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Woolwich Academy and Barracks. [March 1, and benefit to the institution, still retains independent; and it may be added, that his connection with it as half-yearly ina- they are different in their nature, and are thematical examiner. Among the other intended for very different purposes. gentlemen connected with the mathema. The institution at Woolwich is contical department, Mr. Bonnycastle and fined solely to the instruction of

young Dr. Gregory have been long known to gentlemen intended for the artillery and the public by their scientific perform. engineer service; that at Sandhurst is

And Capt. Malorti, one of the supplementary, and designed for the infortification masters, has published some struction of such as are destined to any useful elementary works on the branch other branch of the military service of of knowledge he reaches.

Great Britain. The education at Wool. The cadets who are instructed at wich is free of expence, except the litile Woolwich were for some years sent to incurred to purchase the first uniform ; the Military College, then at Marlow, the cadets at Sandhurst pay a certain at Sandhurst, as a preparatory

sum annually; bearing an assigned proa school; but that plan being found attend portion to the rank of their parents, and ed with disadvantages, it is now aban- being only free, we believe, in the cases doned. The institutions at Woolwich where the cadets are orphans; or their and Sandhurst are now therefore entirely fathers subalterns.

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NEARER to the Thaines, by about two. taken to Woolwich as soon as they are thirds of a mile, than the Royal Military enlisted, and are taught, besides the maAcademy, and on the same general ele nual and platoon exercise usually taught vation, of about 100 feet above the high- to infantry, every thing connected with water mark in the river, stand the Royal the great gun and mortar practice, the Artillery Barracks. The length of the evolutions of horse and foot artillery, the south front (of which the above is a per• passing bridges and defiles, the throwing. spective view) is about S50 yards. This of pontoons across rivers, the blocking or förins one side of an extensive quadrangle, opening of roads, the use of scaling ladof which the east front commands a very ders, &c. The ground in the vicinity is ,fine prospect, including the rich scenery admirably suited for the purpose; for on Shooter's Hill, and the moving pic. Woolwich Common lying in part between sure on the river nearly down to North- the Artillery Barracks and the Academy, fieet. These barracks contain, besides deviates so little from a plain as to suit quarters for officers and privates of the extremely well for the usual artillery foot artillery, two squares of stabling, practice, while it furnishes a good range and accommodations for horse artillery, for the firing of shells running from the Behind the colonnaded recesses in the barracks to the Dover road. And close south front are, a spacious and elegant to the barrack field is some fine broken chapel, a well-furnished library, a hand- ground, richly variegated with hill and some mess-room for the officers, and dale, wood and water, which is enclosed offices for the commandant, adjutant-ge- under the denomination of the Repositoneral, and for the particular business of ry, and where, under the superintendence each battalion. There is also a large of General Sir William Congreve, that and elegant riding school, of which the part of the works which relates to the exterior is a piece of simple though formation of batteries, the assault of forts, striking architecture, in resemblance of the passage of rivers, conveyance of artilone of the temples in Stewari's Athens. lery, &c. is carried on.

In the summer These barracks constitute a distinct season, between April and November, garrison, of which Major-General Rama the utmost variety of these operations is say is the present commandant. The are constantly to be seen at Woolwich; and tillery quartered here form a fluctuating they furnish (on Fridays) a very inte Wody of from 2 to 3,000 men, They are resting scene.


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(Used at this time as the temporary Custom House.)

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The London Commercial Sale-rooms, don, the four others, Navigation, Com jately erected in Mincing Lane, are in- merce, Agriculture, and the Arts. tended to collect in one establishment all The whole of the ground floor is occuthe conveniences necessary for the public pied by a magnificent coffee room, at and private sales of merchandize, and one end of which, between two scagliola principally colonial produce.

columns, appear the stairs leading to the These public sales were previously con upper floors; the one pair, consisting of ducted in coffee houses, frequently in two puvlic sale rooms, communicating by sinall däfk and inconvenient rooms; and large double doors, and the two pair colialthough the private establishments of taining threc sale rooms. the most eminent brokers, formed for The second building, behind the ona their own particular concerns, remedied already described, formerly consisted of many inconveniences, yet still the sales three houses, which are now thrown into of the same species of merchandise were one; the lower flours are divided into a held at different, and sometimes distant, number of counting bouses; the upper places, thus precluding that competition into five shew rooms, the largest 60 feet of purchasers, which is the chief induce- long, for the exhibition of goods intended ment of the merchant to offer bis impor. for sale, and communicating by a gallery tations to public auction; and preventing with the rooms of the front building. buyers from having the advantage of com Particular attention has been paid to the parison in their subsequent purchases. Lights in these rooms, and by a succession

