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has any spirit) move upon the least and to go on

thighs to lie at cafe. In short, a sad- mouth. With a little practice, this is die ought to be, as nearly as poflible, done almost instantaneously; and this as if cut out of the horse..

method will stop, in the distance of a When you want your horse to move few yards, a horse, which will run aforward, raise his head a little, and way with those who pull at him with touch him gently with your whip; or all their might. "Almost

every one else, press the calves of your legs must have obrerved, "that when a horse against his lides. If he does not move feels limself pulled with the bridle, fast enough, press them witla more even when he is going gently, hc often force, and fo till the spur juft touches mistakes what was designed to stop him. By this practice he will (if he

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to bear on the bit pressure of the leg. Never spar him. Keep your hotle's head high, that by a kick; but if it be necessary to he may raise his neck and creft; play spur bim briskly, keep your heels clofe a little with the rein, and move the to his fides, and flackeo their force as bit in his mouth, that he may not press be becomes obedient.

on it in one constant and continued When your horse attempts to be vi.

manner: he dot afraid of raising his cious, rake each rein feparate, one in head do high; he will naturally be each hand, and advanciog your arms too ready to bring it down, and tre

forward, hold him yery short. In this your árnis with its weight, on the least case, it is common for the rider to abatement of his mettle. pull him hard, with his arms low.. feel him heavy, stop him, and make But the horle by this means having him go back' few paces: thus you his head low tooo has it more in his break by degrees" his propensity to power to throw out his heels: wbere press on his bridle. as, if bis heat be raised very high, and You ought not to be pleased (tho his nose,thrown out a little, which is many are) with a round rock, and a .consequent, he can neither rise before head drawn in toward his breaft: let por behind; because he cao give him- your hørse carry his head bridling in, self peither of those motions, without provided he carries it high, and his having his head at liberty. A plank neck arching upwards'; but if his neck placed in equilibrio cannot rise at one bends downward, his figure is bad, bis end unless it sinks at the other. fight is too near his toe, he leans on

If your horse is headitrong, pull the bridle, and you have no command not with one continued pull, but stop, over him. If he goes preliing but and back him often, jutt fhaking the lightly on the bridle

, he is the more reins, and making little repeared pulls fure-footcd, and goes pleasanter; as çill he obeys. Horses are so accustom your wrist only may guide him. If he ed to bear on the bit when they go hangs down his head, and makes you forward, that they are discouraged if support the weight of that and his neck the rider will not let them do so. with your arms bearing on his fcre

If a horse is loole necked, he will legs, (which is called being on his throw up his head at a continued pull; Moulders) he will strike his tous on in which Gcuation the rider, seeing the the ground, and stumble. front of his face, can have no power It your horse is heavy upon the bit, pver, him. When

your horse does tie him every day, for an hour or two, thus, drop your hand, and give the with his tail to the manger, and his bridle play, and he will of course drop head as high as you can make hiin lift his head again into its proper place it, by a rein on each post of the fall while it is coming down, make a fe. to each ring of the fnaffle bit. cond gentle pull, and you will find his Horse-breakers and grooms Pp 2

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great propensity to bring á horse's upper line of their necks; from their head dowi, and seem to have no fear ears to their withers, too short. "A without a strong hold by the bridle. head of this sort cannot possibly bend They know, indeed, that the head inward and formi än arch, because the should yield to the reins, and the neck vertébrže (or neck bones) are too short fórm an arch; buľ do not take the to admit of flexure ;' for in long and proper pains to make it an arch up. Thort-necked horses the namber of the ward. A temporary effect of attempra vertebra is the fame. In some, che ing to raise a horse's head, may per- jaw is fo thick, that it meets the neck, haps be making him push out his nose. and the head by this means has not

They will here tell you, that his head room to bend. On the other hand, is too high already; whereas it is not some have the under line from the jati the distance from his nose, but from to the breask fo short, that the neck the top of his head to the ground, cannot rise. which determines the Head to be high In all these cafes you may gain a or low. Besides, although the fault is little by a nice hand with an eafy bit ; said to be in the manner of carrying but no curb, martingale, or other the head, it should rather be said to be forcible meihod, will teach a horse to in that of the reck; for if the neck carry' his head or neck in a poiture was raised, the head would be more in which pature has made uneasy to him. the position of one fet on a well-form- By trying to pull in his nose farther ed neck.

thår he can bear, you will add a bad The design therefore of lifting up habit to nature." You could not in: the head is to raise the neck, and there- deed contrive a more effectaal method by bring in the head; for even while to make him continually tofs his pose the bridle makes the fame line from üp, and throw his foam over you. the rider's band to the bit, thé horfe's The 'rule already given to ride a nofe may be either drawn in, or thrust loose-necked horse, will be a proper out, according as his deck is raised or one for all light-mouthed horfes: one depressed. loftead of what has been caution being added, which is, always here recommended, we usually fee to fearch whether his faddle or girths Colts broke with their heads caveffon- may not in some way pinch him; and ed very low, their necks stiff, and not whether the bit may in the least suppled. When the break.. by being too high in his thouth; being tackle is left off, and they are cause, whenever he frets from either mounted for the road, having more of these causes, his head will not be food and rest, they frequently plunge, steady. and a second breaking becomes necesa. It is a common custom to be always fary. Then, as few gentlemen can pulling at the bridle, as if to set off inanage their own horfes, they are put to advantage either the spirit of the into the hands of grooms, from whom horse, or the skill of the rider. Our they learn a variety of bad habits. horses therefore are taught to hold If

