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thighs to lie at cafe. In short, a fad- : mouth. With a little practice, this is die vught to be, as nearly as possible, done almost instantaneously; and this as if cut out of the horse.

method will llop, in the distance of a When you want your horse to move few yards, a horse, which will run aforward, raise his head a little, and way wieh those who pull at him with touch him gently with your whip; or all their might. Almost every one

. elle, press the calves of your legs must have obfervet, that when a horse against his lides. If he does not move feels limfeff pulled with the bridle, fast enough, press them wita móré - even wheri he is going gently, he oftea force, and so till the spur juft touches " mistakes what was desigoed to stop him. By this practice he will (if he him, as a dirlot to bear on the bit has any spirit) move upon the leait and to go fáiyet. pressure of the leg. Never spar "him Keëp your horse's head high, that by a kick; but if it be necessary to he may raise his neck and creft ; play fpur bim briskly, keep your heels close a little with the rein, and move the to his fides, and flacken their force as bit in his moth, that he may not press he becomes obedient.

on it in one constant and continued When

your horse attempts to be vi manner le not afraid of raising his cious, take each rein feparate, one in head !oo high; he will naturally be each hand, and adwancing your arms too ready to bring it dowa, and tire forward, hold him very short. In this your arms with its weight, on the least case, it is common for the rider to sábatement of his miettle. When you pull him hard, with his arms low._. feel him heavy, stop him, and make But the horse by this means having him go back a few paces: thus you, his head low too has it more in his break by degrees his propensity to ipower to throw out his heels: where. press on his bridle. as, if bis beat be raised very high, and .

You ought not to be pieafed (cho? his nose thruwa out a little, which is many are) with a round neck, and a

a .consequent, he can neither rire before head drawn in toward' his bréaft: let por behind; becaufe he cao give bim- your horse carry his head bridling in, self peither of those motions, without provided he carries it high, and his having his head at liberty. A plank neck arching upwards'; but if his neck placed in equilibrio cannot rise at one bends downward, his figure is bad, his end unless ir links at the other. fight is too near his toe, he leans on

If your horse is headstrong, pall the bridle, and you have no command not with one continued pull, but stop, over him. If he goes preliing but and back him often, jutt fhaking the lightly on the bridle, he is the more reins, and making little repeared pulls fure-footed, and goes pleasanter; as çill he obeys. Horses are lo accustom- your wrist only may guide him. If he ed to bear on the bit when they go hangs down his head, and makes you forward, that they are discouraged if support the weight of that and his neck the rider will not let them do so. with your arms beariog on his fcre

If a horse is loole necked, he will legs, (which is called being on bis * throw

up his head at a continued pull; Moulders) he will strike his tous on in which Gituation the rider, seeing the the ground, and itumble. front of his face, can have no power It your horse is heavy upon the bit, pver, him. When your horse does tie him every day, for an hour or two, phus, drop your hand, and give the with his tail to the manger, and his bridle play, and he will of course drop head as high as you can make hiin lift his head again into its proper place it, by a rein on each post of the stall, while it is coming down, make a fe. to each ring of the (naffle bit. cond gentle pull, and you will find his Horse breakers and grooms have a

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great propensity to bring å horse's upper line of their necks, from their head down, and seem to have no fear ears to their withers, too short. A without a stròng hold by the bridle. head of this sort cannot poffibly bend They know, indeed, that the head inward and form an arch, because the Mould yield to the reins, and the neck vertébrie (or neck bones) are too short form an arch; but do not take the to admit of flexure ; for in long and proper pains to make it an arch up- Thort-necked horses the namber of the ward. A temporary effect of attempt: vertebra is the fame. * In fome, the ing to raise a horse's head, may per- jaw is fo thick, that it meets the neck, haps be making him push out his nofe. and tħe head by this means has not They will here tell you, that his head room to bend. On the other hand, is too high already; whereas it is not some have the under line from the jaw the distance from his nose, but from to the breask fo fhort, that the neck the of his head to the ground, cannot rise. which determines the Head to be high In all these cafes you may gain a or low. Besides, although the fault is little by a nice hand with an eafy bit; faid to be in the manner of carrying but no curb, martingale, or other the head, it should rather be said to be forcible method, will teach a horse to in that of the neck; for if the neck carry his head of neck in à poiture was raised, the head would be more in which pature has made uneasy to him. the position of one fet on a well-form. By trying to pull in his rofe farther ed neck.

