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SIR,

mountains which surround this place were rain which corresponds with it is the least observed to be perfectly white; on the 4th that has occurred during the period of the weather became mild and seasonable, this register, vaniely 13 years. The aris which continued till the 20th; the re- nual mean of the therinometer is 7-tenthis mainder was dry, with frosty nights, and of a degree below the general summary, sold easterly winds.

Carlisle,

Wų. PITT. May. The former half of this month January 3, 1814, was very cold and droughty. On the evening of the 14th we had some light. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. oing, and a loud peal of thunder. The weather afterwards was extremely wet, ANY people have an unguarded with frequent falls of hail.

June was on the whole very cold for fire, until it is red hot; and on taking it the season.

It was also dry, with brisk out, setting it upright by the side of the parching northerly winds.

grate, from which I believe fatal acci. July. During this month we had dents have happened by the clothes of some intervals of cold and gloomy wea- females coming in contact with the pother, but the greater part was bright, sea- ker, and thereby taking fire. I send sonable, and pleasant.

you

these remarks from the circumstance August was throughout exceedingly fa- of a little girl of wine, having had her vourable for the harvest; the weather clothes set on fire a few days ago, was droughty, particularly the latter balf through this incautious practice. And of the month, which was wbolly without I would recommend to every person, on Tain,

taking a poker out of the fire, to lay it September. The quantity of raib, 1.98 witb the heated part under the grate, and inches, fell in light showers in the former the handle resting on the fender, part of the month. After the 15th the Bristol.

R. TORKINGTON. weather continued remarkably serene

The utility of Mr. T's paper will be and pleasant. The crops in these north- increased by the addition of an observation ern 'counties this season have been the of our own, that every poker ought to be most productive, and the weather the most provided with a cross just below the bright favourable for securing the grain, we ever part, to catch it on the fender when it witnessed.

slips, often red hot, out of the fire. The · October. The greater part of this cross would generally catch it on the fenmonth was seasonable and pleasant; on der, but if it were to roll on the hearth rug, the 15th we had showers of hail and sleet, the floor, and prevent many serious acci

or carpet, it would raise the hot end above and on the fellowing day all the neigh* dents. Indeed, since the first publication bouring mountains were patched with

of the Monthly Magazine, it has been our snow. Skiddaw, Saddleback, and Cross- painful duty to record two or three deaths fell, the highest mountains in this county, from this cause.

EDITOR, were perfectly wbite; after this time the nights were generally frosty; on the morn- For the Monthly Magazine. ing of the 29th the thermometer was 5

HABITATS und BOTANIC MENOR ANDA ; degrees below the freezing point, November. The temperature was va

by Mr. WINCH. riable, and the weather at times very UONYMUS Europeus. AboutBrock. stormy. On the 15th, 16th, and 17thi, ham, Betchworth, and Micklehai, showers of snow and sleet fell; on the Surrey, N.J.W. Diorning of the 17th the fields in the vici- Rizes rubrum. Hedges and wonds in nity of this city were covered with snow, the north, frequent. N.J. W.-Abouc at which cime' much snow was observed Settle, Yorkshire; Mr. Windsor, on the mountains. The last week of the Ribes petraum. Ravensworth, woods month was a moderate frost, and very and hedges near Harperley, Durham. pleasant.

N. J. IV. Rocks between Gordale and December. The weather during this Malham Tarn, Yorkshire; Mr. Windsor. month was exceedingly fine for the season; RIBES alpinub. Rocks between short intervals of frost occurred, which, Gordale and "Malham Tarn, Yorkshire; on the two last days of the month, was Mr. Windsor.--Studley Woods, York, unusually severe. No snow fell; and the shire; Mr. Brunion. quantity of rain, .97 parts of an inch, is Ribes nigrum. In hedges, and by ria very trifling.

vuiets, in the north, not The annual mean of the barometer this N. J.W.---Berbeck's Weir and Setile fear is the highest, and the quantity of Keys, Yorkshire ; Mr. Windsor. MONTHLY MAG, No. 261.

D

RIBES

EY

uncom101), two

RIBES Grossularea. In woods and which the ear can rectify. The double hedges about Newcastle. N.J.W. vowel-sound or dipthong in go cannot be

Ribes Udu crispa. On rocks between shortened so as to be reduced to a Chapel in the Dale and Meirgill, York - bort vowel-sound; therefore I have shire; Mr. Windsor.-Near Darlington, cassed, or rather negligently relinquished Durham; W. Weighell's Herbarium. it, ainong the dipihongs, or uncharacte

ILLICEERUM verticillatum. Tallowa- rised double vowel.sounds. The ear can ter, Bradoc, Cornwall; Mr. E. Forster. determine all these matters with certain

THESIUM linophyllum. Banstead ty. Our spelling-books and other nonDowns, Surrey; Mr. E. Forster.Boxe sense open the opportunity for dispute, hill, and between Ranmore and Dorking, wlrich common sense should bave preSurrey; Mr. J. Woods.-Newmarket; cluded, because the ear will not deceive. Mr. D. Turner.

