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60

58 32

the year

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-46

the year

the year

February

the year

Medium heat of the year

-31

BRUSSELS.
GENEVA.

Medium heat of July 60
Medium heat of July 63

January 35
December 34
-47

LONDON.
LAUSANNE.

Medium heat of July
Medium heat of August

January 34
January

-47

MIDDLEBURG.
QUEBEC.
Medium heat of August

58

December 35
Medium heat of July 65

February
15

GOTTINGEN.
BERNE in SwITZERLAND.

Medium heat of July бэ

December 30 Medium heat of August 62

32 the year

ROTTERDAM,

45
NANTZ.
Medium heat of July

59
January

35 Mediuin heat of August:

the year

49. January 38

THE HAGUE.
Dijon.

Medium heat of August 60
Medium heat of July 61

January

- the year January

-45
33
-47

AMSTERDAM
ZURICH & NEUCHATEL.

Medium heat of July

60 Medium heat of the year)

January

35
-47
VIENNA.

BERLIN
Medium heat of July

62 February

Medium heat of July
33

Jandary 30
the year.

-45 VERSAILLES

COPENHAGEY.
Medium heat of June бо

Medium heat of July
January 34

January

29

-43 RATISBON IN GERMANY. 1

Moscow, Medium heat of August

Medium heat of June

63 January

January

the year

34

the year

the year

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the year

58

the year

20

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STOCKHOLM.

casioned in one country by accidental Medium heat of July 60 meteors, such as showers of hail, or a

January

26 tempeft, when no such accidents have

-42 taken place in the other.
PETERSBURG.
5. That the last column of the

preMedium heat of July

ceding tables (that which contains the January

15

medium heat of the year) fhews that -39

heat diminishes in proportion as the Abo in FINLAND.

sun becomes more oblique, and that Medium heat of July 66

the central heat has very little effect

on the diminution of the medium January

heat. -39

6. That the extremes of heat and From his tables, P. Cotte draws the cold are grearer in proportion as you following corollaries :

recede from the equator : thus in sum1. That heat diminishes as you re mer the thermometer rises almost as cede from the equator towards the high, and sometimes higher, between Poles.

the 50th and both degree of latitude, 2. That this diminution is subject, than it does under the line ; while in in certain latitudes, to considerable a. winter, in those high latitudes, the linomalies which cannot be calculated ; quor is constantly under the freezing becaufe, ift, they are occasioned by point during two or three months lucthe nature of the climate : thus, a part cellively, and not unfrequently de of N. America, which is in the fame fcends 30° or more below Zero. latitude with Italy and the southern [We may here remark the most exdepartments of France, is, notwith- traordinary instance of equality in the standing, colder than those countries. temperature of a couniry to be found in which the medium heat is much in Father Cotte's Tables. At Surigreater. 2nd, These anomalies des nam, the difference between the medipend on lacal situation : thus the tem- um heat of January when it is lealt

, perature of a mountain is colder than" and of O&ober when it is highest, that of a plain : à moist country, does not amount to two degrees

of covered with wood and untilled, is Fahrenheit's thermometer. ] colder than one in al dry fuæation, ox 7. That the climates of France and pen and well cultivated : cold is less England, and a part of Germany, are intense in the neighbourhood of the least exposed to those extremes of heat sea than in places fituated far in-land. and cold, which render other climates

3. That it is therefore imposible insupportable. to establish an exact comparison be. 8. That the transition from heat to tween the degrees of heat drawn from cold, in September and November, is a theory founded on the difference of more furiđen than that from cold to latitudes, and those resulțing from ac- heat, from March to May. tual observation.

Laitly; That the hčat increases 4.

That even the comparison be- at forit lowly, and afterwards more tween the temperature of two coun- quickly, from January to May; after tries from actual obfervation will ne- which it proceeds with less celesity in ver be accurate, unless the observa- July: its diminution becomes more tion's have been made in the same sensible in August and September ; it years, and with instruments that may is al it's maximum in October and No. be compared together: and even sup vember; goes on flowly from Novemposing these two conditions complied ber to December, and arrives at its with, very great differences may be oc- ņinimin.in December and January. 3 D Vol. XIV. No. 83.