than he can bear, you will add a bad The design therefore of lifting up habit to nature. You could not inthe head is to raise the neck, and there- deed contrive a more effectaal method by bring in the head; for even while to make him continually tofs his posé the bridle makes the fame line fram up, and throw his foam over you. the rider's hand to the bit, thé' horfe's The rule already given to ride a nose may be either drawn in, or thrust loose-necked horse, will be a proper out, according as his neck is raised or one for all light-mouthed horfes: one depressed. loftead of what has been caution being added, which is, always here recommended, we usually fee to fearch whether bis faddle or girths colts broke with their heads caveffon. may not in some way pinch him; and ēd very low, their necks stiff, and not whether the bit may not hurt his lip in the least suppled. When the break.. by being too high in his thouth; being tackle is left off, and they are cause, whenever he frets from either mounted for the road, having more of these causes, his head will not be food and reft, they frequently plange, Ateady. and a second breaking becomes neces ... It is a common custom to be always fary. Then, as few gentlemen can pulling at the bridle, as if to set off manage their own horses, they are put to advantage either the spirit of the into the hands of grooms, from whom horse, or the skill of the rider. Our they learn a variety of bad habits. horses therefore are taught to hold

if, on the other hand, your horse their heads low, and pull, fo as to bear carries his head (or rather his nofe) up the rider from the faddle, standing too high, he generally makes fome a. in his ftirrups, even in the gentlest mends by moving his shoulders light- gallop: how very improper this is, we ly, and going fafely; Attend to the are experimentally convinced, when cause of this fault. Some horfes have we happen to meet with a horse which their necks set fo low on their shout- gallops otherwise. We immediately ders, that they berd first down, then fay, le canters excellently, and find the ispward, like a Rag*s. Some have the ease and pleasure of his motion. When

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horfes are designed for the race, and making with his hinder parts, of croup, swiftness is the only thing considered; a great circle out of the road; wherethe method

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be a good one. as, he should learn to keep straight on, It is not to be wondered that dealer's without minding objects on either are always pulling at their horfes ; side. that they have the four constantly in If he starts at any thing on the left, their sides, and are at the fame time hold his head high, and keep it straight continually checking the rein': by this in the road, pulling it from looking at nieans they make them bound, and the thing he ftarts at, and keeping your champ the bit, while their rage has right leg hard prefled against his fide, the appearance of spirit. Thele peo- ' toward bis Bank: he will then go ple ride with their arins spread, and straight along the road.. By this me- , very

low on the shoulders of their thod, and bý turning his head a little horses: this method makes them more, he may be forced with his croup stretch their necks, and gives a better close up to what frightened him ; for.

1 appearance to their fore. hands; it con- as his head is pulled one way, his ceals also a thick jaw, which, if the croup neceffarily turns the other.-lread was up, would prevent its yield. Always avoid a quarrel with your ing to the bit ; it hides likewise the horse, if you can : if he is apt to Itarts ewe-neck, which would otherwise show you will find occations enough to exitself. Indeed, if you have a horse ércise his obedience, when what he unsteady to the bit, formed with a na- starts at lies direally in his way, and tural heavy head, or one which carries' you muft make him pass; if he is not his nose obftinately in the air, you subject to start, you should not quarmuft find his mouth where you can, rel with him about a trifle. and make the best of him.

It mait be observed, however, that Many horses are taught to ftart by this rule in going past an object may whipping them for {tarting. How is perhaps be a little irregular in a mait pollible they can know it is defigned naged horfe, which will always'obey as a punishment in the riding house, the leg : bir even such a horse, if he you

teach your horse to rise up be- is reaily afraid, and not restive, it may fore, and to spring and lash out his not be amifs to make him look another hinder legs, by whipping him when way; unless the ojea be fomething tied between two pillars, with his head you would particularly accuftom him a little at liberty. I: he understood to the light of. this to be a punishment for doing so, ' The case will also be different with he would not by that method learn to a horfe whofe fear is owing to his being do it. He seems to be in the same not ufed to objects; but such a one is manner taught to spring and fly when not to be rode by any horseman to he is frightened. Moit horfes would whom these rules are directed: the go quietly past an object they were be-' starting here meant arises merely from ginning to fly from, if their riders, in the horse's being pampered, and springItead of gathering up their bridles, and ing through liveliness. showing themselves so ready, should The notion of the necessity of maktbrow the 'reins loose "upon their ing a horse go immediately up to every necks.

thing he is afraid of, and not suffering When a horse starts at any thing him to become miaster of his rider, on one side, most riders turn him out feems to be in general carried too far. of the road, to make him go up to li is an approved and good method to what he starts at : if he does not get conquer a horse's fear of the sound of the better of his fear, or readily com- a drum, by beating one 'near to him ply, he generally goes past the object, at the time of feeding him : this not

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only familiarises the noise to him, but may be useful hints for the treatment makes it pleasant, as a fore-runner of of horses with regard to starting. his meat; whereas, if he was whipped Though you ought not to whip up to it, he might-.perhaps Start at it a horse from starting, there can be no as long as he lived. Might not this be good effect from clapping his neck applied to his starting at other things with your hand to encourage him. and new that it would be better to "If one took any notice of his itarting, fuffer him (provided he does net tum it should be rather with some' tone of back) to go a little from and avoid lan voice which he usually understood as object he has a difike to mod 20. acu anexpression of

Citlike to what he is cuitom him to it by degrees, convinc- doing ; for there is opposition mixed ing him, as it were, that it will not stwith tis starting, and a horse will ever hurt him ; than to punifh him, quarrel x repeat what he finds has foiled his with him, and perhaps submit to his aider. will at last, while you insist on his o- Notwithftanding the directions & vercoming his fear ia an ipstant? If bove given, of not presling a horse he sees a like object again, icris pro- up to a carriage he Itarts at; yet if bable he will recollect his dread, and one which you apprchend will frightca arm himself to be disobedient. 11 him 'meets' you at a narrow part of

