being able by their joint (as in convents) only in the presence of industry to maintain a family. . If they the matron.

agreed, a report should be made to the In a word, a house, where nothing hard committee of ladies who govern, and on any tendency to recal the mind from its their consent being received a day fixed office of amendment, and where quiet to have them privately united in the cha: and continual occupations succeeded pel, and the contract fulfilled in the preeach other, where no more repose was sence of the matron, and one friend of allowed than was necessary, and where each party; wbich, on the part of the fe. idleness should be a thing unknown; yet male, would probably be a reconciled reHo unkind severity practised, or any one lation, for there is great likelihood that expected to accept tasks, their abilities as soon as the parents or brothers of fes rendered them unfit for. In such a sin males thus situated heard of their sitna. tuation, I fully believe, that a real re tion and reform, they would (even though form would be accomplished, and a de. froin motives of shame and resentment testation of their' former mode of lite they had before abandoned them,) then effected, accompanied with a disposition joylully renew their claims: neither is it to do any thing to recover their proper very extravagant to imagine that parents station in the world: and all this, I have thus relieved from disgrace inight pro, 30 doubt, has been obtained by many more the ends of the institution in many institutions of this kind; but the evil is, ways, or that some might, from this sanc, that when the restraint of discipline is tuary, be demanded by their repentant removed, and they are left again to their seducers, or by former admirers, with own guidance, the suspected character whom their penitence, suffering, and inis that follows them, the assaults of the provement, might operate as an auxiliary passions, and the seductions of the other to their personal charms. SEX,

render them always liable to fall The author of this sketch of a plan for again into the old train of depravity, and improving our penitentiaries, is well aware then all the benefit is for ever lost to that the general opinion, at first, will be themselves and their country. My plan that men will not be found to connect goes farther; I expect not only to come themselves with women under these un, plete their reform by it, but also to ren. fortunare circumstances, because people, der them sober, thoughtful, useful, and in general reason from the delicacy of.



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their own feelings, or prejudices of edu- the youngest, best favoured, and most cation : but experience has proved the docile, of the unhappy tribe; and even. contrary; for in inany situations on the watching their first steps in the road to continent, particularly at Rooie, num ruin, by introducing themselves to their bers have been reformed and married, , acquaintance, and inviting them to conwith a very small portion to begin the ferences at moments of distress, when world with, and the result has been most they can best be reasoned with; affordsatisfactory.

ing them temporary relief and shelter; Most parish officers well know that medical assistance from a dispensary conmany, matches are made under less pro-. nected with the house, where the practi. inising circumstances (where the object. tioner should be instructed to further the has been little else but pecuniary gain), good object, and thus in every way beneand that many of the lower classes free fitting, the community by lessening the quently ally theinselves on a very short evil where it is inost likely to be producacquaintance, and with scarce a knowtive of mischief. For the author of this ledge of each other; attracted solely by project is not sanguine enough to expect accidental-meeting, or personal comelic that among those who have been long ness. A practice this which cannot be abandoned to vice in a great city many too much reprobated; yet no one dare can be rescued; neither does he expect in this case : refuse to perform the office that in great cities, as they are at present før men of bad morals and women of bad constituted, there will or can be as yet fame.

a termination to the evil of prostitution ; Is it not therefore more likely that of all he wishes and hopes is, that by cona the lower class who want wives some ducting the institution on this principle should apply to such a source as this, there may in every city in the kingdom where he may probably find a reformed be a sanctuary to which the wretched and industrious young woman, whose may lly, and not without a bope, by proreligious principles are well planted, who per conduct, of finding there a terininaknows the arts necessary to live, has been tion to the dark labyrinth in which their taught her duty, and whose gratitude to , follies and vices have involved them, and the young masi who selects her will bind a happy restoration to their original state her : to chastity and obedience. That in society.

G. CUMBERLAND. such has been the result in more than Bristol, Feb. 15, 1814. one instance, the writer knows, for a fe. male under this predicament once boast- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ed to him, that she had been the means. SIR, (under Providence) of preventing many


S you were pleased to insert, in your young women in her own neighbourhood Magazine for July 1812, some obfrom embracing such a life by reciting servations, &c. of nine on light and coher own example, and describing the mie lours, I am encouraged to send you the sery she had escaped, and the painful du- following on colours alone, which were ty she cheerfully undertook, from a con- written at the same period with the forviction of its being a penance she well. mer ones, and as they are in some mea. deserved for her former errors. This sure connected with those, I hope you woman kept. an oyster-shop in London, will likewise give them insertion. These which gave her an opportunity of know- appear to me to confirm some posicions ing many female servants, and thus cor- advanced in those observations, viz. that recting their evil propensities; she was there are but three simple primary comarried, lived happily with her husband, lours, yellow, red, and blue; that the sim. and had several children. And this leads ple colour red is not found in the prisma. me to a point of great importance to the tic spectrum; that what is called red ac plan. In general the procuring objects one end of the prismatic spectrum, is the for these charities is left to chance, or compound interinediate colour of red the slight recommendation of governors, and yellow, and that the violet at the or that rare case the application of the other end is the compound intermediate unfortunate objects theniselves. I would colour of red and blue. take another method. I would employ In the following figure I have arranged (at & fixed sum per head,) one or two so. the colours in a circle; the three simple ber. females advanced in life, who were primary colours, rer!, yellow, and blue, calculated to inspire confidence, to hunt are placed at the three angles of a trian. out for proper objects among the class gle, and the three intermediate com. we mean, to save, selecting always, in the pounds, orange, green, and purple, in first instance, as objects to be persuaded, their proper situation beineen one se


