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rious bave been the devices to improve peat his day book, it would not constitute those that are not so. How many of him a good tradesman. Something these have been lost after obtaining some more than memory is requisite, and that patronage, and how many have been re- something is judgment. Here then arises corded as monuments of human wisdom, the important question, if the meinory or of human fully, I am not prepared to be strengthened, is the judgment improved

I say, but it appears to me that the princi- us a consequence of it. I apprehend not. ple of every plan is association. The ce. A child with a memory furnished as Moo. lebrated Mr. Foote was asked his opinion sieur Von Feinagle's may be supposed to of a gallery of paintings, consisting en- be, could make no use of it, but would tirely of representations of naval battles. be coufounded and overwhelmed. Food “ Indeed, sir," he observed, "they are must be digested and assimilated, and all very fine, and what is much in their even incorporated, before it strengthens favour they are all alike.” It is precisely and is useful; it is the same with knows the same with the systems of mnemonics, ledge. A parrot repeats as accurately one leading principle pervades the whole, as a man, and gains as much by what it the symbols and characters only are dif- says. If the sentiment be not made the ferent. The

dark and mysterious man's own, when that is done the words Egyptians made use of uncouth and need not be retained. A man at Oxford monstrous figures as records of their ac, committed to memory the whole of a tions--the frank and manly Briton, for Greek lexicon--enviable man, what a the same purpose, used harmonious lan- prodigy of learning!. Alas, he was an guage : the contrast is striking, and the ideot-his mind could appropriate now feeling it imparts. gratifying. What is thing. I have occasionally been invited true of nations is true also of individuais; to the company of gentlemen, the bare cach one consults his caste as to the plan mention of whose attainments have filled be adopts to assist his mem

emory, but still me with shame; desirous of profiting by adhering to the common principle of as: their knowledge, I have asked them a sociation. The mathematician make$ question, not respecting words, but use of figures; with him numbers are ex. things the answer las commonly been, pressive of things : a linguist combines Dr. A. has written an excellent treatise letters; no matter what unmeaning word on the subject, and is of such an opinion, he forms, he compels his memory to re, Dr. B. a inan of equal learning, is of an tain it, and each letter is expressive of opposite way of thinking; and there is a

a third, fond of anecdote, third class who pursue a middle course. throws events into the form of stories, But pray, sir, I ask, what is your opinion? and in this way his memory is aided : Whý, truly, the arguments on each side another ties a knot in his bandkerchief, are so excellent, and supported by suck or puts a slip of paper into his snuff-box. authorities, that it is difficult to make up A proof of the prevalence of the science one's mind on the subject. I have nois of mnemonics.- Indeed we meet with it discovered my man he is a man of me in every department of life.

mory- he can repeat a thousand things, In this hasty sketch I have not enquired but cap decide on none; he is learned into the merit of any system, because, but not wisc; should you wish to know for practical and useful purposes, volun. something of the opinion his neighbours tary associations are insufficient; the tie form of him, you will be told that he is in that binds them together is not strong possession of every sense but common enough, for, in order to recollect a chair,

Thus literature becomes less I am desired to call to mind the Tower esteemed than it ought to be by the pubá of Babel; to remember Flenry the Eighth, lic. Here I can scarcely refrain from en I am desired to call to mind eight hens, tering on a defence of literature, and en But what is to lead my inind in this di- deavour to rescue it froin the obloquy section? Can I not recollect a chair as which mere memory-mongers and specu. readily as the Tower of Babel? But lative characters have brought upon ili suppose tbe art attainable, suppose a per- but I have already occupied too much son, not naturally of a strong meinory, taught to repeat a page of a Gerinan Were I asked whether I would recom, book, without knowing the language, by mend the cultivation of the memory as hearing it once read, would such a me. a particular tranch of education, I ana mory be desirable?' I apprehend not swer, that I would not any more than I For what is the office of memory, is it not would recommend a suit of armour to to supply materials for the judgment? him who wished to walk with ease; the Memory then is a mean to an end, it is erdinary habits being amply sufficient. not a whole in itgelf; could 4 person re- A person who gainmita to memory is


an event:





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like a child sent on an errand, at every small, but it increases in proportion to step it must repeat its message, there is no- its cultivation. The great end of edu. thing properly and radically made its own; cation is to strengthen the judgment; for change the words and the thing is new. this purpose mathematics, and metaphyThe man who reads a book with advan- sics, are attended to, and are useful; but tage does not comınit the words to me- many individuals have neither taste nor mory, but weighs their meaning, and inclination for such studies; to such (and thus judges of the sentiment or the fact. indeed to all) I recommend a plan within It is the judgnient, not the memory, their reach, and of undeviating efficacy. which dignifies a man. Judgment is the In every science there are standard glory that envelopes him, and which co- books, read one of these books; at first vers bim with a mantle of power; it is it will not be comprehended, but read this which puts a sceptre in his hands, to and dwell upon it, till it is well underwhich every faculty, every passion, pays stood; it


need a twentieth reading, involuntary homage, and ready tribute. but the effort will amply repay the trou. Suppose the sceptre to have fallen--sup- ble, by enlarging the capacity, and by pose madness to have assumed the seat making the future pursuit of the science of judgment, and what then is the man? easy. Where this plan has been practised, The memory is uninjured, but it is use- the mind has acquired more elevation, less; a topical memory therefore is not strength, and dignity, than by any other. the basis of a sound understanding, it means I am acquainted with. does not grow out of it, and is but little aided by it. An artificial inemory,