The building is divided into two prin- of skylights sloping to the north, the percipal parts; the front consists of an en fect light of day is admitted, and the sun tirely new edifice, the first stone of which excluded. was laid by the lord mayor, on the 1st The space between these buildings, of June, 1811. It is 64 ft. 6 in. long, and that behind the latter, on the ground and 38 ft. 8 in. broad; with a stone front, fuor, are occupied by a number of rooms ornamented with 6 columns of the Ionic lighted in the same way, intended for order, adopted with little variation from the sale of sugars. The buildings and althe temple of Minerva Polias at Priere, terations were designed by Mr. Josepm as given in the Ionian antiquities. These Woods, and executed under his direction. columns are supported on pedestals, The recent conflagration of the Cus. which rest on the cornice of an inferior tom House has occasioned great altera. order, composed, not of columns, but of tions in the present use of this edifice, as piets, forming the ground story of the the opportunities it afforded for the transbuilding. The spaces between the pe. action of the public business, has deter. destals are filled up with balustres, and mined the commissioners to take the above the windows are 5 reliefs, executed principal part of the buildings for that in artificial stone by Bubb; the middle purpose, till the New Custom House is compartment represents the city of Lon- finished.

In our next, or next following Numbers, will be given 5 or 6 other nexo Erections in or near the Metropolis ; and we are then in possession of a supply of various segnificent objects lately built or building in distant parts of the Empire.



104 Extraordinary Boy at Mortonhampstead. [March 1, Io the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. very early age, he might be made a good SIR,

mathematician. But, unfortunately, the AVING heard that GEORGE PAR. means are not within his reach; nor can

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the son of a day labourer who has a large of the humane and liberal,- those who family, has a peculiar talent for combie delight to contribute to the advancement ning numbers, I sent for him, and after of genius.

J. ISAAC. making a small present to gain his con. Niortonhampstead, Jan. 19, 1814. tidence, desired him to read a few verses

P.S. The above is bnt a part of the in the New Testament, his class book in a boy's performance, for he was tried in school supported by Richard Ilolland, Esq. pence, shillings, and pounds, and very soon and found he could scarcely do it even stated the number of farthings in each, by spelling many words; and knew not under 201. the numbers of the verses from one to

I then asked him how much are To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. 16 and 9,-33 and 14,---73 and 16,-94


THE Bill lately passed for increasing each question with correctness. Hluw the amount of the sum, by which do you

make out your answer?-I don't persons were liable to arrest and impriknow." What remains when you take sonment for debt, was a praiseworthy 3 from 12,-4 from 17,-9 froin 62, measure; and if it had been extended 7 from 83,-6 from 104,—12 from 96 ? to twenty pounds, as originally proposed, To each question the reply was prompt instead fifteen, it would, I think, and correct. How much is 4x12, have been better still; as I have always 5X7,--8X9,--9X 12,--21X 96,18 X 80? been of opinion, that the deprivation of The reply was as before. How many 7's personal liberty for debt, is not either are in 84?-Ans. 12. 79-6,--78-7, the best way to obtain your money, or

---20012? To each question he re to reform the improper propensities of plied correctly and readily.

the debtor: for, not to mention many I then asked him how many days are other cogent reasons, by personal imin two years? But here he was at a prisonment many a debtor is prestand-did not know what a year is, or cluded from the chance, by his manual how many hours are in a day; but labour, of paying at all; and, the couhaving the terms explained, he soon stant and necessary introduction of In. made out the hours in a week, in a solvent Bills, is a melancholy and far, month, in 12 months. When asked how ther proof of it. many inches are contained in a square But it strikes me, that the introduction foot, he soon signified he knew neither of this Bill for the prevention of arrests of the terms, nor how many inches a for debt under fifteen pounds, ought to foot contains; but with the aid of expla. he followed up with another Bill, ena nation, he soon made out the number bling County Courts and Courts of Cou1728: and, when desired to multiply this science to take cognizance of much larger by 12, he complained the number was sums than they now by law can do. too large ; but having time, about two So that, since the passing of the Act minutes, he made out the number 20736: above-mentioned, the creditor is placed and by close attention and examination, in a worse situation than ever. I discovered that, in the first place, he What we want is a court which shall multiplied the thousands, hundreds, tens, promptly, and with little expense, enable and units, in rotation, and added them the creditor to sue for his debt, and obtogether, to find the above amount. I tain it without the tremendous apparatus was glad to make this discovery, as when of writ upon writ, and month upon once we find he has a method of bis own, month and year upon year of delay. however wrong, we may hope that he In most, or all our county courts, if the may be taught the true one, without in- debt amount to forty shillings, the cre, juring his retentive faculty.