904 Mr. Hargreave's Experiments on Colours. [April 1, spective colours which compose them, that colour being the one directly oppo. and at the angles of anotiier triangle. site to it in the circle ; thus opposite yel. Y

low stands purple, which will neutralize one the other, and so on round the circle.

Wherever all the three colours have been combined in different proportions, I bare called it a broken tint; but in general, they go by the names of browns,

olives, &c. of which there are an infinite R


In the figure, the colour which falls under the denomination of orange, is

precisely that which, in the prisınatic An equal portion of two primitive co spectruin, is called red; in my former relours makes the exact intermediate one, marks, I have called the prismatic red as of yellow and blue make a green; but vermilion colour, but it lies rather be. another equal portion of the third prie

tween the tint of vermilion and red mitive, red, neutralizes the whole, making lead, and is exactly neutralised by blue, it a grey or black, according as the co In the same manner, the colour called lours are light or dark; if oniy a small purple in the figure, is the same with quantity of the third colour bé used, it the prismatic violet, and is neutralised breaks the tint, making it approach more by yellow. This is proved by the prisnı, to a nevtral tint according to the quar).

for if the spectrum be thrown on a blue tity used. By neutral tint, I do not ground, the colour which is there called mean the tint so called by landscape red, will disappear; and if on a yellow painters, which is inclined to blue or ground, the violet will likewise be neupurple, and ought rather to be called an tralised. The same effect is produced aërial tint; but I inean by it, that gra- by viewing the spectrum through glasses, dation between while and black which is coloured yellow or blue. best given by Indian ink. White and The third primary colour, red, is there black, with all the intermediate degrees fore not seen in the spectrum; the two of grey, are given by equal combinations ends are equally near to it: by referring of the three simple colours. Pure wbite, to the figure, it will be seen that one by uniting all the colours, can only be third of the circle, from the colour produced with the rays of light, as shewn marked orange, which answers to the with the prisni; but all the degrees of prismatic red, to purple, or the prismatic broken white or grey, down to black, violet, including the true primary red, may be produced by the coloured sube and its most immediate compounds, are stances used in painting.

wanting in the prismatic spectrum. A mixture of two intermediate colours, The true primary colour of red, is that' will produce a broken tint of the pri- which is called crimson; and in its paler mary colour which lies between them in gradations pink. This colour, in its va. the figure; for instance, green and purple rious degrees of strength, is very frequent will form a broken or brown blue, as in flowers, more so than either of the may be thus accounted for: green is one other primitives in a pure state. The part blue, and one part yellow ; purple is rose gives it in its paler gradations, but one part blue, and one part red; thus in the pink or carnation shews it from the the whole, when mixed together, there pale to the niost deep. In painting, are two parts blue, one part yellow, and carmine is the colour the nearest, apone part red: the red and yellow, and proaching to it. one part of the blue, would form a neu With yellow, blue, and crimson, an tral tint; but the additional portion of artist can most certainly imitate every blue, gives a tinge to the whole, and pro- tint in nature; with yellow and crimson, duces a broken blue.

the scarlets, prismatic red, and all the The effect of the three intermediate varieties of orange, may be produced; colours mixed together, will be the same and crimson, with blue, gives the pris. as the three simple ones; that is, they matic violet, purple, and indigo, &c.' will produce a grey or neutral tint, which But if, instead of criinson, he takes any will be evident on considering them. pigment of the hue of the prismatic red,

The principai intention of the figure is lie will find it impossible, by joining it ihis, it shews at once what colour or with blue, to produce crimson, pink, tint is the most opposed to another, and violet, or any of the bright purples. will neutralise it when mixed with it; Liverpool. T. HARGREAVES.


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POPULATION OF LINCOLNSHIRE, acin, cong to the Returns of 1811.

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Parts of Holland.