To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. whose system you please, while it surprises some and mortifies others, enfee

SIR, bles the possessor; it heaps upon him a

have oppress and render inactive: but the ductions of those who first trod the flow. man who has cultivated his judgment is ery fields of genius, cannot appear surlike a ship upon the ocean, the centre of prising, if we consider the uniformity of a vast circumference, every thing point- the human intellect, and the siinilarity of ing towards him, while he moves on calm, effect produced by the impression of exserene, and dignifieri; not first in this di- ternal objects on the sensorium. This rection, then in that, then stopping to may in some measure assist us to account appeal to his memory; but his object is for those remarkable coincidences of before him, and he refers to bis judg. thought and expression, not unfrequently ment; here he obtains the means of pos. to be met with in contemporary writers, session; he has no contrary opinions to not only totally unconnected with, but reconcile, no doubts to enfeeble ; he re. who even never saw, or heard of each ceives the counsel of others, but he de other. But, if we survey the inventive cides for himself. A sound judgment gives powers of man, and examine with a activity and force to all the other facul- scrutinizing eye the productions of human ries, it commands and strengthens them. genius, we shall frequently have occaThe memory is not weak, if the judgment sion to acknowledge the truth of the wise he strong; but the converse of this pro- man's observation, that “ There is no position is not always true. A well new thing under the sun,” and to inquire educated man's memory is always suffie with the same royal preacher,

" Is there ciently strong for his judgment; but sup- any thing, whereof it may be said, 'See, pose that, in the place of cultivating the this is new?'' It hath been already of old memory, he were to cultivate one of time which was before us." I was led these; would it. nnt usurp the place of into this crain of reflection the other day, the understanding? He would be a drunke while reading a very favourite author, ard, a debauchee, a miser, or he might (Dr. Young) by discovering that some derive his character froin saine other of his most beautiful, and, as 1 till then passion; but every honourable epither thought, original ideas, were borrowed would be withheld from such an one, from the Apocryphal Book, called the The man of memory does not rank


« Wisdom of Solomon.' The similes such, only because his passion is not vi- alluded to, are to be found in “ Night cious, whilst this is the case with the Thoughts," Book I. where the poet is memory. The judgment is an atom of representing in glowing colours the fleet. deity within, and all besides is merely the ing nature of human thought, in reference casket ; the judgınent is not a given to death; even when some memento mori quantity, but is a gife put into our hands has awakened us to a consideration of 'io improve ; in childhood, che gift is our mortality.


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" But their hearts wounded, like the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. wounded air

Soon close; where past the shaft, no trace is
found :

COUR correspondent who signs him.

self “ The Archæologist," affirms. As from the wing no scar the sky retains ;

that “before the captivity, no Jewisia The parted wave no furrow from che keel; So dies in human hearts the thought of with the creation or the deluge,” and

writer appears to have been acquainted death."

that the book of Genesis was written The passage which unquestionably furnished the inoral muse with such admir. by Ezra :" but it would be very difficult able comparisons, is contained in the the account of the creation contained in

to reconcile the former assertion with fisch chapter of the “Wisdom of Solo- the fourth commandinent, and supposed mon," and the tenth and eleventh verses, in which the vaip and unprofitable pature

to have been coniniunicated inimediately of pride and riches is set forth by several by the Supreme Being to Mosės, in which very just and striking allusions to sen

it is declared that “in six days the Lord sible objects, familiar to common obser- that in them is, and rested the seventh

inade heaven and eartii, the sea and all vation; in what may be termed a irank confession of the wicked, or serious re

day;" and these words being so palpably monstrance with their own consciences: tion in Genesis, it follows of course,

analogous to the description of the crea« 8. What hath pride profited us? or wliat good hath riches, with our vaunting, book, or that Ezra jiad his account of the

either that Moses was the author of that dronght os ?

9. All those things are passed away like creation from the 20th chapter of Ex2 shadow, and as a post that hasteth by;

odus: in eitlier of which cases, the hye 10. And as a ship that passeth over the pothesis advanced by your correspondent waves of the water, which wlien it is gone mast fail to the ground. by, the trace thereof cannot be found, neie


Woburn. ther the pathway of the keel in the waves :

11, Or, as when a bird hath flown through To the Editor of the Alonthly Mugazine, the air, there is no token of her way to be

SIR, found, but the light air, being beaten with



four sketches of Reform in the violent noise and motion of them, is

Representation. passed throughi, and thercin afterwards no sign where she went is to be found."

