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weather afterwards was extremely wet, M method of placing a poker in the

mountains which surround this place were rain which corresponds with it is the least observed to be perfectly white; on the 4th that has occurred during the period of the weather became mild and seasonable, this register, pamely 13 years. The which continued till the 20th; the re nual mean of the therinometer is 7-tenths mainder was dry, with frosty nights, and of a degree below the general summary. sold easterly winds.


WM. PITT. May. The former half of this month January 3, 1814. was very cold and droughty. On the evening of the 14th we had some light. To the Editor of the Monthly lugazine. oing, and a loud peal of thunder. The SIR,

, with frequent falls of hail.

June was on the whole very cold for fire, until it is red hot; and on taking it the season.

It was also dry, with brisk out, setting it upright by the side of ina parching northerly winds.

grate, from which I beliere fatal acciJuly. During this month we had dents have happened by the clothes of some intervals of cold and gloomy wea feinales coming in contact with the pother, but the greater part was bright, sea. ker, and thereby taking fire. I send sonable, and pleasant.

you these remarks froin the circumstance August was througbout exceedingly fa- of a little girl of mine, having had her Tourable for the harvest; the weather clothes set on fire a few days ago, was droughty, particularly the latter balf through this incautious practice. And of the month, which was wholly without I would recommend to every person, on rain.

taking a poker out of the fire, to lay it September. The quantity of rain, 1.98 witb ibe heated part under the grate, and inches, fell in light showers in the former the handle resting on the fender. part of the month. After the 15th the Bristol.

R. TORKINGTON. weather continued remarkably serene The utility of Mr. T's paper will be and pleasant. The crops in tbese north- increased by the addition of an observation ern counties this season have been the of our own, that every poker ought to be most productive, and the weather the most provided with a cross just below the bright favourable for securing the grain, we ever jart, to catch it on the fender when it witnessed.

slips, often red hot, out of the fire. The October. The greater part of this cross would generally catch it on the fenmonth was seasonable and pleasant; on

der, but it it were to roll on the heartlı ruy, the 15th we had showers of hail and sleet,

or carpet, it would raise the hot end above and on the fellowing day all the neigh the floor, and preveut many serious arci. bouring mountains were patched with of the Monthly Magazine, it has been our

dents. Indeed, since the tirst publication Snow.skiddaw, Saddleback, and Cross- painful anty to record two or three cleaths fell, the highest mountains in this county, from this cause.

EDITOR, were perfectly wbite; after this time the nights were generally frośty; on the morn

For the Monthly Magazine. ing of the 29th the thermometer was 5

HABITATS und DOTANIC MENOR ANDA ; degrees below the freezing point, November. The temperature was va

by Mr. WINCH. riable, and the weather at times very UONYMUS Europeus. About Brock stormy. On the 15th, 16th, and 17th, showers of snow and sleet fell; on the Surrey. N.J.M. Diorning of the 17th the fields in the vici Rizes rubrum. Hledges and vous in nity of this city were covered with snow, the north, frequest. N. J.H.-ibout at which cime much snow was observed Settle, Yorkshire; Mr. Windsor. on the mountains. The last week of the Ribes petrium. Ravens worth, wnois month was a moderate frost, and very and hedges near Larperley, Durham. pleasant.

N. J. II.Ruclis between Gordale ani December. The weather during this Malham Tain, Yorkshire; Mr. Windsor. month was exceedingly fine for the season; Ribes alpinu... Rocks berkecil short intervals of frost occurred, which, Gordale and Malliam T., Yorkshire, on the two last days of the month, was Mr. Windsor.--Studley Woods, Yoika unusually severe. No snow fell; and the shire; Mr. Brunton. quantity of rain, .97 parts of an inch, is RIBES nigrum. In hedges, and by rivery trifling.

ruiets, in the north, 100 commari, The annual mean of the barometer this N. v. ll"--Berbeck's Weir and Scule year is the highest, and the quantity of krys, Yorkshire ; i}Ir. Windsor, MONTHLY MAG, No. 261.


E ,



Mr. Dick on the Visibility of Venus. (Feb. 1, Ribes Grossularea. In woods and which the ear can rectify. The double hedges about Newcastle. N. J.W. vowel sound or dipchong in go cannot be

Ribes Vou crispa. On rocks between shortened so as to be reduced to a Chapel in the Dale and Meirgil', Yorke bort vowel-sound; therefore I have shie; Mr. Windsor.-- Veai isarly.goon, c assed, or rather negligently relinquished Durhamn ; W. Weigleli's llerharum. it, aning the dipihongs, or uncharacteILLICLERUM verticillatum. Tallowa- rised double vowel.sounds.

The ear can ter, Bradoc, Cornwall; Mi. E. Forster. determine all these matters with certain.