diror has no resource, between that sum Not one of the terms used above does and fifteen pounds, but a tedious and he understand, without explanation; and expensive method of proceeding, injuon every other topic, he is as ignorant rious alike both to the debtor and the creas uneducated children of his age com ditor'; and wþich tedious course too fre. monly are. His physiognomy is not bad, quently enables the fraudulent debtor to his features pretty good, and his sym. elude, by delays and sundry other expemetry without fault. Were he under dients, the justice of the law. At the the guidance of a proper master for a same time, it fürpishes a variety of weafew yı ars, it should seein to me that at a pons to the vindictive creditor, which



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enable him to oppress, and overwhelm To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. with expense, many an honest and welldisposed debtor. It would redound there IR Isaac Newton, for the purpose of if he would follow up the good work hole in his window shutter 4 of an iuch which he has begun, by the introduction in diameter, and having placed a prism so of such a Bill. For my own part, I see as to refract and receive a spectrum on a no impropriety at all iri admitting all ac- sheet of white paper, perceived seven cotions for debt below fifteen pounds, to lours in the following order, viz. red, be tried in our County Courts, in the orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and same manner as all those below forty violet. These he supposed to be prio shillings now are ; and I see no reason to mary colours, which when combined in fear that justice would not be adıninis. certain proportions gave white or transtered here as well as elsewhere. But, parent light. The necessary shortness should this be objected to, why could of a letter will not allow me to enumerate not the Courts of Quarter Sessions take his experiments; I therefore refer to his cognizance of such causes, and make Optics. That this philosopher was misorders with ease and promptitude? A takev in supposing he analysed incident cause would then nevér remain longer light, will appear evident from the followe than three months undecided, unless the ing experiments and observations. When parties should think proper to appeal to we look with a prism at a window, the a higher jurisdiction : which it is not very light passes through the panes, and likelikely would ever be done.

wise through the prism to the eye, unde· I see but one objection to the mea- composed, and consequently colourless ; sure, which is, that the expense of re.

but when we look to the frames, we pere covering debts would be so much reduced, ceive an artificial rainbow of reliecied and hoth debtor and creditor would be blue, red, and yellow; any opaque sube saved so many pilferings, which under stance, as a piece of black cloth or papretence of law they are now obliged to per, when pasted on the window, will enduré, that the unprincipled members produce the same effect, and the inore of the profession of the law would fre- dense or dark, the deeper the tints or quently want employment; and, there- fringe. The north, or top of the paper, fore, such will be, no doubt, ready with will be fringed with blue, the south or their artillery and great guns to oppose bottom with red and yellow rays. Now so salutary an improvement in our legal it is evident, if light were decomposed edifice. But, however, we will hope, by merely passing through the prism acthat their number is few, and that their cording to the different refrangibilities of voices will be far out-weighed, as well as

its coloured rays, that light admitted out-numbered, by those worthy members through the panes should be equally dewho do honour to the profession. That composed with that in the vicinity of the it would have the support of the country opaque frames. åt large cannot be doubted. Many debt To place this objection in a stronger ors now presume upon the difficulties point of view, I made the following expe. which lie in the way of their creditors riments. I cut two holes in my window getting their money, and consequently, shutter, one the diameter of of an inch, take no means to pay, or fraudulently mentioned by Sir Isaac Newton, the other refrain from payment; and many a cre

the diameter of four inches, and having ditor, from the expense and distress darkened the room, and applied a prisir, brought upon a debtor, knowing that I found that the small aperture admitted

in obtaining a debt of five pounds, he light, tinged with the seven prismatic comight put him to an expense of thirly, lours, which I could receive on a sheet of

foregoes the recovery of the debt altoge. white paper; the larger orifice was likether. But if debtors knew that they wise fringed round with the seven cowere bound to be answerable in their lours, and pencils of white light passed goods at least, at a small expense and at through the centre. Here I must again a short notice, for their debts, they would ask, if while incident light were decomcontract them much more warily, and posed by merely passing through the pay them with more promptitude. It prisin; why was not that coming through is the law's expense and delays which the centre equally decomposed with that occasion the principal part, if not all, at the edges? And, however contrary to she mischief on both sides.