1. Equal and Universul Suffrage, But though froin comparing the two

2. Annual Parliaments. passages, thus transcribed, there can be

3. Election by districts to be begun no doubt but the fact which this letter and finished in one day, was meant to bring before the reader, is 4. The representation to be equalized.. completely established; namely, that the by an uniforin proportion through out of world is too old for us to expect much the number of volers to that of represenoriginality of thought, even in the great.

tatives. est and most admired writers; yet, let no one for a moment imagine it is intended 1. That the towns which I before scated, in the least degree to depreciate the many of which are large and populvus, works of genius, because drawn from which formerly sent members io parliaother sources than from the poet's own ment, have their representation revived ; original stock; so far from it, that I and the representation of Scotland and much commend the writer, who, like Ireland be increased in proportion. Young, Thomson, and others, enriches

2. That is here the voters (wlich his productions by ideas and similies should be in all such boroughs thus to be drawn from every pure source;


revived, inhabitants resident paying citi cially, and above all, from the purest and lot amount to 2000, they should fountain of truth and wisdon, the Holy choose two representatives; where fewer Scriptures, from which far more grandeur voters, the difference to be made up fruna and beauty flow, than from all the fabled the surrouiding hundreds. springs of Castalia or Parnassus.

3. Poll to be taken by parishes or dis. Henley. R. P. CULIIAN. tricis, of not less than 200 volers in eaclia

4. The subsisting borouglis which chuse It is well known that the antlior of the representatives at present to be on the “ Seasons,” borrowed the idea of his ad- saine system, by including the inhabi. mired story of Palemon and Lavinia, from tants of like description in the surrounde that of Boaz and Ruth.

ing hundreds to complete 2000 voters. MontyLr Mag. No. 351.


5. Cities


PLAN 11.

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5. Cities which have more than 2000 5. The representatives to receive a sa voters to have their representation in- lary, payable by each county for the creased in proportion, two for every addi- members chosen within it, and to be esti. tional 2000.

mated by a corn rent. 6. Parliaments to be annual; or trien. If this were at present 400l. per afnial, one third going out yearly, by.rota- num to each member, it would amount on tion.

the 4th Plan to 313,2001. or not 3 days of

our present weekly taxation. 1. Article as in Plan ij.

Remarks. 2. As in ditto.

Of these Plans the first is most consise 3. In the boroughs, consisting of less tent with freedom and justice, most simthan 2000 voters, one representative to be ple, most universally interesting, and least chosen as at present, the other as in arti- likely to be vitiated or impaired, if adopta cles 1 and 2 of Plan ii.

ed. But I fear, while we are still occu. 4. Any borough convicted of corrup- pied with such a project, notwithstanding tion in the majoriiy of its voters, to be our professions of moderation, as the inva. disfranchised; and the elective franchisesion of France, we are not cool and conto be exercised by the principal town, not siderate sufficiently to adopt the best. before possessing it, of the surrounding Plan II. may be regarded as a consi. district; with the requisite additional vo. derable approximation. Plan III. as ters from the adjacent hundreds. a compromise with subsisting inequalities 5. As 6 in the preceding.

and abuses; which, by infusing a new

portion of life and spirit into the consti1. The boroughs to remain as they turion, would go far toward overcoming are, unless in case of disfranchisement their practical ill effects. And ihe 4th for corruption. And then as in 4 of Plan, leaving the horoughs, whose repre. the preceding Plan.

sentation is defaultive, as they are, re2. 100 members to be added to the quires and adopts a more copious infusion representation of England and Wales.

of extended representation. It changes 3. 34 of these to be chosen by the the least, being simply additive, but I hecounties at present most deficient in re- lieve it changes sufficient in restore vital presentation.

strength and health to the Constitution;

; 4. 66 to be chosen by the cities and freedom, independence, and prepongreat towns, which either have none, or aderating purity, to the House of Come deficient proportion.

The first plan can only take effect :5. The representation of Scotland to, by the general voice of the people in sup. be increased in proportion, by addport of it; to any of the three others it ing 8.

would he sufficient to have the support of 6. Of Ireland, by adding 17.* a considerable portion of the people in its 7. As 6 in Plan ii.

behall, the tacit acquiescence of the rest, General Provisions applicable to all the and the adoption of Parliament. PossiPlans.

bly 3 and 5 of the General Provisions 1. No placerman, other than the great will be regarded with jealousy. officers of state, no person holding a sine- poser is interested in neither; but he becure, no person being pensioned, unless lieves boil to be desirable for the public, such pension be on address of Parlia. The people pays its generals, its admirals, jent for public services, to be eligible to jis judges, the crown itself; and wby not serve in the House of Commous,

its representatives in the House of Com2. No disqualification of voters entic mons? iled as above, except for crime, .or for I see not that any thing short of the mental incapacity,

4th Plan can be adopted with the hope 3. Qualifications of property in the rea of effectual or permanent reform, And presentatives to be done uway, as being if none adequate to this end be adopted, useless in practice and wrung in prin- the first will come in its own time and ciple.

manner, unless either anarchy or despesa 4. Officers of the navy and army, ser. tisin prevent it.

