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the nose and maxillæ, taught him that The point, where a line drawn transthe most easy method was to follow versely from the root of the nose, inNature; that is, to sketch the cranium tersects the line of the larger circle in the first place. This he does by toward the forehead, is the seat of forming an oval in an horizontal di- the eye, &c. This simple manner, he rection, by means of a larger and observes, gives the proportions of the fmaller circle. He draws an hori. most important points. Four profiles, zontal line tr the central point of the one of an antique, the other of an the larger circle to the central point aged person, the third of a negroe, and of the Imaller; and then a perpendi- the fourth of an infanı, with explanacular line from the centre of the larger tions, represent this plan in an intellicircle to its lower edge, which shews gible and striking point of view. the part where the lower lobe of the We have ventured to translate M.. ear should be placed. He then forms Camper's geometrical proportions inthe facial line in such a direction, and to the above concise narrative, not to degree of inclination, as the character satisfy, but to excite, the curiosity of of the countenance may require, ac- artists: that they may examine for cording to the principles hinted above. themselves, into priociples proposed This line is divided into four equal by a gentleman of acknowledged taparts; the first is appropriated to the lents, in order to make a very considistance between the crown of the head derable change in the mode of exerand the forehead; the fecond points cising their profession, and to solve out the length of the forehead; the difficulties which have hitherto been third limits the size of the nose; the deemed inexplicable, fourth marks the mouth and chin.
Account of a Book published at Liege entitled Exposé de la Revolution de Liege,
in 1789, &c. By M. de Dohm, Privy Counsellor to the King of Prullia. IN times like the present, when
men ported in his conduct by a decree of seem wisely determined to obtain the IMPERIAL CHAMBER Of Wetzlaer, for themselves fome portion of that which was ordered to be carried into freedom, which, formerly, they were execution by the King of Pruffia, as contented to fee others enjoy, it is a si Duke of Cleves, aflisted by the Bishop fubject ofthe most materia consequence, of Munster, and the Duke of Juliers : to ascertain what it is that conititutes the King accepted the office ; and the the true advantages of men in society. question was, whether, by force, he This publication, therefore, is interest-"- thould enable the Prince to opprefs and ing and important: for here we fee-i-tyrannize over his fuhjects; or whe. that question agitated, as far as it ap- thery by pacific meafures; he should plies to a particular fociety and tho : biling about a fair accommodation, and the society itself be: not of the first allift in establishing a free government. magnitude, yet the disputants are per-' The court of Berlin has been ftigmasónages who must be allowed to have t'tized as one of the most defporic in considerable influence over the politie Europe : in the present cafe, to the cal state of Europe. -The point in de general happiness of Europe, and to bate was simply this ; the inhabitants the peculiar honour of itself, it has of Liege had differences with the acted a part, disinterested, liberal, and reigning Prince Bishop, who was fup.enlightened. The King of Pruffia
and his Minister (M. De Dohm) ap- Liege : nor, continues he, was this in pear to have adopted the paret fenti- any way 'difturbed by that jealousy, ments, and to have pursued them which is perpetually recurring on acwithout passion, and with real benero- count of incroachments, either real or lence toward all parties.
supposed, made on the privileges of Before the author proceeds to treat the people by the sovereign. Jealouon the Revolution (as it has been fies and disputes of this nature cannot termec.,) at Liege, he takes a general be avoided by any fundamental laws survey of the conftitution of that prin- whatover; and, indeed, if this were cipality. Its origical conftitution, he possible, it would not be expedient : they argues, was a proof that, in the mid are the immediate consequences of the dle
of darkness as they active disposition of mankind, the naare styled, those great and inalienable tural effects of changes of circumftanRIGHTS, which are common to all ces, and the regular attendants of ins mankind, were afcertained and regard- creased knowledge, and of proportioned. They were not, indeed, as at ably increasing wilhes and wants : they present, enumerated and registered, are, in fact, the nourishment which but they were not the lefs remember gives life and health to every free goed; the executive power was confined Vernment. within straight bounds, which could Difputes had, for fome time, subo only be extended in confequence of histed between the prince and the peo. the consent of the whole nation, ple, concerning the exclusive right, The fundamental law, or agreement, claimed by him, of licensing places of in which the constitution of Liege public diverfion at Spa. Thefe, were rested, was called the treaty of Fexhe: unfortunately increafed by the searcity it was formed, in 1316, between of provision during the severe winter the. Bishop, the Chapter, the Che... of 1789: when, it being neceffary to valiers, the towns, and alt ther in- : prohibit the exportation of corn, an ehabitants of the country. It confirm- diet had been paffed for that purpose; ed all the liberties and ancient ufages but which was rendered null by the at that time established: it decreed omission of some neceffary forms by that no one should be judged but ac the Prince. The minds of the peocording to the laws, administered by "ple were in this state of agitation, when competent judges; it forbade under accounts were received of what had fevere penalties, the executive or judi- pafled in Paris, in July 1789. The ciary power to interfere in preventing inhabitants of Liege, from their this decree ; and, in case of fach in situation, and from the limliarity of terference, it
gave the privilege of re- their manners and language, were nafistance, and specificallye ordered the turally partial to the French ration: Chapter to top, in its illegal proceed they now also traced a similarity in ing, the tribunal which was in fault. their griefs, and felt a desire to proIt determined thofe calcs in which cure a fim lar remicdy. Two princithe Prince Bishop was allowed, for pal points, in the new regulation of the general security; to act froin his matters in France, particularly affectindividual aythority; and, finally, it sed the people of Liege : the equal conenacted that to change in the laws, triburiun of the clergy toward the expor in the established Customs, could pences of the state; and the more equal take place without the general content representation of the people. Two and express will of all the country. thirds of the territory in the principali
Such, obferves M. DE. Doim, vas ty of Liege belonged to the clergy, the simple and rational scheme of sci-tand the ciergy scarcely paid any taxes, vil liberty, enjoyed by the country. of The representatives of the nation con,
399 Gifted of the three estates : the chap- the general good, and fulfil the desires ter of the cathedral, the nobility, and of his people. In consequence, the the deputies of the capital, and of ancient magistracy was deposed, and twenty-two other towns.