There is a provincial way of sounding Vinca minor. Tanfield, near Ripon, great as gruy ut: but there are Yorkshire; Mr. Brunton.

yowel-sounds in that way of pronouncing, Vinca major. Lane between Hamp- so that it is unnecessary to add another stead and the Edgeware road, Middlesex, vowel to the eighteen. The French have and near Matlock, Derbyshire. N. J.W. a very long vowel sound in the last syl. River sides at Bath; Mr. Thompson. lable of abbaye, but with this we are une

acquainted in the polished general lanTo the Editor of the Monthly Magasine. guage of England. Our way of spelling SIE,

is literally a hieroglyphic, and exhibits R. Thomas Collinson has, in your the English language in masquerade. No M number of January, very com- wonder that so many inistakes should mendably endeavoured to rectify Dr. arise.

RICHARD EDWARDS. Shaw's errors in his scheine of vowels; Bloomsbury, Jan. 4, 1813. but has not succeeded in his explanation of them, being apparently deceived by To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the eye, whereas the ear ought to be SIR,

IT

T has hitherto been the uniform opi. the diphthongs, eighteen vowel-sounds in nion of astronomers, that it is impose the English language. Of these six are sible, in any instance, to see the planet short, that is, they cannot be pronounced Venus at the time of her superior conunless they either issue out of a syllable junction with the Sun, when she presents preceding, or rest upon a consonant or to the Earth a full enlightened hemis. vowel sound following. These six short phere. This opinion is expressed in vowel-sounds are found: 1. in at; 2. in strong and pointed_terms by Martin, egg; 3. in it; 4. in hot; 5. in bull; 6. Gravesande, Long, Ferguson, Brewster, in but. Six vowel-sounds are mere pro- and other astronomical writers, and has tractions of the foregoing short vowel- been so generally taken for granted, that sounds; and are found, 1. in aunt; 2. in no writer on astronomy has ever called hate; 3. in seek; 4. in all; 5. in rood; it in question. In opposition to this 6. in an expression of disgust or surprise, opinion, when engaged in making a eugh! or in the French word creuse. The series of observations on the celestial remaining six vowel-sounds may very pro- bodies in the day-time, I have ascerjerly retain their simple name of dopos tained, that Venus may be distinctly Qoofyos diphthong, or dipthong, or double- seen with a moderate degree of magnie sound; because they are done of them ex. fying power at the moment of her supea tensions of a short vowel sound, and rior conjunction with the Sun, when her -therefore cannot be characterized, as are geocentric latitude, at the tiine of conthe other six double vowel sounds, which junction, is not less than 3 degrees; are protractions of the six short vowele having seen that planet a little before sounds, The six dipthongs are not all of noon, on the 5th of June last, when only them compounds of two short vowel. 20 44! from the Sun's eastern limb; at sounds, for only one of them is so, Our which time, with a magnifying power of way of spelling them determines nothing. 60 times, (the direct solar rays being in. The six diptvogs are found, 1. in ay, or tercepted) she appeared perfectly wellGreek on, or Latin # ; 2. in high ; 3. in defined, and with a power of 15 could be boys; 4. in go; 5. in lule; and 6. in cows. distinctly perceived. I am also of opi. It is a inistake to think that the double nion, from the degree of distinctness vowel sound in go is an extension of the with which she appeared at that time, stort vowel-sound in gut. It is an asso- that she may be seen, when only 14 ciation of ideas which leads to that error, from the Sun's centre; but cloudy weather

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prevented my obtaining ocular demon- this class may he distinguished when the stration of this fact. A paper of consi- Sun is not above an hour and a half above derable length, containing the details and the horizon; but that, in every case, results on this and several other parti- higher powers, such as those of 45 o 60 culars, (which was originally read before times, are to be preferred. 2. Tlac the National Institution of Dundee, a most of the stars of the second magnitude Literary and Philosophical Society lately. may be seen with a power of 60, when established) is published in Nicholson's the Sun is not much more than tivo Journal for October last.