We are apt to suppose that a horferlahe road, when you have once let tím, fears nothing so much as his ridersio know he is to pass it, be sure you but may, he not, in many cire uma pemain determined, and press him on. stances, be afraid of inftant deltruc- Do this more e'pecially when part of tion? of being crushed ? of being the carriage has already passed you ; drowned ? of falling down a precio for it, when he is frightened, he is pice? Is it a wonder that sa horfe accustomed to go back, and turn thould be afraid of a loaded waggon ? round, he will certainly do it if he may not the hanging load foensino finde, hy your hand flackening, and threaten the falling on him:Thepe legs not preslingthat you are irrecannot be a rule more general, ring! {olute; and this at the moft danger. in such a case, to show him there jg.ous point of time, when the wheels room for him w pass. This is done of the carriage take him as he turns. by turning his head a very little from Remember not to touch the curb-rein the carriage, and pressing your leg, at this sime; it will certainly check which is farthest from it, against his thim. It is not known to every one, fide.

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who would lead A horse is not to stop without a horse by the bridle should not turn, fign from his rider.-- Is it not then his face to him when he refuses to qurobable, that when driven up to a follow him: if, belde this, he raises carriage he ftasts at it, he conceives' his arms, shows his whip, or pulls himself obliged either to attack or run the bridle with jerks, he frightens the against it? Can he understand their horse, instead of persuading him to rider's spurring him with his face di fallow, which a little patience may rected to it, as a sign for him to pass bring about. it? That a horse is easily alarmed for Ride with a fnafle ; and use your his face and eyes (he will even catch curb, if you have one, only occafion, back his head from a hand going to ally. Choose your fnaffle full and Caress him) that he will not go with thick in the mouth, especially at the any force, face to face, even to ano- ends to which the reins are fastened ther horse (if in his power to stop) Most of them are made too small and and that he fees perfectly fidewayslong; they cut the horse's mouth, and

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bend back over the bars of his jaw, ing, know they have any power over working like pincers.

a hørfe but by the bridle; or any

use The management of the curb is too for the fpur, except to make him go nice a matter to enter on here, farthecor forward. A little experience will than to prescribe great caution in the teach thena a farther ufe. If the left use of it; a turn of the wrift, rather spur touches-him (and he is at the than the weight of your arm, should fame time prevented from going forbe applied to it. The elasticity of award)

The elasticity of a ward) he has a fign, which he will rod, when it hath hooked a fish, may fvon understand, to move fideways to

some idea of the proper plays the right. In the same manner to the of a horfe's head on his bridle; his left, if the right fpur is closed to him, spirit and his pliableness are both be afrerward, through fear of the marked by it.

{pur, obeys a touch of the leg ; in the

; A horse should never be put to do fame manner as a horse moves his any thing in a curb which he is not croup from one fide of the stall to the ready at: you may force him, or pull other, when any one strikes him with his head any way with a snaffle ; but his hand. In short, his croupis guided a curb acts only in a straight line. It by the leg, as his head is by the briis true, iliat a horse will be turned dle. He will never disobey the leg, out of one track into another by a unless he becomes restive. By this curb, but it is because he knows it as means you will have a far greater a signal. When he is put to draw a power over him : he will move fidechair, and does not understand the ne. ways, if you close one leg to him ; ceflity he is then under of taking a and straight forward, if both : even

' larger sweep when he turns, you fre. when he stands ftill, your legs held quently see him restive, as it is then near him will keep him on the watch ; called: but put him on a snafile, or and with the flightest, unseen motion buckle the rein to that part of the bit of the bridle upward, he will raise his which does not curb him: and the head, and ihow.his forehand to ad. horse fübmits to be pulled about, till vantage. he understands what is desired of him. On this use of the legs of the rider, . These directions suppose your horse and guidance of the croup of the to have spirit, and a good mouth: if horse, are founded all the airs (as the he has not, you must take him as he riding-mafters express themielves) is, and ride him

with such a bit as which are taught in the manege ; the you

find most easy to yourself, paffage, or side-motion of troopers to When you ride a journey, be not: close or open their files, and indeed so aitentive to your horse's nice car- all their evolutions. But the converiage of himself

, as to your encourage- nience of some degree of this discipline ment of him, and keeping him in good for common use is the reason af menhumour. Rarte, his head; but if he tioning it here. It is useful if a horię

; fags, you may indulge him with is apt to stumble or start. If to the bearing a little more upon the bit than first, by preling your legs to his fiapk, you would suffer in an airing. If a and keeping up his 'head, he is made horse is lame, tender-footed, or tired, to go light on his fore-Jegs, which is he naturally hangs upon his bridle. aiding and supporting him; and the On a journey, therefore, his mouth fame if he does actually stumble, by will depend greatly on his strength helping him at the very instant to exand the goodness of his feet. Be then est himself, wirte as yet any part of very careful about his feet, and let him remains nos irrecoverably imnot a farrier spoil them.

preffed with the precipitate motion. Very few, altho' pradlised in rid- Hence this use of the hand and legs of

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