TIESIUM linophyllum. Baustead ty. Our spelling-books and other nonDowns, Surrey; Mr. E. Forster.-Boxe sense open the opportunity for dispute, bill, and between Ranmore and Dorking, wlrich common sense should bave preSurrey; Mr. J. Woods.--Newmarket; cluded, because the ear: will not deceive. Mr. D. Turner.

There is a provincial way of sounding Virca minor. Tanfield, near Ripon, great as gruy ut: but there are two Yorkshire; N7r. Brunton.

vowel-sounds in that way of pronouncing, Vinca major. Line between Ilamp- so that it is unnecessary to add another stead and the Edgeware road, Middlesex, vowel to the eighteen. The French have and near Matlock, Derbyshire. N. J.W. a very long vowel-sound in the last syl. pw River sides at Bath; Nr. Thompson. lable of abbaye, but with this we are une

acquainted in the polished general lanTo the Editor of the liviitily NIugasine. guage of England. Our way of spelling SIE,

is literally a hieroglyphic, and exhibits R. Thomas Collinson has, in your the English language in masquerade. No

nuber of Januaryvery wonder that so many miscakes should sendably endeavoured ti rectify Dr. arise.

RICHARD EDWARDS. Shaw's errors in his scheme of vowels; Bloomsbury, Jan. 4, 1813. but has not succeeded in his explanation of them, being, apparently deceived by To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the eye, where in the ear ought to be SIR,

T the diphthongs, eighteen vowel-sounds in the English language. Of these six are sibie, in any instance, to see the planet short, that is, they cannot be pronounced Venus at the time of her superior conunless they either issue out of a syllable junction with the Sun, when she presents. preceding, or rest upon a consonant or to the Earth a full enlightened hemis. vowel sound following. These six short phere. This opinion is expressed in vowel-sounds are found : 1. in at; 2. in strong and pointed terms by Martin, egs; 3. in it; 4. in hot; 5. in bull; 6. Gravesande, Long, Ferguson, Brewster, in but. Six vowel-sounds are mere pro- and other astronomical writers, and has tractions of the foregoing short vowel- been so generally taken for granted, that sounds; and are found, 1. in aunt; 2. in no writer on astronomy has ever called hate; 3. in seck; 4. in all; 5. in rood; it in question. In opposition to this 6. in an expression of disgust or surprise, opinion, when engaged in making a Cig!! or in the French word creuse.' The series of observations on the celestial remaining six vowel-sounds may very pro- bodies in the day-time, I have ascere perly retain their simple name of depos tained, that Venuis may be distinctly Qaclyos diphthong, or dipthong, or double seen with a moderate degree of magnie sound; because they are none of them ex. fying power at the moment of her supetensions of a short vowel-sound, and rior conjunction with the Sun, when her therefore cannot be characterized, as are geocentric latitude, at the time of conthe other six double vowel sounds, which junction, is not less than 3 degrees; are protractions of the six short vowel. baving seen that planet a little before sounds. The six dipibongs are not all of noon, on the 5ih of June last, when only shem compounds of two short vowel. 2° 44' from the Sun's eastern limb; at sounds, for only one of them is so. Our which time, with a magnifying power of way of spelling them deiermines nothing. 00 times, the direct solar rays being in The six dipuhogs are found, 1. in ay, or tercepted) she appeared perféctly wellGreek alb, or Latin & ; 2. in high; 3. in defined, and with a power of 15 could be boys; 4. in go; 5. in lule; and 6. in cows. distinctly perceived. I am also of opiIt is a mistake to think that the double nion, from the degree of distinctness vowel sound in go is an extension of the with which she appeared at that time, $21014 vowel-sound in gut. It is an asso that she may be seen, when only 14 siaticn of ideas which leads to that errore from the Sun's centre; but cloudy weather


prevented my obtaining ocular demon- this class may be distinguished when the stration of this fact. A paper of consi- Sun is not above an hour and a half above derable length, containing the details and the horizon; but that, in every case, results on this and several other parti. higher powers, such as those of 45 of 60 culars, (which was originally read before times, are to be preferred. 2. Tliac the National Institution of Dundee, a most of the stars of the second inagnitude Literary and Philosophical Society lately may be seen with a power of 60, when established) is published in Nicholson's the Sun is not much more than two Journal for October last.