hours above the horizon; and at any The following are the conclusions time of the day, the brightest stars of this deduced from the observations on Venus, class may be seen with a power of 100), 1. That the difference (if any) berween when the sky is serene. 3. That in every the polar and equatorial diameters of instance, an increase of magnifying this planet, may, at some future con. power has the principal effect in renderjunction, be determined; by which it ing a star easily perceptible :--that the will be ascertained, whether Venus, like diminution of the aperture of the objectthe Earth, and several other planets, he glass, in most cases produces a very an oblate spheroid. 2. That during the slight effect, in some cases none at all; space of 583 days, the time she takes in and when it is contracted bevod a cermoving from one conjunction with the tain limit, it produces a hurtful effect ; Sun to a like conjunction again, when that a moderate contraction is chiefly her latitude at the time of her superior useful, when the star appears in a bright conjunction exceeds 3°, she may be seen part of the sky, not far from the Sun; and with an equatorial telescope every clear when an object-glass of a large aperture, dàv, without interruption, except at the and a small degree of magnifying poser time of her inferior conjunction, and are used. 4. That the celestial bodies three or four days before and after it. may be as easily distinguished at noon3. That every variation of the phases of day, as at any time between nine in the this planer, from a slender crescent to a morning and three in the afternoon, ex full enlightened bemisphere, may, on cept during the short days in winter. any clear day, be conveniently exhibited; 5. That they are more easily distinwhich will form an easy and useful me- guished at a high than at a low altitude; thod of illustrating, by actual observa. in the afternoon than in the morning; tion, the truth of the solar system to scue and in the northern than in the southern dents of astronomy. 4. That useful ob. part of the heavens; the observer being servations on Venus might be sometimes supposed to be in north latitude. made in the day-time, which might for Methven, Perthshire. T. DICK. ever set at rest those disputes which have arisen respecting the period of ber rota. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. tion, and the satellite, which some have supposed to accompany her. 5. Thət a HEN I presumed to insert, in

your valuable publication, the glass of the telescope, and the interpo. article respecting rice bread, in your sition of an opake body, to intercept the number 230, for August 1, 1812, p. 17, direct solar rays, are requisite, in order in answer to Mr. Johnns, it was the reto see this planet distinctly, when very sult of an experiment, made under my near the Sun. 6. That the common ex personal strict observation, ready to busub. pressions of astronomical writers, which stantiated upon oath of four more persons, assert or imply the impossibility of see. which evinced, that that gentleman had ing this planet at the time of its superior been imposed upon by his servants ; but conjunction, ought to be laid aside, or I am beyond measure surprised that any qnalified in such a manner as not to con- one, afterwards, should have committed vey an erroneous idea.

himself so far, as not only to contradict I have also deduced the following con

the above fair and clear statement, (as clusions, from a series of observations your correspondent J. H. (). has done made on the fixed stars in the day-time. in your Magazine, No. 233, for Novenia 1. That a telescope furnished with a ber, 1812, page 313,) but even go so far magnifying power of 30 times, is suffi- as gravely to assert that, for many years, cient for distinguishing a fixed star of in the Foundling Hospiral, twenty-four the first magnitude, even at noon-day, pounds of rice have produced the same when it is not within 400 of the Sun's quantity of baked pudding, as one hun. body, and has a moderate degree of ele- dred and sisty pounds of wheaten floor! vation above the horizon. Also that Credat que

puli! with a magnifying power of 15, a star of

FERDINAND SMYTH STUART.
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For the Monthly Magazine. orbit, to be described by a body project On the ORIGIN of Comets, and the ed with any given velocity, and in any

Theory of their MOTIONS; by M La given direction; but at present, it is neGRANGE: translated from the Connuis. cessary to obtain formulas producing rem sunce des Terns for 1814.

sults, simple and general. THE ingenious hypothesis of M. Ol- suppose, for simplicity's sake, a pla

There owne for explaining net, describing round the sun a circle

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the appearances and the small magnitude whose radius is represented by r; and of the four new planets, and of their I demand the velocity to be impressed on equal, or nearly equal, distances from the that body, with its direction, in order Sun. This hypothesis supposes those to change the circular into an elliptic planets to be only fragments of a larger orbit, whose semi-axis, or the mean planet, which performed revolutions distance, shall be a, the serni-parameter round the Sun at the same distance, and b, and the inclination of the new orbit which some extraordinary cause has burst upon the first be i. With respect to the into different pieces, which have conti- node or intersection of these orbits, it nued their course round the Sun, at is clear that it must be in that precise nearly the same distance, and with nearly spot when the new impulsion was imequal velocities, but in planes differently pressed on the planet. inclined.