CAPEL LOFFT. jeants at law, and king's counsel, and all Troston Hall, Dec. 20, 1813. other persons not before excepted, to be eligible as at present; the great officers of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. stute vacaling their seats as now, but be

SIR, ing capable of re-election,

THERE is not, amongst your nume. THERE

rous readers, one, I will venture to Making in the whole 783. aftirin, who has entered into the spirit of

a hos


The pro

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those excellent protests against war, has some appearance of what I have bed which have at different periods done fore remarked ; that the writers who con. honour to your iniscellany, more than test the evident sense of the word day, myself. I cannot omit the occasion to in this chapter, are principally those recommend a piece on the subject of who do not believe in the inspiration of svar, which must come home to the that sacred book. Mr. Pilgrim, addresheart of every true Christian. I mean sing you, Sir, says: Permit me to offer Reflections on War, by that eminent a few brief remarks on Mr. De Luc'etería divine of the established church of Eng. deavours to reconcile the Mosaic account Band, the late William Law; author of of creatioil, with the organic remains of the Serious Cally and other popular a former world." works. I enclose you a copy.

Should 2. The endeavour which Mr. Pilgrim you think proper to insert it in your Ma. intends here particularly to attack, is the gazine, I hope it will have the same ef- sense in which I take the word day, in fecc on some of them at least, which it the first chapter of Genesis; he walie's to

It so coinpletely convinced reduce these days, to our clays of twentyme of the iniquity of war in general, and four hours. But what may be the motive of the wars in which this country has of this attack? If the latter sense sas been engaged, during the present reign to be received, it would be then impossiin particular, that I challenge any one to

ble to reconcile the Mosaic account of vindicate those wars on Christian prin. creation with the geological phenomenia ciples; the only principles, I beg leave to he indicates, namely, the organic remains add, of much consequence, or which of a former world: but bad he knowie will be fouód effectunt for the reforma. Mr. Parkinson's important work on these tion of corruption in church and state. remains, he could not have thought of I have already published this small tract opposing them to me. That naturalist in so many ways, that on a moderate having studied with the utmost atten. calculation it must have had a hundred tion this class of documents of the thousand readers: but your Magazine history of organic beings on the earth; may still considerably increase the cir- and having found their remains only in culation. It will not require many pages, our secondary strata, but none in those and on such an important, such an awful of an earlier formation, distinguished by subject, Christian nations more particu. - the name of primary, he saw clearly that larly require constant admonition :-"Jine they pointed out two distinct periods in upon line, and precept upon precept.". the existence of our globc: this circuina Harlow, Jun. 1, 1814. B. FLOWER, stance made him recur to the expressions

We cannot make room for this tract, of the first chapter of Genesis; and he put as it is sold for only one penny, or ten- came to the same conclusion which is pence a dozen, and may be had of Conder, here attacked by Mr. Pilgrim, who howo Button, and other booksellers, we presume ever knows probably but little of the most of our readers will possess themselves subject by his own observations. of it.

3. This pretension, that the days of the

first chapter of Genesis meant twentya. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. four hours, was first brought forward by SIR,

unbelieving geologists: it was not necesT the end of the paper I took the sary that they should be cieeply informed

liberty of sending to you on Mr. of geological phenomena, for opposing Farey's criticisin of my Geological Sys-' many of them, to a succession of opeo {em, 'I mentioned having seen in your rations on the earth as would brave been No. 230, two papers which concern me; performed in six of our days; and thus the first, p. 17, by Mr. E. F. Pilgrim; they thought to prove,

that Genesis was the second, p. 18, signed Simplex; both a fable: but they were silenced when it of which I intended to upswer; and I was demonstrated, from the very, text, begin here by that of Mr. Pilgrimn, who that these days were to be understood as bas attacked the interpretation which, periods of undetermined length, which in iny answer to Common Sense, I gave could only be judged by ihe nature of the of the word day, in the first chapter of operations performed in each of them. Genesis, as ineaning a period of unde- I do not pretend to determine what has fèrmined length, and not one of our days been Mr. Piigrim's motive for again of twenty-four hours.

bringing forward that deleated objection; 1. Tlie opening of Mr. Pilgrim's paper but I shall first prove, that the inor of




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