hours above the horizon; and at any The following are the conclusions time of the day, the brightest stars of this deduced from the observations on Venus, class may be seen with a power of 104), 1. That the difference (if any) between when the sky is serene. 3. That in every the polar and equatorial diameters of instance, an increase of magnifying this planet, may, at soine future con. power has the principal eflect in renders junction, be determined; by which it ing a star easily pari eptible:--that the will be ascertained, whether Venus, like dithinution of the aperture of the objectthe Earth, and several other planets, he glass, in most case: produces a very an oblate spheroid. 2. That during the slight effect, in some cases one at all; space of 583 days, the time she takes in and when it is contracted bevood a cermoving from one conjunction with the tain limit, it produces a burtui rilect: Sun to a like conjunction again, when that a inoderate contrac:ion : her latitude at the time of her superior useful, when the star appears in a brighio conjunction exceeds 3°, she may be seen part of the sky, not far from the 31; 27:) with an equatorial telescope every clear when an object-glass of a large partere, dày, without interruption, except at the and a small segree of magnifying por time of her inferior conjunction, and are used. 4. That ihe relasual bones three or four days before and after it. may be as easily disungurishesd a: 31971)3. That every variation of the phases of day, as at any time between urine in the this planet, from a slender crescent to a morning and three in the afiernoon, ex full enlightened bemisphere, may, on cept during the short days in winter. any clear day, be conveniently exhibited; 5. That they are inore easily distinwhich will form an easy and useful me- guished at a higie than at a low altitude; thod of illustrating, by actual observa in the afternoon than in the morning; tion, the truth of the solar system to stue and in the northern ihan in the southern dents of astronomy. 4. That useful ob. part of the heavens ; the observer being servations on Venus might be sometimes supposed to be in north latitude. made in the day-time, which might for Methven, Perthshire. T. DICE. ever set at rest those disputes which have arisen respecting the period of her rota. To the Editor of the Monthly Maguzine. tion, and the satellite, which some have supposed to accompany her. 5. That a diminution of the aperture of the object

TIEN I presumed to insert, in W"

your valuable publication, the glass of the telescope, and the interpo. article respecting rice bread, in your sition of an opake body, to intercept the number 230, for August 1, 1812, p. 17, direct solar rays, are requisite, in order in answer to Mr. Johnns, it was the reto see this planet distinctly, when very sult of an experiment, made under my near the Sun. 6. That the common ex- personal strict observation, ready to be subo pressions of astronomical writers, which stantiated upon oath of four more persons, assert or imply the impossibility of see which evinced, that that gentleman har ing this planet at the time of its superior been imposed upon bvliis servants; but conjunction, ought to be laid aside, or I am beyond measure surprised that any qnalified in such a manner as not to con one, afterwards, should have committed vey an erroneous idea.

himself so far, as not only to contrarlict I have also deduced the following con

the above fair and clear statement, (as clusions, from a series of observations your correspondent J. II. O. has done made on the fixed stars in the day-time. in your Magazine, No. 233, for Novenia 1. That a telescope furnished with a ber, 1812, page 313,) but even go so far magnifying power of 30 times, is suffi as gravely to assert that, for many years, cient for distinguishing a fixed star of in the Foundling llospiral, telity-four the first magnitude, even at noon-day, pounds of rice have producent the age when it is not within 400 uf the Sun's quantity of baked puddig, as one hun. body, and has a moderate degree of ele- dred and sixty pounds of wheaten four! vation above the horizon. Also that Credat


pult ! with a magnifying power of 15, a star of




20 Lagrange's Origin of Comets and Theory of Motions. (Feb. 1,

For the Monthly Magazine. orbit, to be described by a body project On the ORIGIN of Comets, and the ed with any given velocity, and in any

THEORY of their Motions; by M LA given direction; but at present, it is neGRANGE: translated from the Connuis. cessary to obtain formulas producing reSunce des Tenns for 1814.

sults, simple and general. HE ingenious hypothesis

suppose, for sake, a plathe appearances and the small magnitude whose radius is represented by r; and of the four new planets, and of their I demand the velocity to be impressed on equal, or nearly equal, distances from the that body, with its direction, in order Sun. This hypothesis supposes those to change the circular into an elliptic planets to be only fragments of a larger orbit, whose semi-axis, or the mean planet, which performed revolutions distance, shall be a, the semi-parameter round the Sun at ihe same distance, and b, and the inclination of the new orbis which some extraordinary cause has burst upon the first be i. With respect to the into different pieces, which have conti- pode or intersection of these orbits, it nued their course round the Sun, at is clear that it must be in that precise nearly the same distance, and with nearly spot when the new impulsion was imequal velocities, but in planes differently pressed on the planet. inclined.