Let m: 1 be the ratio of the velocity This hypothesis was suggested by ob- communicated by this impulse to the servations on the first two of the new primitive velocity of the body in the planets, Ceres and Pallas, and it led to circle; and let C, B, %, be the angles the discovery of the other two, Juno and which the direction of the impulse forms Vesta, by a careful observation of the with the radius r, with a perpendiculas two quarters of the heavens, in which to this radius in the plane of the circle, their orbits intersect each other, which in the direction of the circular movement, happens in Virgo and Cete.

and with a perpendicular to the plane itu This hypothesis of Olbers, extraordi- self of the circle: we shall then have nary as it may appear, is not however

b improbable. Persons who, like Saussure,

m=V (3 -- 27-X cos. i Dolomieu, and some others, have made observations and researches into the

b

V (2 structure of mountains, are forced to acknowledge that the Earth has under- cos. a = gone various great catastrophes, and that the strata which form its exterior

V - X cos. i . 1. crust, have been elevated, broken, and

cos. displaced, by the action of internal fire, or of some other elastic fluids.

b even possible that large portions may have been detached from the globe and cos. g = thrown to a distance, where they have become aerolites, which revolve round In the paraboia, the distance a be. the Earth, and again separate into smaller comes infinite, which in the expressions of fragments, at the moment of their fall, and of the cos. a, extinguishes the terni upon the surface of the globe: or they ?,

-- and b becomes double the perihelion may have become sinall planets, more or Jess eccentric in their course round the distance. Sun; like the comet of 1770, which With regard to retrograde comets, it Lexel and Burkardt discovered to be no is known that they may be regarded as other than an eccentric planet, whose direct; that is to say, as proceeding alperiod of revolutidi could he only about ways in the same direction, but with an six years,

or they may have become inclination greater than a right angle. really comets.

Hence, for a direct comet moving always Whatever may be thought of these hy- in the direction of the primitive circular potheses, I was curious to inquire what motion, the angle i must be taken in the would be the explosive force necessary first quadrant; and for a retrograde coto burst a planet, so that one of the met moving in an opposite direction, the fragments inight be converted into a co- angle i must be taken in the second qua.

In itself, this problem is not diffi- drant. cult; for we learn from Newton, the For direct comets, cos, i will there. manner of determining the elements of an fore be positive, and the greatest value

of

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11 +cos.info lic, will be ✓ 3 : but for retrograde co

1 mets cos. i will be negative, and the cos.B'= greatest value of m will extend to

m(24) V 5, if the demi-parameter do not ex

the angle y remaining the same. ceed the primitive distance r: in general In the case of the circle the quantities the maximum of m, for retrograde comets, A and B become =r, which give H=0, will be (3+2 v). Hence m=

and then we have the first formulas.

When the ellipse is of very small ecceuis the limit separating direct from retro. tricity, the quantities A and B differ very grade comets: below that liinit chey are little from r, and the quantity H becomes direct, and above it they are retrograde. extremely small

, in the order of the eco These results seem to me to deserve the centricity: the first formulas are then attention of geometers, for their sim. very near the truth; and, as this case plicity; nor do I know that any notice belongs to all the known planets, those of them is to be found in any publica- formulas are sufficient for our purpose. tion.

In taking the mean distance of the Sun To have a general solution, we will from the Earth for the unit of distance, suppose the primitive orbit to be an ele and the mean velocity of the Earth for lipse of any order, having A for its demi- the unit of velocity, we know that the axis or mean distance, and B for its velocity of any planet describing round semi.parameter: then by abridgement the Sun a circle, whuse radius is r, will

B

be expressed by :: hence, in order HE

Vr
that this planet, or a portion of this pla-
net, should change instantaneously its'

circular orbit in an elliptic of any sort, bence we have

it will be necessary that the planet, or its

portion, receive an impulse, impressing
6B
4- 2 cos.in

2hH.
on it a velocity, as

Tr. In order to pro-
duce this phænomenon, it is therefore suffi
cient to suppose that, by the action of any

elastic fluid, unfolded and acting in the
h -H

interior of the planet, from accidental
causes, an explosion takes place, by

which the planet separates into two or
d.

more parts; each of these parts will con. cos. ¿

sequently describe an orbit, elliptic, or

parabolic, proportioned to the velocity cos. B

impressed on it by the explosion.
Vr
In this scheme, I lay aside all regard to
the mutual attraction of the parts of the
planet, which, when those parts are ex-
tremely minute, and are not separated
with great rapidity, may occasion somo

small alteration in the elements of their
And if instead of the angles a and B, orbits.
which belong to the radius vector, and to The mean velocity of the Earth, in its
a perpendicular to that radius, in the orbit round the Sun, is nearly seven
plane of the primitive orbit, we were to leagues in a second. The velocity of a
employ the angles a, b', formed by the 24 pound ball, at the moment of leaving
direction of the impulse with the normal, the cannon, is about 1400 feet, or 233
and with the tangent of the primitive el- toises, in a second (1500 feet English];
liptic orbits, we shall have

which is also vearly ihat of a point on the B

surface of the Earth under the equator, h -Hcos.i.

in its diurnal rotation. For a unit, let cos.' =

us take that velocity of a cannon-ball, m

which is nearly the tenth of a league in a second, the velocity of the Earth in its

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