These de a new one elected. The prince apputies were originally elected by the proved every measure: lie came from bourgeoisie of each town, till, in 1684, his caftle to the capital, and was reMaximilian Henry, the then bishop, ceived with shouts of joy, by a people who was likewise offelfed of other who felt themselves free and happy, considerable territories, contrived, by and who respected him as the cause of the affiítance of his foreign possessions their freedom and happiness. He was and troops, arbitrarily to claim for thus conducted to the Hotel de Villa, himfelf and his fuccellors the right of where, with his own fignature, he connominating one half of the deputies firmed the late election. If more from the capital; while he procured could be wanting to testify his perfect such an influence over the election of agreement with the views of his subthe rest, as to secure the return of jeets, he gave it, by offering to dwell what men he pleased. The same in the capital, or to accept a guard, changes taking place throughout most composed of the citizens, at his seat of the towns in the principality, the in the country, "A reconciliation third eftate, consisting of the great like this,' says M. De Dohm, - bebody of the people, as far as concern tween a good prince and a good pea, ed their voice in the government, was ple, so publicly, so clearly manifested, annihilated. To redress these grie- could not fail, even in foreign cougyances, would, of courle, be the natu- tries, to excite the warmest fatisfacsal delire of a people, animated by the tion, and to merit the general applauexample of a great and favourite na- ses.'-What then must be the astonishfion.
ment and regret of his fubje&s, to hear, The reasonableness of this with was, within a few days, that their sovereign în part at least, evident to the bishop; had quitted his castle like a fugitive, who, nobly, and without solicitation, accompanied only by his nephew, and fummoned the clergy, and invited directing his flight no one knew whithem to contribute an equal share of her! The only information to be gainthe taxes, and to renounce for ever, ed concerning this strange event, was without condition, or reserve, the pri-. from a paper left by him elf; in which vileges by which they were exempted. he said, that the fear of a tumultuous He moreover convoked the affembly meeting, at the approaching affembly of the states, fo lung desired ; whose of the states, lad determined him, for fi:it attention was by inimself dirceted a time, to quit a scene whiclr would to the relief of the most indigent and be prejudical to his health: but that most numerous çlals of his subjets. he affered the patiou, whom he loved, From a conduct like this, every ining that he hid no design of foliciting fo. was to be hoped; and the people reign fuccours, nor of preferring any looked forward with eagira iş io she complainr either to his Imperial majet. je-eltabiilhment of their civil liberty, ty, to the diet, nor to any other vibu. by the abolition of the anbinary pro- nal of the empire. Fie had given no ceedings of 1684; without which eve authority to make any such complaint, Fy relief was trivial, and with which, and he disavowed, in the face of the there was no burthen bat.:what was world, all those which might be made supportable. Their wishes, on this in his name, &c. head, were no sooner made known to During this state of fufpence and the prioce, than he gave his confect, uncertainty, news brought to in writing, to whatever migh: encrease Liege ultat the IMPERIAL CHAMWER,
Es entered into solemn obligations
without receiving any application on execution of that decree ; and, accor. the subject, had taken into considera- dingly, the letter of his minister, which tion what had passed, regarding it as accompanied the first mandate of the an infringement of the public peace; co-directors, invited the prince to prothat, on the very day of the prince's pose, without reserve, the terms of acdeparture, they had given a commis- commodation. In reply, the prince fion to the princes of the circle of the declared himself willing even to facriLower Rhine and Wetphalia (the Bi. fice fome of his own rights for the fhop of Munfter, the Duke of Juliers, fake of e'tablifhing peace. From this and the Duke of Cleves) to protect, declaration, it could not be doubted with such forces as might be neceffary, that the prince, though he had before at the expence of the rebellious inha- denied the validity of the assembly of bitants of Liege, the prince-bilhop, his thestates, as convoked by himself, would household, &c. to restore the form of nevertheless ratify the re-establishment government as it was before the rebel- of the conftitutional mode of electing Lion; to reinstate the magistrates in representatives, of which he had so oftheir offices ; to search after the au. ten and so folemnly testified his approthors of the rebellion, and to punish bation : the arrival of the troops fure them by imprifonment, &c.