received opinion, I ain confident it JAMES JENNINGS.

is nevertheless true, that incident light Huntspill, Jan. 28, 1814.

kas never yet been decomposed, but that

106 Dr. Reade's new Experiments on Light. [March 1, áll experiments hitherto made have been which I have shewn, that blackness arises on light condensed and reflected by from the reflection of blue, red, and yelopaque substances.

low; which being granted, the solution of If we paste a piece of black cloth on this otherwise difficult question becomes the window, whose colour, as I have easy. The red and yellow of the southern shewn in ny last communication on fringe, of the lo ver paper or cloth, being blackness, arises from the reflection of more refrangible than the blue, were condensed rays of blue, red, and yellow, brought down by the prism, leaving the on applying ne prism a fringe of red and upper part of the lower edge (when illa. yellow appears at the south; this does not minated by the undecomposed fight proceed from a decomposition of impin- coming through) blue; under the blue gent or incident light striking on the edges appeared indigo, which, as I shall bereof the cloth, but it proceeds from an ac after shew, is composed of blue, red, tual decomposition of the condensed co and yellow, in a different state of conden loured rays of the black cloth itself. The sation from black. And at the bottom of prism decomposes these three primary all appears the violet, arising froin a colours according to the order of their quantity of the red and yellow, which had different refrangibilities; and as the red been brought down, mixed with the black and yellow rays are more refrangible than rays. From this experiment we might the blue, as I shall shew in my next conclude that Sir Isaac Newton, by mixcommunication, they are brought down by ing three primary colours, made seven, the prism, and the black cloth remains of But I am aware it might be objected that a blue colour; the farther we move from Sir C. Englefield and others decomposed the window the more refrangible the incident light coming immediately from red and yellow rays become, and conse the Sun, by passing it through a prism, quently the decomposition is the greater. placed at an open window. So far from

In this experiment the north of the invalidating, this experiment confirms my cloth reflects blue rays, the south red and opinions, as I shall now endeavour to prove, yellow, proving in the most satisfactory The prism being a semi-transparent manner that there are but three primary substance, when turned in such a manner colours; and as all the secondary or mix. on its axis, as partly to reflect, and partly ed colours can be fornied of blue, red, to transmit the rays of light, (for it will and yellow, to call others into existence never decompose, if turned at right an. would be contrary to the beautiful sim- gles to the sun) condenses and reflects plicity of nature, and unnecessary. But fringes of blue, red, and yellow, from its it might be asked, if there are but three angles. These fringes being carried primary colours, how did Sir Isaac New- through the prismatic planes, by the ton produce a spectrum of seven? The transmitted undecomposed light, interfollowing experiment will fully answer mix and form the seven colours as althe question. Paste a slip of black pa- ready described. And as there are three per or cloth, six inches by three, on the angles in every prism, so there are two window; on the south you perceive a spectra always formed, in the saine man. fringe of reflected red and yellow. Paste ner as three strips of paper pasteds pa. another similar strip parallel to this, at rallel to one another on the window, will about four inches distance ; on looking form two spectra. through the prism you perceive the north As I am extremely anxious that my to be fringed with blue. Thus we have opinions should rest on the secure basis three primary colours nearly in contact; of experimental inquiry, and to shew that the yellow rays of the upper paper, being the decomposition of light takes place at the most refrangible, come nearest to the prismatic angles, arising entirely from the blue of the lower paper; and if we these fringes of reflected light, I made the approach them, a green is formed by their following experiment. I placed a prism mixture ; so that we can now, without at an open window, through which the any difficulty, account for five of Sir sun shone very powerfully, and having Isaac Newton's colours, red, orange, yel- made a spectrum, I slowly turned it on low, green, and blue.

its axis, until I separated the red and By making a small hole in his window. yellow from the blue; and in place of shutter, he brought the northern and green, white liglit passed through the southern fringes into contact or mixture, prismatic plane between the angles. I and produced five colours with three, it now ascertained that the red and yellow now remains to account for the indigo rays passed through the upper angular and violet. And here I must again refer edge, by intercepting them with my my reader to my last communication, in finger placed on it, and by running my


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