Account

394

Account of an Ejay in Dutch, by tbe late Peter Camper, on the natural difer

ence of Features in persons of various countries and ages; and on Beauty, af -exhibited in ancient Sculpture and Engravings. Published by his Son. THE THE late Profeffor Camper was ter, the Profeffor gives us the history,

well known as a person of an en- of his discoveries ; and traces the proJarged mind and accurate judgment; cess by which he was first tempted to rich in idéas, and indefatigable in doubt the sufficiency of the principles scrutinizing their truth, by repeated already proposed, and by which he was experiments, before he admitted them afterward led to the discovery of more as principles. He has allö frequently certain data. He says thar, in copymanifested a solicitude to apply his ing after the best models of the great profeflicnal knowledge, as an anato masters, and others, he observed a very milt, to the useful or elegant purposes great difference between the counteof life. His dissertations on the per- nances expressed in them, and in the nicious effects of that female harness, faces delineated by the moderns, with, called Days, and on the form of boes, out being able to ascertain in what prove the first of these affertions; and particulars so remarkable a difference the treatife before us demonftrates the confitted; and that, in employing the last The' proferred object of this pub- oval and triangle, according to the Jication is to prove that the principal rules usually eltablished, in modelling, sules laid down by the most celebrated painting, or drawings from life, he painters and linners, are very defec- found it not only difficult, but impoftive; that they neither enable the stu- fible, to finish a head to advantage. deot to deliveate national characterit. He farther observes, that, in copying tics in the countenance, nòr to imi- after the prints of Raphael, Poofin, tate the beauties of ancient seulptors Titian, and Pietro Tefta, he was and artists. He contends that the much more satisfied than with the obfervations of the Abbé Winckel. finest pieces of Rubens or Van Dyck, man, concerning ideal beauty, are not in which the principles establ fhed by well founded ; and he professes to have Albert Durer, and the imperiection discovered, in what triat fpecies of of the oval, are very conspicuous. By beauty really confitts. It is in confe- frequently modelling in clay, dier the quence of the imperfection of rules, minit beautiful antique heads, the Prohe observes, that men of eminencé feffor discovered that Aib. Durer, have been lo defective in their por: viewing the object with both his eyes, traits of național characters: thus, in had made them all too broad; and all the paintings of 'De Wir, the chief fo that a painter, in order to fucceed, fignature of a Jew is a long beard; must not only be practised in drawing, and Guido Reni, C. Marat, Rubens, but also in modelling, that he may 05 and others, have given no other cha- tain juft ideas of the real appcarance racteristic of Moors, than a black com- of objects of every kind. A know. plexion. He denies the propriery of ledge of optics is also requisite; as the making either the oval, as is the nort Protesfor ai tempted to demonstrate in common method, or the triangle, as an inaugural dissertation publithed in fome artilts have proposed, as the 1746, on the construction of the eye, foundation of portraits to be taken in and on the laws of vision. He tells profile; and he proposes more certain us, moreover, that when he was apprinciples in their place.

pointed Profeffor of Anatomy in the Such are the general outlines of public college at Amsterdani, he was the work. In an introductory chap. more firmly convinced, in his defcrip.

tions

tures.

tions of, and comparisois between, cause of the fimilarity between the nedifferent bodies of various ages, that groe and the ape. By sketching Tome the cval was not adapted to an accu. of these features on an horizontal live, rate and expeditious sketch of the fea- he ascertained the linea faciulis, the

line of the countenance, with its dif• I sawed (says he) several heads, ferent angles. Whenever this line was both of men and of animals, perpen- inclined forward, an antique was formdicularly through the centre, with a edi when backward, a negroe; a greatview to this object; and I clearly per- er inclination backward gave the apa ceived that the cavity deftined to con- pearance of an ape, a dog, &c. tain the brains was, in general, very • This (says he) was the foundaregular, but that the position of the tion of the edifice. My fatuation in úpper and lower jaw was the natural Aníterdam afforded me numberleis cause of the most aitonithing ditieren- opportunities of collecting the skeleces. I bave followed this method tons of persons of every age, from with quadrupeds, down to fih, in pura abations, to the most advanced years. fuit of the same idea. There appear. In comparing these, my thoughts were ances gave me much insight into the directed toward the natural changes seal difference of features, from in- that took place from the gradual fancy up to the mast advanced age; growih of the parts in youth, to the though I still continued embarrated decays of age, and the most certain to determine how the Greeks, from methods of representing these. This the earliest period, should be able to was the second stage of iny building, give an extraordinary and majestic and to form a third, I afliduously in mien to their figures, which no head quired which was the line that the abwas ever seen to poffefs. Having ob- cients had adopted in the execution of served persons of different cations, their most complete works. Finally, with more attention, I conceived that by accurately examining into the utia remarkable differences arose from the lity of the oval or triangle, in delineabreadth of faces, and from the square- ting human i:eads, and by attending to ness of the under jaw; and this idea and comparing together different heads was conarnied by contemplating a con- that had been fawed through, with the Giderable number of crania of differ-, relative licuations of the maxille, I teat nations, tiat were afterward col. discotered a new and imple manner lected by me, cr accurately copied. of delineating the heads of men, or I have in this colle&iou exclusively of brute animals, with inuch greater ac. bor own and of neighbouring Bations, curacy." the head of young Englith negree,