, on the other hand, your horfe their heads low, and pull, so as to bear carries his head (or rather his nofe) up the rider from the faddle, standing too high, he generally makes fome a: in his ftirrups, even in the gentlelt mends by moving his shoulders light- gallop: how very impropet this is, we ly, and going fafely: Attend to the are experimentally convinced, when cause of this fault." Some horfes have we happen to meet with a horfe which their necks set fo low on their shoul- gallops otherwise. We immediately ders, that they berd first down, then fay, be canters excellently, and find the upward, like a stag‘s. Some have the ease and pleasure of his motion. When

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be should learn to keep It is not to be wondered that dealer's " without minding objects are always pulling at their horfes in fide. that they have the fpur constantly in If he starts at any thing on the left, their sides, and are at the fame time hold his head high, and keep it straight continually checking the rein: by this in the road, pulling it from looking at nieans they make them bound, and the thing he starts at, and keeping your champ the bit, while their rage has right leg hard prefied against his fide, the appearance of spirit. Thele peo- toward bis fank: he will then go ple ride with their arms spread, and Itraight along the road. By this me. ? very low on the shoulders of their thod, and by turning his head a little horses : this method makes them more, he may be forced with his croup stretch their necks, and gives a better close up to what frightened him ; for appearance to their fore. hands ; it con- as his head is pulled one way, his ceals also a thick jaw, which, if the croup necessarily turns the other.--Itead was up, would prevent its yield. Always avoid a quarrel with your ing to the bit ; it hideg likewise the horse, if you can : if he is apt to itart, ewe-neck, which would otherwise show you will find occafions enough to exitself. Indeed, if you have à horfe ercise his obedience, when what he yofteady to the bit, formed with a na-: starts at lies directly in his way, and tural heavy head, or one which carries you must make him pafs; if he is not his nose obstinately in the air, you subject to stari, you should not quarmuft find his mouth where you can, rel with him about a trifie. and make the best of him.

It malt be observed, however, that Many horses are taught to start by this rule in going past an object may whipping them for karting. How is perhaps be a little irregular in a mait pollible they can know it is defigned naged horse, which will always'obey as a punishment in the riding house, the leg : but even such a horse, if he you teach your horse to rise up be is reaily afraid, and not reftive, it may fore, and to spring and lash out his not be amifs to make him look another hinder legs, by whipping him when way; unless the ocject be fomething tied between two pillars, with his head you would particularly accuftom him a little at liberty. 1: he understood to the fight of. this to be a punishment for doing so, ' The case will also be different with he would not by that method learn to a horfe whose fear is owing to his being do it. He seems to be in the same not ufed to objects; but such a one is manner taught to spring and fly when not to be rode by any horseman to he is frightened. Molt horfes would whom these rules are directed: the go quietly paft an object they were be-' starting here meant arises merely from ginning to fly from, if their riders, in the horse’s being pampered, and springItead of gathering up their bridles, and ing through liveliness. showing themselves fo ready, should The notion of the necessity of makthrow the reins loose "upon their ing a horse go immediately up to every necks.

thing he is afraid of, and not fuffering When a horse starts at any thing him to become master of his rider, on one fide, most riders tura kim 'out seems to be in general carried too far. of the road, to make him go up to It is an approved and good method to what he starts at : if he does not get conquer a horse's fear of the sound of the better of his fear, or readily com- a drum, by beating one near to him ply, he generally goes past the object, at the time of feeding him : this not

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uply familiarises the noise to him, but may be useful hints for the treatment makes it pleasant, as a fore-runner of of horses with regard to starting. his meat; whereas, if he was whipped Though you ought not to whip up to it, he might .perhaps Start:at it a horse from starting, there can be no as long as he lived. Might not this be good effect from clapping his neck applied to his starting at other things with your hand to encourage him. and thew that it would be better to If one took any notice of his itarting, fuffer bim (provided he does not sum it should be rather with some tone of back) to go a little from and avoid lan voice which he usually understood as object he has a diflike to snad to, acu 'san expression of dislike to what he is cuitom him to it by degrees, convinc doing; for there is oppofition mixed Yng him, as it were, that it will not stwith his starring, and a horse will ever hort him ; than to punifh him, quarrel* repeat what he finds has foiled his with him, and perhaps submit to his rider. will at last, while you insist on his or Notwithftanding the directions to vercoming his fear ia an ipftant? If bove given, of not prelling a horse he sees a like object again, icris pro- up to a carriage he Itarts at; yet if bable he will recollect his dread, and one which you apprehend will frightca arm himself to be disobedient. I s him njeets' you at a narrow part of