nished by the co-directors, seemed, The King of Pruffia had been in therefore, alone wanting to ensure fucformed of the transactions at Liege, cefs to the conciliatory propofitions, to which were given the chanies of a which the Duke of Cleves intended to revolution, and a rebellions, the flight offer. of the prince and the decree of the The arrival of the troops happened chamber had, however, fo far altered about the latterend of November 17895 the face of matters, as to render him when the King of Prussia furnished desirous of searching more deeply into 5000 men, being above double the their real Itate: he in consequence, force sent by the two other powers : ordered M. DE DOHM, his minister in consequence, the chief command for the dutchy of Clewes, to fix his was entrusted to this general. The residence at Liege.
agitation of the people of Liege was The retreat of the prince was now inconceivable: it was heightened tom known to be in the neighbourhood of by the situation of the states of BraTreves"; where a deputation of the bant. Thefe people, undisciplined as three eilatés immediately waited on they were, had attacked 18000 difhim to iniluce him to relurn to his ciplined troops, and had routed them country. This proving fruitless, was they now fent an embassy to Liege to followed by more prefing indances , renew their ancient alliances ; and
both the mean time. M. De DoHM had a to affift in defending their rights and conference with the chancellor of their liberties.--Such was the uncerthe prince, and explained to him the tain and dangerous posture of affairs, King's defire of a peaceable arrange- when the ministers of the interfering ment, requesting to know his highness's poners were mer by a deputation from sentiments with regard to the means the three estates at Liege. The deby which it might be procured.; In- puties remonstrated strongly againit stead of pointing out these means, the the approach of the tropps, and propoprince addreficd himself by letter to fed that matters should be discussed ber the King, claiming the plenary execu- fore, the Ministres Direttoreaux, not tion of the decree of the chamber. as men appointed to execute the deThe King's aniwer shews in what sense. cree of the Imperial chamber, but as he was determined to undertake the impartial mediators.
If this were
rary government should be establified. frrence, bad he nota imagined that a
granted; if the troops were removed, which he had made to his people in and engagements were formed that no the face of the universe : he folicited criminal process should be carried on the co-directors to accelerate the execuagainst those who had ashited in a re tion of the decree; and he infiited on volution, fanctioned by the consent of the punishment of the most active of the the fovereign; they, on their part, opposite party. In addition, the Inwould ftipulate that the present magis- perial chamber made another decree, trates should resign their places when- urging the full execution of the former. ever they could proceed to a new elec- The ministers of Munfter and Juliers, tion on conftitutional principles. If, in confequence, iffuett orders, without on the contrary, their proposals were consulting their colleague, M. de not accepted, they could not answer Dohm ; these were, however, ineffor any exceffes which might be occa- fe&tual, as the Pruffian general, who fioned by despair.—This representation had the comnlætid of the troops, conhad litèle weight with the ministers tented himself with maintaining the from Munster and Juliers: they, 25 peace of the city, shewing partiality forming the majority, decreed that to neither side. In this fituation of the troops should advance, and affairs, the prince applied directly to that the plenary execution of the the King of Pruslia, entreating him, in imperial decree should take place. the most presling terms, to execute Fortunately, their colleague the decree in its fullest force. To not easily turned aside from what this, bis majesty replied at confiderahe thought the path of reditade.. ble langth, in a letter that does him accordingly, he not only protested honour. Among other feptiments, he against
ft this decree, but gave a separate observës, that he could not execute, answer to the deputies, affuring them, in its full -force, the decree of the that, if they refrained from all cumul chamber, which required that all or opposition to the troops, neither their things should be establiited as they were perlons nor properties should be en- befsre the revolution, and tlaat the madangered: that, on condition of theit giltraces ofhould be deposed, and the complying with the resignation of the authors of their election punished, lately appointed magistrates, a new He reminds the prince of the propomode of election should be framed, fals made by M. de Dohm, which, after the method in use before the just and moderate as they were, had year 1684; and that, till the necessary been haughtily rejected that he alterations could take place, a tempo- fhould then have withdrawa; his interThis
his assurance from the Minister De civil war thauld have been the confeDohm, produced its full effe&t, and quence, and that the bishopric of
troops were immediately ré- Liege would håver been lot to the ceived into the capital as friends and prince and to the empire. He reprotectors.
marks that oth: inhabitants of Liege Nothing was now deceffary to a bad given immediate credit to the definal accommodation, but the confedi claration of his minister, and had, ja of the prince to terins which he had confequence, received his troops into fo frequently approved. Instead of their city and that his principles .this, he persisted in purfuing the un. were pot such as to allow him to profortunate measures which he had of fit by their security, in order to efIate adopted: he not only wished to feet their ruin.: he repeats- the terms revoke what he had freely done, but on which he thought an acconniodahe proposed formally to the Imperial tion might be fettled; and, as a preChamber to annul the folemn promile liminary itep, he conjures the prince
Vol. XIV. No. 83.