Let m: 1 be the ratio of the velocity This hypothesis was suggested by ob- communicated by this impulse to the servations on the first two of the new primitive velocity of the body in the planets, Ceres aud Pallas, and it led to circle; and let C, B, y, be the angles the discovery of the other two, Juno and which the direction of the impulse forms Vesta, by a careful observation of the with the radius r', with a perpendicular two quarters of the heavens, in which to this radius in the plane of the circle, their orbits intersect cach other, which in the direction of the circular movement, happens in Virgo and Cete.

and with a perpendicular to the plane in This hypothesis of Olbers, extraordi- self of the circle: we shall then have nary as it may appear, is not however

b improbable. Persons who, like Saussure,

= 3 -X Dolomieu, and some others, have made observations and researches into the


V(2 structure of mountains, are forced to acknowledge that the Earth bas under- cos. a = gone various great catastrophes, and

b that the strata which form its exterior

V-X cos. i 1. crust, bave been elevated, broken, and

cus.ß= displaced, by the action of internal fire, or of some other elastic fluids. It is eren possible that large portions may

V-X sin. i have been detached from the globe and cos. ny = thrown to a distance, where they have become aerolites, which revolve round In the paraboia, the distance a be. the Eartlı, and again separate into smaller comes infinite, which in the expressions of fragments, at the moment of their fall m, and of the cos. a, extinguishes the term upon the surface of the globe: or they ?,

-, and b becomes double the perihelion may have become sınall planets, more or less eccentric in their course round the distance. Sun; like the comet of 1770, which With regard to retrograde comets, it Lexel and Burkardt discovered to be no is known that they may be regarded as other than an eccentric planet, whose direct; that is to say, as proceeding alperiod of revolution could be only about ways in the same direction, but with an

or they may have become inclination greater than a right angle. really comets.

Ilence, for a direct comet moving always Whatever may be thought of these hy- in the direction of the primitive circular potheses, I was curious to inquire what motion, the angle i must be taken in the would be the explosive force necessary first quadrant; and for a retrograde coto burst a planet, so that one of the met moving in an opposite direction, the fragments might be converted into a co- angle i must be taken in the second qua

In itself, this problem is not diffi- drant. cult; for we learn from Newton, the For direct comets, cos, į will there. manner of determining the elements of an fore be positive, and the greatest value


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[ocr errors] 1814.] Lagrange's Origin of Comeis and Theory of Motions. 21 of m, supposing the orbit to be parabo Hl+cos. in B lic, will be v3: but for retrograde co

1 mets cos. i will be negative, and the

cos.Biz greatest value of m will extend to

m(2 a) V 5, if the demi-parameter do not ex. the angle y remaining the same. ceed the primitive distance r: in general In the case of the circle the quantities the maximum of m, for retrograde comets, A and B become = r, avhich give H=0, wil be 1 (3+2 v). Hence m=vi and then we have the first formulas


When the ellipse is of very small ecceuis the limit separating direct from retro. tricity, the quantities A and B differ very grade comets: below that limit they are little from r, and the quantity H becomes direct, and above it they are retrograde. extremely small

, in the order of the eca These results seem to me to deserve the centricity: the first formulas are then attention of geometers, for their sim. very near the truth; and, as this case plicity; nor do I know that any notice belongs to all the known planets, those of them is to be found in any publica- formulas are sufficient for our purpose. tion,

In taking the mean distance of the Sun To have a general solution, we will from the Earth for the unit of distance, suppose the primitive orbit to be an el and the mean velocity of the Earth for lipse of any order, having A for its demi- the unit of velocity, we know that the axis or mean distance, and B for its velocity of any planet describing round semi-parameter: then by abridgement the Sun a circle, whose radius is r, will


be expressed by jr: hence, in order
that this planet, or a portion of this pla-

net, should change instantaneously its h =V2

circular orbit in an elliptic of any sorts hence we have

it will be necessary that the planet, or its

portion, receive an impulse, impressing
4- 2

on it a velocity, as

duce this phænomenon,it is therefore suffi
cient to suppose that, by the action of any

elastic fluid, unfolded and acting in the hH

interior of the planet, from accidental causes, an explosion takes place, by

which the planet separates into two or d.

more parts; each of these parts will conB

sequently describe an orbit, elliptic, or

parabolic, proportioned to the velocity cos. ß

impressed on it by the explosion. In this scheme, I lay aside all regard to the mutual attraction of the parts of the

planet, which, when those parts are excos. Y

tremely minute, and are not separated

with great rapidity, may occasion some a

small alteration in the elements of their And if instead of the angles a and ß, orbits. which belong to the radius vector, and to The mean velocity of the Earth, in its a perpendicular to that radius, in the orbit round the Sun, is nearly seven plane of the primitive orbit, we were to leagues in a second. The velocity of a employ the angles a', b', formed by the 24 pound ball, at the moment of leaving direction of the impulse with the normal, the cannon, is about 1400 feet, or 233 and with the tangent of the primitive el- toises, in a second [1500 feet English]; liptic orbits, we shall have

which is also nearly ihat of a point on the B 16

surface of the Earth under the equator, h

in its diurnal rotation. For a unit, let cos.

us take that velocity of a cannon-ball, which is nearly the tenth of a league in a second, the velocity of the Earth in its



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