4,145 4,502 22 109 2,664 1,174 661 10,041 10,279 20,320 Kirton

2,255 2,411 14 34 1,531 407 473 5,629 5,864 11,493 Sberbeek

900 956 11 20 588 108 260 2,125 2,173 4,298 Boston

1,772 1,811 25 65 166 907 738 3,805 4,375, 8,180 Parts of Kesteven Aswardhurn 1,026 1,106 2 22


235 46 2,503 2,641 5,144 Aveland

1,449 1,644 3 21 952 467 225 3,686 4,001 7,687 Beltisloe 992 1,088 91 15

766 211 111

2,555 2,579, 5,134 Boothby-Graffo 1,127 1,228 6 27 923 184 121 2,962 2.914 5,876 Flexwell

902 2 20
508 286 198

2,182 2,'83 4,305 Langoe 930 1,058

841 159 58 2,611 2,6771 5,268 Loveden 1,245 1,592 5 19

9921 258 142 3,162 3,265 6,127 Ness 1,001 1,106 12 21 537 206 363

2,689 2,687 5,376 Winuibriggs

837 930 7 11 607 158 and Threo

165 2,186 2,173 4,359 Grantham with the

1,529 1,696 14 27 638 668 390 3,689 4,077 7,766 Soke Stamford

798 896 121 22 136 627 133 2,003 2,579 4,582 Parts of Lindsey. Aslacoe


2 11 609 128 38 -1,811 1,834 3,645 Bulingbroke 1,392 1,503

4 39 1,003 325 175

3,4165 3,6241 7,089 Bradley-Ha1,699! 2,0001 6

70 1,237 Verstoe

622 111 1,098 1,439 2,357 Calceworth 1,550) 1,683 12 41 1,2251 301

3,770 3,987

7,757 Candleshoe 1,164 1,332 2 10 967 232


2,99% 3,177 0,4,99 Copringliam 2,291 2,407 7 97 849

848 711 3,0-? 5.367; 10,114 Gartree 964) 1,11015 27 886 1.1:

5,712 2,6;..) 12.537 Hul 472 550 1. 15


1,352/'1,31: 2,694 Horncastle 1,295 1,315 11 3 847 415 81

3,1611 5,00 6,393 Lawress 1,080 1,162 3 2: 710 199 290

5,611 Louth-Eske

2,035 2,239

5; 7 6 1,1:6 439 61. 5,133 5,1:34 10),699 Lydborough 215

2 207 19 12 565 53. 1,095 Manley

3,6311 4,013 20 722,723 802 4:6 8,+54 9,100 11, 12 Walshcroft 1,016 1,161 10 20 882 21 05

2,725 2,71% 3,474 Well 437

13 570 CO 19 1,15 1,09:11 2,217 Wraggoe 895 1,01) 3

1561 134 2,570! 29,513 -5,094 Yarborough

2,8391 3,181 3 58 1,973 41 999 7,0:37 7,539 11,576 Lincoln

1,813 1,977 29 20 11,8, 1,117 SO 4,177 1,684 8,801 Local Militia

C, 110


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46,368 50,904 276 1099 9881 13,1047,659 117024120869 37,091

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13,103) 22,391 377 352 588 17,093 4,710 42,503 50,035 92,538

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244,468 52,108 989 959 858 29,101 22,149 94,573 124726219299

7,820 11,396 2871 331 1839 5,652 3,905 23,343 30,709 54,052

38,855 57,336 910 1265 666 34,51622,154 108090j129397 237487 1,919 2,355 16 13843 1,031 481 5,627 6,029 11,656

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To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. though I had declared at the beginning, SIR,

that iny purpose was to prove the agree7. A

FTER the summary view of ment of facts with the first chapter of concerning the geological phenomena, be the more attentive to what would fol. coming to what relates to the investiga- low as proofs (which declaration of his tion of the physical causes of these purpose, Mr. Pilgrim has not made); yet, operations on our globe, I specify the when I entered on the subject, I never different objects of these researches in used the words of Genesis as arguments, the following manner. (30.) “Such but followed the facts themselves; and are the general facts which, as certain with respect to causes, they were afforded and determinate effects of causes past, by the progress of natural science, in mak out the task of the geologist; and, which I shall proceed. to embrace all this subject, he must of 9. My second letter to Prof. Blunecessity explain :-1. The origin of menbach bas this title: “ An Anulysis the substances of which our strata are of the Geological Phenomena leading to composed. 2. The cause of the succes their Origin," &c.; in this it is that I sive differences which we observe in come to the subject of light. But first I thein. 3. Why it is that remains of show, § 14, that geological observations terrestrial animals and vegetables are had originated in the marine bodies, found in some strata, mixed with those found in our continents. Then followof marine animals. 4. Whence pro. ing indubitable facts, I arrive, $ 18, at ceeds the disorder of these strata, and this conclusion: “ That all the substances. the dispersion of their fragments on the which form the known mass of our cone surface: 5. How is it that their ruins tinents, including granite, must, at some are now found above the level of the distant epocha, have been suspended in sea. g. l'inally, to what changes these a liquid vbich covered the whole globe, ruins have been exposed, from causes whence they were, at successive periods, actually known, since they have emerged chemically precipitated; and that this is from the sea,”

the epochia we are to determine, as the 8. There is no ambiguity, either in the point to start from, if we would explain above specification of facts, or in the the state of the earth since it has been conclusions drawn from them. If, observed, which embraces only a certain. therefore, Mr. Pilgrim had read these period in an uninterrupted succession of letters, they would have'shown him that, plienomena proceeding from that point.

10. Having

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