The above discoveries and observaand one

of a more advanced age; the tions gave birth to the treatise under head of a female Hottentot, of a young confideration, in which the following tative of Madagascar, of an inhabitant order is observed. In the first paris of Mogol, of a Chinese, of á Cele Profetior Camper makes some remarks bean, and finally of a Calmuk." on the natural difference in features

He informis us also, that, by com- among the principal iliabitants of the paring the head of a Negroe with that globe; refuses the opinions of ancient of a Calniuk, these with an European, writers concerning the causes of these; and placing them on a level wrih the advances several philosophical specuhead of an ape, he discovered that the lations respecting the difference of direciion of the lines, ex:ending from countenance in prosile in apes, outhe foreheat.co the upper lip, indica- rangs, negroes, and obers, up to the ted the diffrence in national counte. allique ; traces the changes that ne. dances; and clearly pointed out the ceffarily how from a difference in the

linea

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linea facialis; and illuftrates his prin- head, which the professor terms the ciples, by exhibiting sketches of their linea facialis, and observe in what decharacteristic features of different na gree it intersects the upper part of the tions, and by giving a philofophical frame; as this will give one characterexplanation of the same. In the second iftic, and the situation of the maxillæ, part, he treats of the form of the heads respecting the perpendicular side of the of children and those of aged persons frame, another. For example, the viewed in profile, and in front. T'he linea facialis of the ourang will interthird part treats of beauty, and of the feet the horizontal line at 58; that of proportions requisite to conttitate beau- the negro, at 70 ; that of the Eurory. The fourth and last part relates to pean, at $0 or 90; while, in the Grethe first principles of drawing, and ex- cian antique, the facial line will proplains in what cases the oval and tri- jeet ten degrees beyond the limits of angle may be employed; and where the frame, forming an angle in a difthey are defective, he proposes his ferent direction. In the ape, the Nemore perfect method.

gro, and the Calmuk, the maxilla As this work is written for the project in various proportions beyond scientific artist alone, the Professor has a particular line drawn from the lower preferred the more abstruse and fcien- part of the forehead to the chin: in tific method. He attempts to illustrate the European, the maxille are on a and demonstrate his principles by the line with the perpendicular; and in explanation of a large number of the antique, they recede within it. fkeiches given in several plates. Such According to this position of the linea rigid attention is paid to geometrical facialis, are every other part of the lines, and proportions, that this mode head, the pofition of the eyes, of the is preterred in several instances, where mouth, ears, &c. regulated.' This he verbal explanations would have been proves by various examples. equally convincing, and infinitely more - In the Professor's inquiry into the adapted to a subject of tafte. This principles of tafte, the leading idea is, method renders it impracticable for us that the beauty in the proportions gito do justice to the author's principles, ven by the ancients to their figures, as they could not be completely illus- arises from their paying greater attentrated without the aid of figures. We tion to the laws of optics, than to the shall endeavour to strip such parts of usual proportions of nature. His reatheir scientific garb as conftitute the fonings on this subject are ingenious principal importance of the publica and conclusive: but as they are found tion, that the man of catte may formed on geometrical proportions, and refome ideas of it.

quire figures to illustrate and explain The general doärine is, that the the doctrine, no extracts could be fadifference in form and caft of counte- tisfactory, We must also refer the innance proceeds 'rom the relation which quifuive reader to the treatise itself, for the cranium is found 10 bear to the di- a clear idea of the method adopted by rection of an horizontal and a perpen- the Professor, to sketch heads in prodicular line. Let us leppefe a frame file with greater accuracy; and we of wood iimilar to that of a picture, to must content ourselves with announbe made perfectly squares and that, cing the leading principle. the upper part be. graduated into go. M. Camper relates, that the attendegrees, proceeding from the right to tion which he was obliged to pay to the left. Let the cranium, or head, the subject in the anatomical line, and be placed in the centre of this frame. the observations which he had made Draw an imaginary line from the low, relative to the original shape of a child's er part of the upper lip to the fore. head, and the fubiéquent growth of

the

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