We are apt to suppose that ra horfor the road, when you have once let bim fears nothing so much as his rider soknow he is to pass it, be sure you but may be not, in many circundaremain determined, and press him on. dances, be afraid of inftant deltruc- Do this more e'pecially when part of tion of being crushed? of being the carriage has already 'pafled you į i. drowned ? of falling down a preci-sfor it, when he is frightened, he is pice? Is it 2. kouder that a horfe 'accustomed to go back, and turn Thould be afraid of a loaded waggon ? round, he will certainly do it if he may not the hanging load foem 1to finds, by your hand Nackening, and threaten the falling on him: Theve: tegs not pressing, that you are irre. cannot be a rule more general, than, folute; and this at the most room for him w pass. This is done of the carriage take him as he turns. by turning his head a very little from Remember not to touch the curb-rein the carriage, and pressing your leg, at this time; it will certainly check which is farthest from it, against his 'him. It is not known to every one, fide.

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that the person who would lead A horse is not to stop without a horse by the bridle should not turn; fign from his rider.-- Is it: not then his face to him when he refuses to probable, that when driven up toʻa i follow him: if, belide this, he raises carriage he ftasts at it, he conceives“ his arms, fhows his whip, or pulls himself obliged either to attack or run the bridle with jerks, he frightens the against it can he understand their horse, instead of persuading him to rider's spurring him with' his face di follow, which a little patience may rected to it, as a sign for him to pass bring about. it? That a horse is easily alarmed for

Ride with a fnafle; and use your his face and eyes (he will even catch curb, if you have one, only occasion, back his head from a hand going to ally. Choose your fnaffle full and Caress him) that he will not go with thick in the mouth, especially at the any force, face to face, even to ano ends to which the reins are fastened ther horse (if in his power to stop) Molt of them are made too small and and that he fees perfectly fideways zo long; they cut the horse's mouth, and

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bend tack over the bars of his jaw, - ing, know they have any power over working like pincers.

a horfe but by the bridle; or any use The management of the curb is too , for the fpur, except to make him go nice a matter to enter on here, farther forsvard. A little experience will than to prescribe great caution in the teach them a farther ufe. If the left use of it; a turn of the wrift, rather føur touches him-(and he is at the than the weight of your arm, should fame time prevented from going forbe applied to it. The elasticity of a ward) he has a fign, which he will rod, when it hath hooked a fish, may foon: underftand, to móre fideways to give you some idea of the proper playobthe right." In the same manner to the of a horfe's head on his bridle; his left, if the right spur is closed to him, spirit and his pliableness are boil he afterward, through fear of the marked by it.

dpur, obeys a touch of the leg ; in the A horse should never be put to do fame manner as a horse moves his any thing in a curb which he is not croup from one side of the fall to the ready at : you may force him, or pull other, when any one strikes him with his head any way with a fnaffle ; but bis band. In short, his croupis guided a curb acts only in a straight line. It by the leg, as his head is by the briis true, that a horse will be turned dle. He will never disobey the leg, out of one track into ånother by a unless he becomes restive. By this curb, but it is because he knows it as means you will have a far greater a signal. When he is put to draw a power over him : he will move sidechair, and does not understand the new ways, if you close one leg to him ; ceflity he is then under of taking a and straight forward, if both : even larger sweep when he turns, you fre. when he stands ftill, your legs held quently see him restive, as it is then near him will keep him on the watch ; called: but put him on a snaffle, or and with the fightest, unseen motion buckle the rein to that part of the bit of the bridle upward, he will raise his which does not curb him: and the head, and show.his forehand to ad. horse submits to be pulled about, till vantage. he understands what is desired of him. On this use of the legs of the rider, These directions suppose your horse and guidance of the croup of the to have spirit, and a good mouth: if horse, are founded all the airs (as the he has not, you must take him as he riding-mafters express themielves) is, and ride him with such a bit as which are taught in the manege ; the you

passageor side. motion of troopers to When you ride a journey, be not cofe or open their-files, and indeed so aitentive to your horse's nice car- all their evolutions. But the converiage of himself, as to your encourage- nience of some degree of this discipline ment of him, and keeping him in good for common use is the reason af menhumour., Raite, his head; but if he tioning it here. It is useful if a horie flags, you may induled him with is apt to stumble or start. If to the bearing a little more upon the bit tiran first, by pressing your legs to his flank, you would suffer in an airing. If a and keeping up his head, he is made horse is lame, tender-footed, or tired, to go light on his tore legs, which is he naturally hangs upon his, bridle. aiding and supporting him; and the On a journey, therefore, his mouth fame it he does actually stumble, by will depend greatly on his ftrength helping him at the very instant to ex. and the goodness of his feet. Be then ert himself, white as yet any part of very careful about his feet, and let him remains box irrecoverably imnot a farrier 'spoil them.

pressed with the precipitate motion. Very few, alho practised in rid- Hence this use of the hand and legs of

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